Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
Harmful Effects of 5G On Life with Possible Solution [PDF]
Urooba Zaki, Muhammad Ahmed Zaki, Syed Rizwan Ali ShahWireless mobile networks evolve and take a stand in an attempt and interact and function widely with the fifth-generation (5G) evolution. Both the wireless infrastructure of today and the modern era of 5G are seen as an asset in the intelligent system. Growing dependency upon wireless technology has led to a technological revolution in communications, with access to the public to distribute data through different devices and networks at wider and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum. But the introduction of broadband with shorter wavelength radiation illustrates the question over the potential health and safety issues of a massive 5G integrated telecommunications network. The latest 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless technologies appear to be at risk. 5G applications for medical or environmental consequences are often less researched. It was suggested that by adding this additional high-frequency 5G radiation to an increasingly complicated combination of lower frequencies, both the physical and the mental health results would be detrimental. This paper presents the evolution of 5G and its architecture. Furthermore, the adverse effects of 5G radiations on various verticals such as safety, environmental problems, privacy, and thermal factors are discussed in this article
DEMAND OF LABOUR AT MSMES IN BANGLI [PDF]
M. Rudi Irwansyah, Komang Krisna Heryanda, Ni Made Dwi Ariani MayasariBangli is a district in the Province of Bali that has 2,294 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The demand for labor in this sector is influenced by various factors, both financial and non-financial. The study was conducted through a quantitative approach with a questionnaire method. The sample used 314 respondents, analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that the factors of salary, technology, productivity, quality of labor, and capital facilities affect the demand for labor in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of BanglI, Indonesia. The most dominant factor affecting labor demand in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of Bangli Regency is the salary
Analytical Study of the Physicochemical Properties of Condemned Crankcase Oil and its Regenerated Form Obtained by a Combination of Acid Treatment and Multiple Beds Extraction Approach [PDF]
Dr. Anietie E. EkotThe physicochemical properties of condemned lube oil and its regenerated mineral base samples were determined to evaluate the environmental impact of the former on one hand, and to devise a recycling approach that would improve the quality of the latter on the other hand. The regenerated samples were obtained by a modified version of recycling technique involving a combination acid treatment and multiple beds extraction. The properties of the condemned oil , regenerated samples and fresh oil were evaluated based on the standard parameters viz: specific gravity, viscosity, acid number, ash and moisture as well as metal concentration. The results showed that the condemned oil had the highest acid number of 5.41mgKOH/g as against the maximum prescribed limit of 0.05mgKOH/L.The heavy metals concentrations (mg/L) were: 2.177, 2.211, 0.092 and 1.522 for Cu(copper), Fe(iron), Pb(lead) and Zn(zinc) respectively. These values are above the EPA limits(in mg/L) of 1.00, 0.30 and 0.015 for Cu, Fe and Pb respectively; the only exception being the concentration Zinc (1.52mg/L) which is below the EPA limit of 5.0mg/L. The above results revealed that the condemned oil is hazardous to the environment. Results based on the quality of basestock recovered showed the impurity difference between samples from acid treatment only and those from and acid treatment followed by multiple beds extraction as: 0.011, 7cP, 0.07mgKOH/g , 0.39% and 0.10% for specific gravity, viscosity, acid number, ash and moisture contents respectively. This indicates that the basestocks regenerated from the latter method are of better quality than those from the former.
Keywords: Condemned Lube oil, Environmental Concern, Regeneration Approach
Research Philosophy Design and Methodologies A Systematic Review of Research Paradigms in Information Technology [PDF]
Kirongo A. Chege & Odoyo C. OtienoResearchers and post-graduate students most of the time have a challenge differentiating between research philosophies, research design and research methodologies. This paper therefore focuses conducting a systematic review to bring forth clarity on the differences between; research philosophy, research design, research methodologies and research paradigms in Information Technology research. The paper also highlight on the hallmarks of scientific research, fundamental of scientific research, elements of research design as well as data analysis techniques. The paper observes research philosophy, design and methodology and implications in Information Technology literature. This paper contributes to the exploration and identification of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, sampling style, sample size for different Information Technology researches. The authors used content analysis to review works done by other scholars to draw conclusions. The paper would greatly improve the quality of research work by the junior researchers, or post-graduate students who are still developing their research skills.
