Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
       
Culture du riz dans le bassin du fleuve Niger en aval du barrage de Kandadji à la frontière Nigéria. [PDF]
Abdourahamane Alou Himadou, Hassoumi Djibo, Adamou Hamani ArbiRésumé
La filière désigne couramment l'ensemble des activités complémentaires qui concourent, d'amont en aval, à la réalisation d'un produit fini. D’un point de vue général, en agriculture, elle est constituée par l’ensemble des activités et acteurs dédiés à un produit agricole particulier, et notamment, pour la production, la fourniture d’intrants, la transformation, la distribution, la commercialisation et la consommation dudit produit. Sur un plan opérationnel, la filière renferme l’ensemble des étapes à l’intérieur desquelles se créent des relations économiques réciproques et/ou sociales entre acteurs impliqués à quelque niveau que ce soit. Dans le cadre de cette étude, l’accent est mis sur la filière riz dont la majorité de ses acteurs se trouvent sur le bassin du fleuve Niger. L’objectif de l’étude est de faire un état de lieux sur les périmètres irrigués dans le bassin du fleuve Niger en aval du barrage de Kandadji à la frontière Nigéria. Cette étude a été réalisée dans une approche qualitative utilisant ainsi des observations directes sur le terrain, la recherche bibliographique et des entretiens auprès de la population ciblée. Les résultats de l’étude révèlent que la plupart des aménagements hydro-agricoles se concentrent dans la région de Tillabéry le long du fleuve. Quant aux périmètres hors aménagement, on les retrouve surtout dans la région de Dosso le long du fleuve et au niveau de certaines mares permanentes.
Mots-clés : Périmètre, riz, aménagement, hors, bassin
Commodity chain commonly refers to all complementary activities that contribute, from upstream to downstream, to the realization of a finished product. From a general point of view, in agriculture, it is constituted by all activities and actors dedicated to a particular agricultural product, and in particular, for production, supply of inputs, transformation, distribution, marketing and consumption of this product. In operational terms, value chain includes all stages within which reciprocal economic and/or social relations are created between actors involved at any level. In context of this study, focus is on rice sector, for which majority of involved actors are located in Niger River basin. Objective of the study is to assess the state of irrigated areas in Niger River Basin downstream of Kandadji Dam in construction to Niger border with neighboring Nigeria. Thie study was carried out using qualitative approach based on direct observations in field, bibliographic research, and interviews with target population. Results of the study reveal that most of hydro-agricultural developments are concentrated in Tillabéry region, along the river. As for non-developped rice fields, they are mainly found in Dosso region’s along Niger’s river, and in some permanent ponds.
Keywords: Perimeter, rice, development, outside, basin
PROJECT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE DESIGN AND PROJECT PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION PROJECT, MOGADISHU, SOMALIA [PDF]
Mohamed Abdulkadir osmanAbstract
Globally, Organizational Structure is broadly seen as a key aspect of organization’s sustainable competitiveness and performance. That is why this study entitled “Project organizational structure design and project performance of national identification project, Mogadishu, Somalia” is being conducted. It aims to examine the effect of organizational Leadership Style on the performance of NIPS; to ascertain the effect of Organizational Size on the performance of NIPS; to determine the relationship between organizational structure and project performance of NIPS and to establish the effect of Organizational Circle on the performance of NIPS. The study employed descriptive research design in which both quantitative and qualitative data analysis were used to produce richer and more complete information. The sample size was derived from 150 participants. As the target population is limited, the researcher decided to include all those 150 participants in the study. The researcher used the questionnaire and interviews as research instruments. Regarding objective one, the findings showed that leadership styles significantly influence the performance of Nips (β = 0.496, p< 0.05). The R- squared of 0 .161 implied that a unit change in leadership styles predict 0.161 change in the performance of nips. The F-value of 20.487 and the corresponding p-value (p = 0.000) which is less than0.05 implied that leadership styles affect the performance of nips. Concerning objective two, the results indicate that the structure of the organization significantly influences the performance of NIPS (β = 0.790, p< 0.05). The R- squared of 0.171 implies that a unit change in the structure of the organization predicts 0.171 change in the performance of National Identification project, Somalia. The F-value of 22.019 and the corresponding p-value (p = 0.000) which is less than 0.05 implies that the structure of the organization affects the performance of NIPS. Concerning objective three, the results indicate that the size of the organization significantly influences the performance of NIPS (β = 0.710, p< 0.05). The R- squared of 0 .126 implies that a unit change in the size of the organization predicts 0.126 change in the performance of National Identification project, Somalia. The F-value of 15.486 and the corresponding p-value (p = 0.000) which is less than 0.05 implies that the size of the organization affects the performance of NIPS. Concerning objective four, the results indicate that the circle of the organization significantly influences the performance of NIPS (β = 0.728, p< 0.05). The R- squared of 0 .123 implies that a unit change in the circle of the organization predicts 0.123 change in the performance of National Identification project, Somalia. The F-value of 14.996 and the corresponding p-value (p = 0.000) which is less than 0.05 implies that the circle of the organization affects the performance of NIPS. The recommendations include the need for the National Identification project, Somalia to ensure that the leadership styles adopted positively affect employees, to improve on communication and to put in place mechanisms to improve the use of intranet in order to strengthen the organization circle.