Modern trends in green cloud [PDF]
Khushwant Virdi- Cloud computing is just a new field in Web computing that provides narrative views in internetworking systems and improves troubles in the architecture, style, and accomplishment of present communities and knowledge centers. It is the Internet based computing where essential shared servers provide software, infrastructure, platform, devices and other resources and offering to customers on a pay-as-you-use basis. It is often said that the cloud computing is a type of computing where scalable, flexible, and IT abilities are provided as a service to multiple customers. This paper presents a review on cloud computing. The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the gaps in earlier work in cloud computing.
Reviewing the Factors that hinder academic achievement of the students [PDF]
Rabira GonfaEducation is considered as vital for not simply the progress of the individuals, but also for the improvement of community and country. In order to take about enhancements in all aspects, and apply modern advanced practices and methods, individuals want to produce readiness and improve their educational abilities. The key purpose of this review paper is to comprehend the issues that stimulus the academic performance of the students in schools. In schools, there are several factors within school and outside school that affect the academic achievement of the students. The main areas that have been taken into justification include, factors affecting the academic achievement of the students, academic achievements and large number of students in class, family and related issues relating to academic achievement, involvement of school features towards the academic achievement of students, impact of poverty on academic achievement of students and other causes of low academic achievement.
Support needs of doctors: A case study in a maternal health facility in South Africa [PDF]
Sithembele MaqgadiyaneBackground: Eastern Cape Province is the one of the poorest provinces in South Africa with limited resources to support doctors who continuously care the high risk pregnant women in rural maternal health facilities. Offering support and care to high risk pregnant women can be a complex and difficult task to achieve. Doctors carry great responsibility for ensuring the needs of pregnant women and care are met. Such responsibility can generate great amounts of stress that may negatively impact doctors’ day to day function-ing. Yet, research concerning how to support doctors in meeting the needs in caring high risk pregnant women in Eastern Cape has never been carried out before.
Aim: The study sougfht to investigate the support needs of doctors caring for high risk pregnant women in a maternal health facility in South Africa.
Methods: A case study design of five doctors who care for pregnant women was used. Data was generated using semi-structured in-terview format. All data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.
Findings: The study identified a range of support needs for doctors. Examples of these include practical support, training of staff, additional number of staff, supply of required equipment and other resources.
Discussion: Caring for high risk pregnant women was perceived as difficult and frustrating, yet rewarding. This difficulty was noted to be compounded by doctors’ lack of skills and knowledge of caring these women. They also had experiences of stigma, which sometimes emanate from poor outcomes of the pregnancy.
Conclusions: The study findings have implications for practice and policy. Regular training and support should be offered to doctors in order to broaden their understanding of high risk pregnant women and enhance their caring ability. Doctors and midwives are the main source professionals to help pregnant women during their hospital visits.
Automated E-Vehicle Stopping System At Signal [PDF]
Pushpak Goswami, Smit Ramteke, Rohish ZadeThe conventional traffic signal framework just offers guidelines to stop and not to the vehicle drivers. In any case, in the event that somebody is breaking the signal then this framework can’t get them and there are odds of taking bribe. Therefore to build the security of traffic signal and to decrease human endeavors and to stay away from the remuneration we are introducing automatic E-vehicle halting framework at signal through this smaller than expected project. The principal reason for this undertaking is to quit hopping of signs and to lessen the number of accidents. The essential thought is to make a programmed halting E-vehicle at signal utilizing handset and a miniaturized scale controller circuit.
The Most Common Causes Of Visual Impairment In The University Of Lahore Teaching Hospital [PDF]
Samia iqbal,Muhammad imran Bashir,Kazma kulsoom,Dr.rashida riaz Purpose: To evaluate the most common causes of visual impairment in the University of Lahore teaching hospital Lahore.
Material and Methods: A total number 114 patients were seen at The university Of Lahore teaching hospital Lahore, Lahore from Octobar 2019 to December 2019, their data was obtained from the ophthalmic outpatient attendance register. Their records were analyzed for data according to age, sex and clinical diagnoses made after detailed fundus evaluation. Data was entered and analyzed for simple frequency using SPSS version 25.
Results: A total number of 114 patients were included with a male 55.2% and females 44.8% and 12.7% were children presented in The university of Lahore teaching hospital Lahore,Lahore. Above table shows that the Error of refraction effected 30.7% of the patients examined. Cataract was the most common disorder seen affecting 26.3% of these patients. Eyelids disease affected 11.4% and squint11.4%. The rest of the conditions were glaucoma 0.6%, corneal opacity 0.5%, diabetic retinopathy 0.8%.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Somalia. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in The university Of Lahore teaching Hospital,Lahore. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors, squint surgery, diabetic retinopathy, corneal opacities need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations.
“Approaching Psychoanalysis from an Interdisciplinary Perspective; an Attempt to Define its Core Nature, Significance and Relation to Both Science and Literature” [PDF]
Menaceur SaberThe more we deal with any subject in a certain way, the more attached it gets to it. During the recent decades, a number of emerging disciplines have been interestingly shed light on and heavily approached from a “scientific perspective”, and yet, there have been considerable investigation on how these disciplines can also find room in a “humanistic perspective” based, of course, on solid arguments and thorough analysis. Psychoanalysis, this relatively new discipline, has been the sample of tremendous research especially during the last decade; this institution managed to prove its importance owing to the fact that it has been approached by other scientific and humanistic institutions mainly “psychology” and “literature”. This amalgam of institutions has erased the borders which keep them distinctively apart; therefore, it is of crucial importance to know more about Interdisciplinarity. This fact leads us to think of what psychoanalysis really is in the core, debate its touchable importance to our lives and, more importantly, look into how and why it can be taken as a literary instrument. This article takes the responsibility of clearly investigating these concerns and providing relevant background.
Review on piracy on the rise despite options like Netflix, Hotstar and Prime Video
existing in the market [PDF]
Aditi Patwardhan, Aman Somani, Ankuran Nath, Krishna Saini, Nikita JaiswalEarlier, viewers consumed content in Cinema Halls, as well as on Television, VCRs, etc. Then,
they got access to content online on sites such as YouTube. Today, viewers are glued to estreaming sites such as Netflix, Hotstar, Hulu, Prime Video, etc. But the issue here is that piracy
has been on the rise despite greater number of options available in the market for viewers for
consuming content. Viewers turned into freeloaders and resorted to sites such as BitTorrent and
uTorrent to download content. The problem with trying to get rid of this issue is that there will
always be people figuring out loopholes in the defence of piracy. Piracy negatively affects every
single person working in these industries and their supply chains.
The prospect Matrix-4 Key quadrants [PDF]
Swarnajit ChowdharyIt is imperative to say that sales is the backbone of the organization. It is the function which tractions the revenue matrix, out of which all the parameters of the financial statements are derived. This function governs the topline from where the bottom line and the cash flow is determined. Sales not only governs the financial statements but also is a key parameter of marketing pyramid. Organizations deploy various marketing strategies with respect to their segment and target market. Positioning is done to create an effective space in the market. Thus marketing aims to inculcate a sense of value offering in the minds of the customer. We all know sales is a subset of marketing. In other words, Sales is a function which monetizes the value offering. Organizations formulate the marketing strategy best fit to them, correspondingly they derive a sales budget for each FY. The sales budget is always estimated on basis of some statistical computations with the help of historical data. To achieve the desired sales budget, a salesforce team is developed and a sales strategy is determined. Salesforce team is segregated with their individual budgets and targets are allocated with respect to hierarchies. Subsequently, expenses are recorded. Salesforce team are trained, motivated and monitored. Many a times it is found that in spite of a robust marketing mix (the 4Ps), the figures achieved are below par, benchmark or industry standards. This turns out to be a strategical dilemma. Top management hierarchies scrutinize the situation and work out many iterations. Many a times it is found out that the salesforce lacks no motivation, are properly trained and all are giving equal efforts, yet the figures are substandard and will not ensure sustainability in the near future generating no breakeven. . Backwardly integrated, the five stages of Sales are examined which are Suspecting, Prospecting, Approach, Negotiation, Closing and Ordering and it is found out that most of the time, the salesforce are drifting away from developing key prospects which never lead them to further stages. This is an issue which is least looked upon. Hence to analyze this The prospect matrix is derived. The prospect matrix comprises of 4 quadrants, each representing a plot set of prospects, their characteristics and their impact over the sales, turnover and expenses. Key insights are derived from each quadrant and steps are taken by the organization to optimize their individual resources, to best fit, to maximize the sales turnover