Keywords: Project, organization, structure, performance and national identification project.
EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON E-LEARNING DELIVERY: AS AN APPLICATION OF PROJECT BASED AT NU VISION KABUGA RWANDA. [PDF]
The concern of this study is to explore effect of covid-19 on e-learning delivery: as an application of project based at NU Vision High School Kabuga, Rwanda. The specific objectives include to assess the effect of access point on E-Learning delivery in NU Vision High School, to analyse the effect of internet security on E-Learning delivery in NU Vision High School and to determine the effect of database on E-Learning delivery in NU Vision High School. The study adopted descriptive research design using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Agent theory of E-Learning projects planning and Project management theory of change were used in this study. The population involved in this was staff from NU Vision High School. The total population for this study was therefore composed by 214 persons. Purposive sampling technique was used to sample 139 respondents taken as sample size. Descriptive statistics with frequency distribution and correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Frequency tables were used to present the data to facilitate understanding and interpretation. The qualitative data was consolidated, analysed in terms of content and a narrative report was produced presenting the respondents' views on explore effect of COVID-19 on E-learning delivery: As an application of project based at NU Vision High School. The study will be a great important to the existing knowledge in E-Learning delivery and will contribute to increasing E-Learning projects planning standards amongst the project management professionals and the entire project industry. Findings indicated that of Access point, internet security database have an effect on E-Learning delivery in NU Vision High School. Besides, findings also revealed the coefficient of correlation equal to r= 0.802, p value=0.000. In this regard, regression analysis was used to conclude the results of the undertaken study and to provide some recommendations. This study recommends that prevent issues regarding the session security, NU Vision High School, should use session ID which is adequately long and unpredictable.
key words: E-learning delivery. Covid-19, Internet security
IMPACT OF MTN MOBILE MONEY SERVICES ON DEEPENING THE RWANDAN FINANCIAL INCLUSION. A CASE STUDY OF: NKOMBO SECTOR IN RUSIZI DISTRICT [PDF]
Jean Pierre Mutabazi, Dr. Thomas TARUSThis study examined the impact of MTN mobile money services and how it deepens financial inclusion at Nkombo sector, Rusizi district. The study objectives used in this study were money transfer, mokash, interoperability and remittance services. Financial inclusion was measured using two benchmarks: access and quality. Based on the AFR (2020), in their recent FinScope 2020 report, it was reported that The Rwandan adult population is largely rural based, with 74% (5.2 million) residing in rural areas, where banks and other financial service providers are reluctant to deploy deposit taking banking infrastructure, can mobile money therefore, in such situations, be used as an alternative of banks? Through the findings, it was seen that, first of all, the research instrument was reliable with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.928. the researcher noticed an important factor whereby transaction fees were indicated as the greatest hindrances to accessing financial services at Nkombo, it was closely followed by the eminent lack of awareness for mobile money products and services which reveals that there is a huge untapped potential to financial inclusion if product awareness was taken into account! As a matter of fact, Remittance services was found to be the lowest relative contributor to financial inclusion (β=0.096), followed by mokash services (β=0.225) the regression model for mobile money services showed that the regression was fairly fit with an R2=0.524, showing that there was a change of 52.4% in Nkombo sector financial inclusion as result of variations in money transfer, mokash, interoperability and remittance services, this also means that the remaining 47.6% variation in financial inclusion at Nkombo sector, would be explained by other variables not captured in this research. Based on the findings of this research, The researcher recommends that financial literacy should be emphasized to equip the Nkombo population with the skills to use mobile money services. The researcher concluded that mobile money services do have an impact on deepening the Rwandan financial inclusion agenda at Nkombo sector which was supported by the rejection of all null hypothesis of the research as their p value were less than 0.05 (p<0.05) respectively.
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RWANDA [PDF]
GODFREY KAMANZIThis paper aimed to empirically Analyze the Foreign Direct Investment and economic growth and other relatively important factors which stimulate the process of economic growth in the economy of Rwanda between the periods of 2007 to 2017 by conducting descriptive statistics, unit root test, and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds testing approach, and error correction model for analyzing the growth model derived. In order to explain the changes occurred in real GDP over the study period, the model retained three domestic factors (export, saving and inflation), and one external factor Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as independent variables. Secondary data was used; the model has been estimated to determine the short and long-term elasticities and their significance. The empirical results points out that in the short and long-term, FDI, DEX, SAV represent the driving forces for economic growth in Rwanda. In addition, FDI was found to have a positive and significant impact on economic growth in both the long and short-term period. Error-correction model has been used to support the existence of a stable long-term relationship and confirm a deviation from the long-term equilibrium following a short-term shock corrected by approximately 32.9 percent after each year. The correlation analysis revealed that there is a strong positive correlation between FDI and economic growth during 2007-2017.
The study recommends strong institutional framework need to be reviewed and policies to attract FDI should be reviewed since empirical evidence do not support the importance of policies like tax incentives including tax cut and tax holidays since these appears to be negatively affecting FDI attraction and hence may be growth deterrence.