PLC/HMI Control of Boiler for Brewing and sterilization [PDF]
Ikenyiri Gospel Chukwuka, Ihevueme Ebube Deka ,Ceesay HaddijatouBoiler is one of the most important equipment in many industrial processes which requires continuous monitoring and inspection at frequent intervals. There are possibilities of errors in measuring and various stages involved with human workers. So a reliable monitoring system is necessary to avoid catastrophic failure and this can be achieved by the use a Programmable Logic Controller.In this work operation of boilers and various techniques used in industrial boiler automation were reviewed. Also investigation of different types of PLCs and other relevant components were made in order to choose the appropriate hardware and software needed to successfully design an industrial boiler automation using PLC/HMI. In addition various activities were carried out to achieve the aim of this research. The simulation result shows that the system produces a desired pressure value of 6bar to be used by Guinness Ghana Limited for Brewing and sterilization.The entire automated process provides an improved overall system efficiency and reduced human labor in the processing industry
The Role of Institutional Capacity and Governance Practices in Service Delivery: The Case of South Wollo Zone Trade and Transport Department [PDF]
Abdu Hussen IbirahimThe objective of the study was assessing the role of institutional capacity and governance practices in service delivery by employing descriptive survey research method, qualitative and quantitative research approaches and probability and non-probability sampling techniques and 228 sample size.
The finding of the study confirmed that the customers as well employees of the organization are unfamiliar with the proclamations, regulations and directives of the sector. The leadership has not committed to understand the job trend, did not take the necessary actions proactively, and have not good achievement and practices on customers and staff communication and engagement. Overall, all the leadership lacks business intelligence (BQ) to influence and inspire all actors in the service delivery process of the sector. Service delivery systems are excellence if they are customer centered, have clear standards and directed by clear and comprehensive legal frameworks in order to be fair and accountable to the service receivers. Therefore, the transport sector leadership has to recognize that service transformation, and particularly customer-centered service delivery, is necessary to meet desired public service outcomes, by putting the customers at the center of the service delivery and organizing services around customers’ needs, and in turn aligned more closely with expectations.
Key Words: Institutional Capacity, Good Governance, Leadership and Excellence Service Delivery
Key Generation Using Ant Colony Optimization Technique [PDF]
Prakhar Chandra, Paridhi Baliyan, Sukriti Srivastava, Inderpreet KaurCrytography is the procedure of
fashioning the data to prevent the misusage
of the very same. In this modernistic era of
the wireless, it is monumental to ensure the
secure delivery of the valued data which
otherwise be subjected to contemptible
intentions. The process of conversion of
plaintext to cipher text is known as
encryption and its vice-versa is known as
decryption. Among the three types of
cryptography techniques, viz., Asymmetric
key, Symmetric-key and Hash Functions. A
significant component of this contemporary
technique is the key. This particular element
is of utmost importance as this is what is
made use of when encrypting or decrypting
the coveted data. There are a myriad of
techniques to administer encryption and
effectuate keys like the RC4, Vernam
Cipher, etc. However the approaches have
some or the other in commodity. We operate
on swarm intelligence where we endeavour
to harness the metaheuristic of Ant Colony
to generate keys for the encryption of the
data. This whole methodology is based on
the behaviour of the ants in their natural
search of food. The bourne of wielding Ant
Colony Optimization is to downscale the
number of keys to be employed while
encipherment when compared to the other
techniques of cryptography in existence.
ACO would warrant the generation of such
keys that will be of utmost efficiency.
THE NEXUS AMONG FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI), TRADE AGREEMENTS (RTAs) AND BILATERAL TRADE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ECOWAS, NAFTA, EU AND ASEAN REGIONS [PDF]
Dr. Momodou Mustapha FannehThis paper examines how foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade agreements interact to
affect bilateral trade in manufacturing industry. Trade agreements and FDI have been
increasing throughout the world. Most of the studies focus on whether trade agreements are
trade creating or diverting. The fact that trade agreements interact with other factors such as
FDI, outsourcing, etc to affect trade get little attention. This paper addresses this issue using
ECOWAS, NAFTA, EU, ASEAN, and the rest of the world (ROW) from 1996-2004 for 28
manufacturing industries and uses fixed effects and random effects estimation methods in a
gravity model framework.