Key words: Foreign direct investment, economic growth, Gross Domestic Product, Savings, Domestic exports
EFFECT OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOLAR HOME ENERGY PROJECT SUCCESS AT BUGESERA DISTRICT IN RWANDA. [PDF]
JEAN PAUL SIBOMANAAchievement of a project means that a number of its perceived factors were attained. It is not guaranteed that project management practices resulted to proper implementation of projects. However, the success of projects largely depends on the way it is managed and controlled. The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of Project Management Practices on Solar Home Energy Project Success at Bugesera District in Rwanda. The study employed the theories of Stakeholder Theory, Contingency Theory and Realistic Evaluation Hypothesis in Theory in relation with Project Management Practices and Project Adoption and Success. The study adopted a descriptive research design; that allowed the researcher to study the elements in their natural form without making any alterations to them. The population of this research involved three Hundred and three (303) beneficiaries. All data was collected by using some techniques during the research such as Documentary technique; Questionnaire technique and Interview technique. In this research the methods for data analysis were Comparative method; Analytical method; Historical method and Quantitative method. Quantitative data was analyzed using computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. The analyzed data was presented using frequencies, percentages, correlation and mean. According to table no.4.13's findings, beta =0.387 (38.7%), its t value =7.188, which indicates that it is more than 1.96, and where p=0.000, being less than 0.05, makes it significant. These comes about illustrate that the invalid theory isn't acknowledged. The analyst came to a conclusion by saying that there's a solid and positive relationship between the project planning and design on the solar home energy project success at Bugesera district in Rwanda. Basing to the table no: 4.13, there are the findings that show that the beta= 0.298 (29.8 %), and the t value= 5.428, so this shows that it is greater than 1.96, and the p value is 0.000, which is less than 0.05 and this makes it significant. With these results, the null hypothesis is rejected, and the researcher chose to go with the alternative or positive hypothesis, and concluded that there is a strong and positive relationship between the stakeholder involvement and the solar home energy project success at Bugesera district in Rwanda. Another thing, the results from the table no: 4.13, the researcher's findings show that the beta= 0.507 (50.7 %). and the t value= 10.152, which is greater than 1.96, and its p value is equal to 0.000, which makes this statistically significant since the p is less than 0.05. With this, the researcher rejected the null hypothesis and went with the alternative or positive hypothesis. So, he concluded saying that there is a strong and positive relationship between the risk management and solar home energy project success at Bugesera district in Rwanda. Lastly, on the table no: 4.13, the researcher's findings show that the beta= 0.228 (22.8 %), its t value= 4.076, which is greater than 1.96. The p value= 0.000, which is less than 0.05, hence statistically significant. Here, the null hypothesis has been rejected, and the researcher concluded that there is a strong and positive relationship between the project monitoring & evaluation and the solar home energy project success at Bugesera district in Rwanda. The researcher recommends that, the government should put much emphasis to provide the fee-for-service systems regarding to solar home energy. There should be put some of the plans to reduce costs such as taxes for the developers who want to invest in this field of green and clean energy.
Keywords: Project management, Project Management Practices, Monitoring and Evaluation, Performance of project, Project Planning, Risk Management, and Stakeholder Involvement.
MAKING PLANET-EARTH A LIVABLE PLACE: EXPLORING ASUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT THROUGH ETHICAL CONSUMERISM [PDF]
Dr. MUKANDOLI DenyseThe world we live in, the quality of lives among humans is declining rapidly. To suit our greediness, the human kind is destroying the world. The harvesting and consumption of more natural resources create inevitable more pollution resulting in the destruction of the Earth's ecosystems. Consumption engages people every day, andliterature suggests that consumers seek out products that satisfy their needs, at the lowest possible cost. However some consumers appear to be selecting products, sometimes at higher costs, because they are not causing harm to their body or the environment, or because producers are receiving fair price for their goods, or because they are grown or made locally. However, despite embracing the values of ethical consumers' choices upon the environment, animals and the society, literature proves that, this does not necessarily translate into consumer buying behaviour. This is a big concern for companies because they are increasingly finding that there exists a gap between what ethical consumer’s say they are going to do and what they actually do at the point of purchase. A holistic understanding of the interrelation of ethical consumerism and sustainable development at the market place serves as a way to close this gap and is milestone to making Planet- Earth a Livable Place. This paper reviews literature on sustainable development and Ethical consumerism, particularly on ethical buying behaviour and proposes keys to becoming ethically minded consumers as a way to bridge towards Sustainable development which is a key to making Planet- Earth a Livable Place. It is believed by the companies that if they will offer ethical products it will give them a competitive advantage over their competitors as people these days have a positive attitude for ethical products; and Ethical Consumerism can be a profitable endeavour for sustainable development. It offers insight and strategic direction for entrepreneurs who plan to invest in ethical products, businesses managers and marketing managers. It is an eye opener to academicians interested in ethical consumerism, as well as various stakeholders in this field, including government, environmental NGOs and other economic operators with keen interest in sustainable development and making Planet- Earth a livable place.
Keywords: Ethical consumerism; Liveable place,Sustainable Consumption; Sustainable development
PROCUREMENT LEAD TIME MANAGEMENT AND ENTITY PERFORMANCE IN RWANDA.