Exporter and importer GDP are significant and positively related with bilateral trade,
international distance between exporter and importer country negatively and significantly
affect bilateral trade, speaking the same language and sharing the same border significantly
increases bilateral trade. Foreign direct investment inflows drive trade among NAFTA, EU,
ASEAN, ECOWAS and the ROW countries. Interaction terms are used to isolate the
combined effects of FDI and trade agreements on bilateral trade. The intracbloc interaction
with FDI generally diverts trade in almost all the regions significantly.
An intelligent power cable vandalism monitoring system with motion sensor and text message alert system [PDF]
ordu okechukwu,Dr Sunny Orike,Engr Odeyemi M. FemiIt is an open secret that the transmission lines belonging to power generation, transmission and distribution companies are vandalized by cable thieves. The activities of these vandals are felt by the companies, the economy and society at large. Having a stable power supply is the desire of any government, people and company. This can only be achieved if the installed cables carrying power from the generating stations to the final consumer is not interrupted`/tampered with by cable thieves. Hence the need to monitor/secure the power transmission lines against the activities of cable vandals, along the vandal prone points or remote areas. This research work will tend to achieve this, by the use of an electronics device that is intelligent; that is, it can monitor and report the presence of an individual or persons within the vicinity of the transmission lines by sensing the motion of the vandals, using a PIR sensor, then sends text message to pre-defined numbers and sounding an alarm, if a person attempts to climb the pole at an exact location at any point in time. The alarm is necessary to notify people around and the text message also informs the relevant persons for prompt action. This is important since the network of power cables passes through remote areas as they carry electricity from the power generating stations to the final consumer. This is essential since any security mechanism that is put in place will not function properly if they cannot tell when and where a vandal operates. Thereby making this system very vital in handling the menace of vandalism, that is plaguing the power sector.
Non-Excusable Delay Factors and Contractors’ Performance in Projects Delivery in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria: An Assessment [PDF]
H. I. Babalola, K. T. Alade, and A. O. AdepojuThe study assessed non-excusable delay (NEDs) factors affecting contractors’ performance in Project delivery in Akure metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from consultants, contractors, architects, and quantity surveyors from a sample of one hundred respondents using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. The study used the descriptive statistic to explain the demographic characteristics of the respondents; relative important index (RII) for ranking of factors based on the perception of the respondents as well as the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance and Kruskal-Wallis (KW) Test for the hypotheses. The findings revealed that there is an existence of NEDs factors in Akure Metropolis. Also, from the findings, there is a significant degree of agreement among the respondents regarding the NEDs factors affecting contractors’ performance in project delivery in Akure metropolis, (p-value (sig) < 0.05). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the perception of the respondents (p-value > 0.05). Thus, contractors must be active in the utilization of finances, time, and human resources as identified as causes of NEDs, as this will help to mitigate delays in project delivery.
Impact of job stress, reward and recognition on employee turnover intention [PDF]
LI XIAO DONGEmployee turnover intention is one of the most widely studied topics in organizational research. The continuing interest in this topic stems from the fact that employee turnover can be extremely damaging and costly for an organization. In order to reduce the cost of employee turnover, it is important for organizations to develop effective methods of retaining employees.
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between job stress, reward and recognition related to employee turnover intention in SMEs. Data were collected through personally administered survey from 500 employees working among SMEs in Chengdu, China. However, in this study, the influence of job stress, reward and recognition on employee turnover intention of small and medium-sized enterprises in Chengdu, China is not supported.
The results of the current study put forward that if enterprises are willing to retain employees, they must reduce job stress which will eventually lead to employees leaving. In this research also found that money is not the most important motivator Meanwhile, non-monetary rewards are very meaningful to employees and can motivate them to improve their performance. non-monetary rewards can reinforce positive behavior and improve employee retention and performance.
EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF S.T.E.M-BASED RESEARCH TOWARDS S.T.E.M STUDENTS’ SCIENCE ATTITUDE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT [PDF]
Vergil L. Alon, Girlie C. Petiluna, Pricelo L. Pausanos, JrThe purpose of this study was to evaluate how Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)-Based Research in STEM-Senior High School students affects their attitude toward science and science achievement. A total of 86 respondents (n=86) were evaluated of Grade 12-STEM of the Misamis Occidental National High School, Oroquieta City. Questionnaires and grades of the respondents were used as bases of assessing the relationship of the said variables. Science Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), a 45-item survey test and final rating of the respondents were used and tabulated. Almost all of the respondents had positive attitudes toward science as evident in their responses. Interestingly, the respondents had showed that they love the subjects and that their courses are dependent in science. In addition, they showed exemplary performance in the three (3) learning areas of science namely; Physics, Biology and Chemistry. In getting the relationship of the variables, the researcher used Pearson Correlation Coefficient, r and the result showed strong positive relationship which shows that the respondents had experienced active engagement in their research journey and able to appreciate science not just a subject but a career that has contribution in the society. Research findings suggest that STEM teachers must be creative and innovative in guiding their students towards their future career.
Keywords: Science Achievement, Science Attitudes, STEM-Based Research, Career, S.T.E.M, Influence, Engagement
Effects of Employee Job Satisfaction on Organizational Performance ( A Study of Emenite Ltd, Emene, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria [PDF]
Dr. Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo,Abstract
The study examined the effect of Employee job satisfaction on organizational performance with respect to Emenite Ltd, Emene, Enugu, Enugu State. The researcher adopted survey design, using simple random sampling techniques, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. A total number of one hundred and thirty eight (138) questionnaire were issued out by the researcher to the staff of Emenite Ltd, Emene, Enugu State. The coefficient of determination R-square of 0.863 implied 86.3% of the sample variation in the dependent variable, degree of relationship between job satisfaction and organizational market share of the company. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.861. This showed that the regression line which captured 86.1% of the total variation in degree of relationship between job satisfaction and organizational market share of the company. The F-value of 362.528 was an indication that the model was statistically significant at 5 percent level of significant at degree of freedom df1= 2 and df2= 115. The calculated t-statistics of 6.375 was greater than the critical value (i.e.1.984), the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate accepted. The major findings of the study indicated that i) There was a relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance of Emenite Ltd, Enugu, Enugu, Enugu State ii) There was a relationship between job satisfaction and market share of the Company and iii) There was a positive relationship between return on asset (ROA), earnings per share (EPS) and employees’ job satisfaction of Federal Emenite Ltd, Emene, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Employees’ Job Satisfaction, Organizational Performance
Production and optimization of keratinase enzyme by Bacillus safensis LRF3X isolated from feather dump sites. [PDF]
Ezeme-Nwafor A.C, George-Okafor U.O, Nwachukwu U. F.Abstract
This study investigated the isolation, identification and optimization conditions on keratinase production by Bacillus safensis LRF3X using raw feather. A total of twelve (12) bacterial isolates were isolated from different feather dumping sites. Out of the 12 isolates screened, only one isolate with the highest zone of inhibition on feather meal agar was selected. The isolate was morphologically and biochemically characterized based on Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology as well as molecular characterization by sequencing 16S rRNA gene. In order to improve keratinase production by the selected isolate, culture medium and different cultural parameters were individually optimized. The following cultural parameters: pH, temperature, nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic), carbon sources (inorganic and organic), substrate concentrations and incubation period were evaluated for the production of keratinase by the isolate. From this study, the highest keratinase producing isolate, was found to be Bacillus safensis LRF3X. The highest enzyme production (38.33U/ml) was obtained at 192h after incubation. The optimum pH and temperature for the production of keratinase Bacillus safensis LRF3X were pH 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. The best carbon sources (organic and inorganic) were feathers and galactose at concentration of 1%, respectively. The best nitrogen sources (organic and inorganic) were defatted nut and casein at concentration of 1%, respectively. The highest activity (38.66U/ml) was observed at 1% feather concentration. The results obtained from this study showed that keratinase produced from Bacillus safensis LRF3X could be very useful in decomposition of keratin-wastes (feather), recycling to poultry feeds and could also find applications in leather, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
Key words: keratinase, Bacillus safensis, feathers, optimization.