A CASE OF RWANDA MEDICAL SUPPLY LTD [PDF]
UMUHOZA GodeliveThe main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of procurement lead time management on entities performance in Rwanda, a case of Rwanda medical supply ltd (RMS). from the general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated: to establish the effect of needs identification on performance of RMS, to examine the effect of selection of goods and services on performance of RMS and me to investigate the effect of sourcing vendors on performance of rms. to achieve those objectives, the data was collected from a sample of 81 employees of Rwanda medical supply ltd whom will be
selected randomly will be concerted. the techniques that researcher will use in data collection include documentary, questionnaire and interview. The research findings highlight the role of the management on the procurement process of an entity. this implies that senior management must consider their internal procurement processes, and their own role in championing efficient procurement in their organizations there is need to increase the funding process of the organization towards the lead time management. the government has a role to play in ensuring successful enforcement of all procurement laws since the problem is not a lack of the laws but the circumventing of the laws by the parties for their own selfish gains in light of these limitations, future research is recommended to use mixed methods research in order to validate the results of this research, and 2 apply a longitudinal study to better capture he relationships between procurement lead
time and procurement performance. Conducting a replication study with random sample selection can enhance the methodological rigor of the study and increase the possibility of having a better and a supported external validity. Also, another possible source of data could be the customers whose opinions, along with those of executives, can give a better insight of the relationship, furthermore, taking into consideration certain factors that may have a moderating role in these relationships, such as the country culture, could enrich the research results.
EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS ON QUALITY OF EDUCATION. A CASE OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RWAMAGANA DISTRICT, RWANDA [PDF]
1 Aimable SHINGIRO, 2* Prof. Abdulrazaq Olayinka OniyeABSTRACT: - The concern of this study was to explore the effect of teachers ‘performance contract on education quality in three selected schools in Rwamagana District, Rwanda. Specifically, the study assesses the level of knowledge on the role and process of teachers’ performance contract on quality of education in secondary schools, determine the effect of teachers ‘performance contract on service delivery in secondary schools, examine the effect of teachers’ performance contract on efficiency in secondary schools and assess the effectiveness of follow up of the execution of teachers’ performance contract on quality of education in secondary schools. The study adopted descriptive research design using quantitative and qualitative approach. The researcher used data collected from 140 respondents of three selected schools of Rwamagana District who sign performance contract every year. Due to the small number of the entire study population and its easy accessibility, the census method was employed to involve them in the study as sample size. Descriptive and inferential analysis were used in this study. Findings showed that teachers ‘performance contract affects quality of education through the level of employees understanding on the role and process of performance contract on education quality which is rated by the majority of 53% of respondents. Besides, teachers ‘performance contract improves service delivery quality by decreasing time wait for the service process, improving systematic assessment of user complaints and by decreasing customer complaints was stated by a half (50%) of respondents. Moreover, teachers’ performance contract influences efficiency as stated by the majority of 93.3% of respondents. Their performance contract influences efficiency on quality of education and finally the follow up of the execution of performance contracts by top managers is effective as revealed by the majority of respondents 98.3%. Besides, regarding correlation analysis, the study found that there is insignificant correlation between objectives of the institution and job description (r=-470, p=0.000) and between job description and annual target (r=-0.204, p=0.025). Again between education quality and annual target (r=-246, p=0.007). Finally, the results also show that there was insignificant correlation between annual target and job description (r=0.317, p=0.000). Lastly, this study recommends that Rwamagana District should set targets that will be timely implemented, completed and achievable.
Effect of employee training and development on performance of public institutions [PDF]
Roseline KANSANEThis study focused on the effect of employee training and development on public institution performance case of NPSC. The general objective of this research was to determine the effect of employee training and development on public institution performance where specifically the study had to find out the extent to which training and development policies has effect on NPSC performance, to establish the effect of evaluation of training and development on NPSC performance, to identify the training and development challenges that affect the performance of NPSC and to establish the contribution of employee training and development on the performance of NPSC . This study adopted a descriptive type of research design which has set out to describe how employee training and development contribute on the performance of NPSC and the target population which is also the sample size because it is a small number, the staff on NPSC working at the headquarters. The questionnaire was used for gathering data. The validity of the questionnaire has been tested with the aid of the supervisor, research experts knowledgeable about the themes of the study. The reliability of the questionnaire was computed using the Cronbach method of internal consistency. The results of this study was obtained by using regression analysis indicated that a well-designed training and development policy, training and development evaluation well done and training and development challenges handled have a positive effect on NPSC performance. The findings revealed a positive and significant effect of employee training and development evaluation on NPSC. This indicate that if employee training and development evaluation is well done after training it will effect NPSC performance where (r=0.986<0.01), it means that 98.6%, and the findings revealed a positive and significant effect of training and development challenges. This implies that if challenges in implementing employee trainings and development towards employees are well treated and handled in favor of increasing knowledge and skills of employees it will be an increase of NPSC performance (r=0.996<0.01 which means 99.6%. Then the results indicate that employee training and development has a positive and significant contribution on the performance of NPSC(r=0.997<0.01) which means 99.7%. This study recommends NPSC to continue using an employee training and development policy which can guide it during training process; and should conduct a need assessment regularly for being aware of employee weaknesses and prepare training and development which can contribute on employees and NPSC performance will be efficient.
Key words: Training, Development, Public Institution Performance & NPSC
ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING PRACTICES AND PUBLIC SECTOR SERVICES AT GASABO DISTRICT, KIGALI- RWANDA. [PDF]
NDAYISABYE Jean de DieuPerformance contract is a freely negotiated performance agreement between a government, acting as the owner of a public agency and its management. It is used in the Rwanda public sector to measure performance of the assigned employees in a given agency. The public sector in Rwanda face pressure to improve service delivery, lower costs become more accountable, customer focused and responsive to stakeholder needs. The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of Performance contracting practices on performance of the public sector in Rwanda. A survey was conducted on 15 sectors of Gasabo District and the 10 different departments at headquarter of Gasabo District. A sample of 126 employees were drawn from a population of 182 starting with two-stage sampling. Questionnaires, document analysis were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22. Any unit increase in Performance Planning would increase public sector services at Gasabo District, Kigali- Rwanda by a factor of 0.192. Lastly any unit in Performance Monitoring and Reporting would increase in public sector services at Gasabo District, Kigali- Rwanda by a factor of 0.167. The study recommends continuous training, initiating policies for fast tracking performance targets; provision of resources to facilitate performance contracting, implementation of performance contracting in all public institution, introduction and implementation of strategies that reward performing employees, establishing an independent institution to negotiate Performance contracting practices and conduct evaluation objectively. Further scientific research is recommended to analyze the reasons why some districts are not performing well while some are doing extremely well
Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Mathematical Beliefs and Teaching Performance [PDF]
Cristina B. AbanillaTeachers need to be competent in the content as well as in the way to deliver that content (Smith et al, 2002) in order to facilitate learning. Thus knowing the “how” of teaching is as important as “what” of teaching (Parson et al., 2001). Despite the widespread interest and concern of what counts as “subject matter knowledge for teaching” and how it relates to student achievement remains inadequately specified in previous researches (Hill et al, 2005).
Philosophical arguments as well as common sense, however, support the conviction that teachers’ subject matter knowledge influences their efforts to help students learn subject matter. When teachers’ knowledge of the subject that they teach is rich, integrated and accessible, they tend to teach the subject more dynamically by using more varied ways while encouraging and responding more fully to learners’ questions and comments (Brophy, 1991). This knowledge of teaching is now known as the pedagogical content knowledge or PCK.
Renewable Energy Regulatory Landscape; Towards a Sustainable Environmental Development [PDF]
Rasheed A. Idowu, Temitayo AdesanyaDespite being aware of the need to promote sustainable environmental development through renewable energy, Nigeria still grapples with enacting and implementing policies that will reduce environmentally damaging activities through the use of fossil fuels, which has increased Nigeria’s global share of greenhouse gas emissions. Accordingly, this paper examines the global attitude to clean energy and further explores renewable energy sources, the existing regulatory enactments geared towards encouraging renewable energy, and challenges in Nigeria. Towards the end of it, this paper proposes a diversion of current energy subsidies on fossil fuels to renewables as well as a revamp of the existing legal framework in such a way that will accommodate both federal and state government participation in policymaking, promotion, and development of renewable energy in the country
Effect of Macroeconomic Stability and Commercial Banks Credit on Agriculture Performance in Rwanda [PDF]
Victorien NKURUNZIZAThis research paper intended to examine effect of macroeconomic stability, commercial banks credit on agriculture performance in Rwanda, using data collected from international organisation from 1990-2021. This paper was guided by the following specific objectives which were to examine the effect of aggregate supply and demand on agriculture sector performance in Rwanda, to examine the effect macroeconomic indicators on agriculture sector performance in Rwanda and to examine the effect of commercial bank credit on agriculture sector performance in Rwanda. This research study used theories and models under stated objectives. Diffusion theory was used, Mundell Fleming Model, Keynesian Model was used, and Classical model will be used. The research design was based on quantitative research since it used the econometrics approach such as VECM/ARDL which adjusted to both short run changes in variables and deviation from equilibrium, ARDL model was used to test for both non stationarity time series as well as time series with mixed order of integration, Johansen Cointegration test was done to detect the a long-term, or equilibrium, relationship between variables and therefore the results findings found that there is a long run relationship between macroeconomic stability, bank credit and agriculture performance. For consumption, the result shows that the value of Error Correction Term (ECT) is -0.44 which implies that the relationship between the variables met a priori expectation of the study, and that the condition for stability is satisfied. The result indicates that the previous period deviation from the long run equilibrium is corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 44%. The increase of 1 percent in consumption rate will bring about 0.44 percent decrease in agriculture performance and it is significant at 1 percent. For CSP, the result shows that the value of Error Correction Term (ECT) is +0.24 which implies that the relationship between the variables met a priori expectation of the study, and that the condition for stability is satisfied. The result indicates that the previous period deviation from the long run equilibrium is corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 24%. The result indicates that the previous period deviation from the long run equilibrium is corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 1.3%. The increase of 1 percent in net export rate will bring about 0.013 percent increase in agriculture performance and it is significant at 1 percent. For GDP, the result shows that the value of Error Correction Term (ECT) is +0.03 which implies that the relationship between the variables met a priori expectation of the study, and that the condition for stability is satisfied. The result indicates that the previous period deviation from the long run equilibrium is corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 3%. The increase of 1 percent in GDP rate will bring about 0.03 percent increase in agriculture performance and it is significant at 1 percent. For IR, the results show that the value of the coefficient of the interest rate is 1.18 that the result shows that the value of Error Correction Term (ECT) is +1.18 which implies that the relationship between the variables met a priori expectation of the study, and that the condition for stability is satisfied. The result indicates that the previous period deviation from the long run equilibrium is corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 118%. The increase of 1 percent in consumption rate will bring about 1.18 percent increases in agriculture performance and it is significant at 1 percent. A percentage increase in interest rate is associated with 118% increase in Y (agriculture performance) in short run. For the inflation, INF exhibits the positive correlation with Y with the Coefficient value of 0.042 as per VECM estimates. This implies that a percentage change in inflation is associated with 4.2% increase in Y in average ceteris paribus in short run. These results show that macroeconomic indicators through level of inflation leads to agriculture performance, this was explained by a value of 0.042 which implies that it contributes to 4.2%.The same estimates indicated that all variables are positively correlated with agriculture performance in Rwanda, their magnitude decreased over time. These findings are generally consistent with other previous endogenous growth studies in the literature. As policy implications, this study is suggesting focusing on agriculture by supporting the credit facility and export to improve the level of agriculture in Rwanda.
ANALYSIS OF PROCUREMENT STRATEGIE AND SERVICE QUALITY DELIVERY OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:A CASE OF RWANDA HOUSING AUTHORITY (RHA) [PDF]
UWAMAHORO ANASTASIEThe main purpose of this research was to analyze the procurement strategies and service quality delivery in public institutions. The research was guided by the following specific objectives: (i) to assess the relationship between procurement policies and service quality delivery, (ii) to analyze the relationship between procurement planning strategies and service quality delivery, (iii) to establish the relationship between buyer/supplier relationship strategies and service quality delivery, and (iv) to analyze the relationship between monitoring and evaluation and service quality delivery. Descriptive survey was used in this study to collect information. The total population for this study was 81 persons from whom a sample of 67 respondents was calculated using Taro Yamen formula. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. Data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed using mean, standard deviation, mean and regression analysis. The research revealed that in relation to relationship between procurement policies and service quality delivery in RHA, there is an effective procurement policies strategies in the institution which enable the institution to provide good service quality to citizens. Most of respondents also agree with statements related to procurement planning strategies and service quality delivery. Most of respondents again agree with the statement related to the relationship between buyer/supplier relationship strategies and service quality delivery and this is supported by the fact that all means of their responses are at very high range which indicate the existence of relationship between buyer/supplier relationship strategies and service quality delivery. In relation to relationship between monitoring and evaluation strategies and service quality delivery most of respondents agree with the statements of how monitoring and evaluation strategies affect the service quality delivery
EFFECT OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PROCURING AND DISPOSING ENTITIES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RWANDA: A CASE OF MUSANZE DISTRICT [PDF]
DUSABIMANA ALEXISRegardless of the effort by the governments of developing countries, like Rwanda and expansion partners like World Bank to advance performance of the procurement function, public procurement is still tarnished by shoddy works, poor quality goods and services. Failure to implement or deferred implementation of endorsed performance standards has resulted in unreasonably high operation costs, uncoordinated business activities, and failure to appeal and recall experienced and skillful personnel in the procurement situations, thus affecting the function’s performance. Therefore, the general objective of this study was to analyze the contract management on the performance of procuring and disposing entities in local government in Rwanda. The study’s specific objectives include: to establish the effect of resources allocation on the performance of procuring and disposing of Musanze district; to examine the effect of staff competence on the performance of procuring and disposing of Musanze district; and to analyze the effect of control and risk management on the performance of procuring and disposing of Musanze district. This study provides decision makers with the valuable information to take intervention programs to achieve greater contract management towards procuring and disposing performance. The study adopted both descriptive and correlative research designs. It adopted a number of data collection instruments including questionnaires, interview and documentary review. Questionnaires were distributed to 103 respondents in Musanze district though 5 respondents didn’t return their questionnaires; and an interview was held with the management. With the help of SPSS, Spearman test was used to define the nature and magnitude of the relationship between the study variables. Findings revealed that 88.8% of the respondents strongly agreed that all significant materials to be delivered by the client are identified though 24.5% disagreed on the issue of ensuring that the planned resources are procured on time; Secondly, 82.7% strongly agreed that there’s budget for the training of the officers though 34.7% disagreed that the procurement officers follow the available procurement guidelines. Lastly, research results revealed that 96.9% strongly agreed that there are enough resources provided for the control and risk management process though 38.8% disagreed about the proper internal control processes. In addition, a spearman test results 0.004 as a P-Values which explains that there was a strong, positive monotonic correlation between contract management and the performance of the procuring and disposing entities in Musanze district. As presented in table 16, ANOVA test shows a p-value of 0.001 less than alpha (5%), the significance level. The findings are in line with the poor performance in the district. In order to ensure performance of procuring and disposing, there must be effective contract management. Hence, the researcher concluded that the above must have attributed to lack of proper procurement practices hence poor performance of the district. The top management should rely on the use of e-procurement. Proper internal control processes should be made a culture by the responsible personnel at the district. Officials who delay procurement activities and processes should also be handled individually and be punished.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR IN RWANDA; A CASE OF TOYOTA RWANDA [PDF]
Callorine NUWASASIRAThe intention of this study was to assess the contribution of lean supply chain management on organizational performance in automotive sector in Rwanda. Specifically, the study was meant to assess the contribution of waste elimination on the organizational performance in Toyota Rwanda; to ascertain the influence of customer value on the organizational performance in Toyota Rwanda; and to examine the contribution of continual improvement on organizational performance in Toyota Rwanda. In order to reach the achievement of the above objectives, a combination of questionnaires, interviews, documentary reviews and other reports were used. This study stems primarily on three theories; Resource Based Theory (RBT), Transaction Cost Analysis Theory (TCAT) and System Theory. Questionnaires were distributed to a group of 84 respondents who filled them and return them for analysis where interviews were held with the company management. Sampling technique called universal sampling technique was applied in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study adopted descriptive statistics in form of frequency, percentages and mean; whereas inferential statistics which was used to measure the correlation between the research variables opted for both correlational and regression analyses. After data collection and analysis, 90.5% of the total respondents strongly agreed that Toyota finds it necessary to look at the whole sequence of lean events, from the customer’s order to raw materials producer. Secondly, 85.7%.of the respondents strongly agreed that considering customer value helps to meet the company’s objectives, solve its problems and improve the quality of services provided to the customers. Thirdly, 95.2% of the respondents strongly agreed that inventory optimization offers effective financial, legal and internal audit functions that lead to better performance. Lastly, 97.6% of the respondents strongly agreed that Toyota aligns the people, processes, and technology in supply chain around a continual improvement strategy which enables more effective collaboration. From the Spearman correlation analysis results indicated, the value was less than significant level which explains that there was a strong, positive monotonic correlation between lean supply chain management and organizational performance of Toyota Rwanda. Based on the correlation and regression analysis which indicated positive and significant contribution of lean supply chain management on the organizational performance of Toyota Rwanda, all the study’s null hypotheses were not accepted.
EFFECT OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ON BUSINESS GROWTH. A case study: Yalla Yalla Group Ltd Kigali-RWANDA (2019-2021) [PDF]
Effective supply chain management as competition shifts away from organizations and toward supply chains, has emerged as a potentially valuable method of gaining a competitive advantage and improving organizational performance. The supply chain Management works successfully through their base elements: integration, operation, Purchasing, and Distribution. The main purpose of this research was to analyze effects of supply chain management on business growth and Yalla Yalla Group Ltd was chosen as case study. As it purchases the raw material and merchandises from abroad, it is involving in all processes of supply chain management. Therefore, it helped me to find out the supply chain management effects on business growth on business companies in Rwanda. The following factors were guide the research to specific objectives: i) to analyze effect of integration on business growth. ii) To analyze effect of the operation on business growth. iii) To analyze effect of purchasing on business growth, iv) to analyze effects of distribution on business growth. Data for the study collected using a self-administered questionnaire procedure, where the questionnaires administered to the respondents. Research conducted to all workers of Yalla Yalla Group Ltd which was equal 70. Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 16.0 and descriptive statistics used to analyze the data and regression analysis applied to test the effects. The research concluded that there is change or effect on business growth due to the integration, operation, procurement, and Distribution as the key elements of supply chain management. According to the findings obtained: Integration had the negative effect on the business growth as shown by Beta equal -.026; Operation had the negative effect on the business growth as shown by Beta equal -.263; Procurement had the positive effect on the business growth as shown by Beta equal .080; Distribution had the positive effect on the business growth as shown by Beta equal .065. Yalla Yalla Group ltd should apply effectively and efficiently the integration, operation, procurement, and distribution(logistics) as the elements of supply chain management, it should help them to improve their business through cost reduction, developing suppliers’ relationship, time management, financial savings, customer satisfaction quality of company services delivery, order fulfillment, lead time and easily available feedback which lead them to the profit maximization. This have been provided to Yalla Yalla Group Ltd as recommendation.
A FRAMEWORK ON CYBERCRIME AND RAPID DEVELOPMENT FOR PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS BASED ON FORENSIC METHODS TO ANALYZE DATA FLOW [PDF]
NGENZI PATRICKThe wide spread of the use of computer and the rise of internet led to advent of cybercrime. The first cases of cybercrime were seen in 1980’s in the USA and eventually spread all around the World, especially in developed countries (Peter Sommer, 2004). During this period, the number of computer related crimes increased, and different governments and organizations started to set up laws and strategies to eradicate these crimes. The general objective of this research is to extend a forensic framework to prevent and fight cybercrime in private institutions in Rwanda. The data gathering instruments included structured questionnaires and document review. The study has the following specific objectives: to investigate the effects of digital evidence on rapid development in private institutions; to examine the forensic methods used to prevent cybercrime within private institutions; to analyze forensic tools used by private institutions to fight cybercrime; and to develop a framework on cybercrime and rapid development for private institutions. The target population was the Liquid Intelligent Technologies employers and employees of Kigali, Rwanda. Researcher will gather data from this population, data that would contribute to answering the research questions. In this context, the population of this study included Liquid Intelligent Technologies (LIT) staffs and employees, LIT Stakeholders, LIT Operations Managers and LIT Customers. Researcher will gather data from this target population, data that was collected by answering the research questionnaire. The size of the population was 300 employees. The sample size of 171 respondents was drawn from the target population. The findings revealed that shows that (54.39%) of the respondents were female and 45.61% of the respondents were female. The great number of respondents (52.05%) were between 0 and 5 years of experience. The results indicated that 7.01% of respondents were Data Analysts, 8.19% were IT Managers, 12.86% were Communication Engineers, and 22.81% were Network Engineers, 27.49% were Field Engineers, and 21.64% were Operations Engineers; and finally, 52.63% of respondents had bachelor level of education. Different components and devices were used in this study including computers, firewall, switches, routers, and network servers. The ping command was used to test a connection between one computer and another. For example, we used ping command to test inter-vlan connectivity through the firewall. As the result, the computers from different networks or vlans have communicated successfully without any signal loss. This was due to the configuration of the firewall so that it may be able to filter information being transmitted across different networks. Researcher consulted experts opinions and publications on this subject and compiled a model simulation with Cisco Packet Tracer 8.1.1 for laying a cybercrime framework that can be used to prevent cybercrimes by filtering packets flow especially from outside networks. The researcher has shown how the research contributed to the existing knowledge for the new ideas generated during this study. The research has recommended different personnel including future researchers, network administrators, network end users and the University of Kigali.
INFLUENCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SUSTAINABILITY OF SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAMMES. A CASE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL 12YBE IN GASABO DISTRICT, RWANDA [PDF]
MUKAKARANGWA Clementine & Dr. Jean De Dieu DUSHIMIMANAThe study entitled influence of project management practices on sustainability of school feeding programmes: a case of public school 12YBE in Gasabo District, Rwanda. The study is guided by four specific objectives: To examine the influence of project planning on sustainability of school feeding programme in public 12 YBE schools in Gasabo District ; to assess the influence of risk management on sustainability of school feeding programme in public 12 YBE schools in Gasabo District ; to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation on sustainability of school feeding programme in public 12 YBE schools in Gasabo District and to establish the influence of project Scope management on sustainability of school feeding programme in public 12 YBE schools in Gasabo District. The study used both descriptive research design and correlational research. The study population was 619 Teachers, students and school management leaders include 445 teachers, 80 students committees, 94 school management leaders while sample size is 243 stakeholders of SFP composed by 69 teachers, 80 pupils commute’s and 94 school management from sixteen public 12YBE schools in Gasabo District. The researcher used questionnaire as data collection instrument while descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis was used as method of data analysis. For the first objective, the results revealed that project planning has significance positive influence on sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District as indicated by β1= 0.087, p-value=0.017<0.05) implies that a unit increase in Project planning would lead to 0.087 increase in the sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District. For the second objective, the results revealed that project risk management has significance positive influence on sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District as indicated by β2= 0.589, p-value=0.000<0.05) implies that a unit increase in project risk management would lead to 0.589 increase in the sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District. For the third objective, the results revealed that project monitoring and evaluation has significance positive influence on sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District as indicated by β3= 0.263, p-value=0.000<0.05). It implies that a unit increase in project monitoring and evaluation would lead to 0.263 increase in the sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District. For the fourth objective, the results revealed that project scope management have significance positive influence on sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District as indicated by β4= 0.277, p-value=0.000<0.05) implies that a unit increase in project scope management would lead to 0.277 increase in the sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District. The study concluded that component of project management practices such as project planning; project risk management; project monitoring and evaluation and project scope management had significant positive effect on sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District and jointly accounted for 81.4% of sustainability of SFP in Gasabo District as represented by the R2 at 95% of confidence interval. The study recommended that government should double efforts to address gaps identified in programme implementation to sustain the impressive pupils’ enrolment and performance.
INFLUENCE OF STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION ON PROJECT PERFORMANCE IN RWANDA. A CASE OF SPEAK OUT PROJECT [PDF]
MUKAMANA Léoncie & Dr. KALIMBA PeterThe study entitled Influence of stakeholder participation in project performance in Rwanda, a case of Speak Out project “the study is guided by four specific objectives: To determine influence of stakeholder participation in project identification in performance of Speak Out project; to examine influence of stakeholder participation in project planning on performance of Speak Out project; to establish influence of stakeholder participation in project monitoring and evaluation on performance of Speak Out project and to find out influence of stakeholder participation in resource mobilization and evaluation on performance of Speak Out project. The study is based on Speak Out project implemented by FVA in four District Karongi, Nyanza, Gisagara, Nyaruguru Districts. The study focused on 562 stakeholder composed by 62 employees of Speak Out project and 100 representatives of clubs and 400 VAWG survivors. This study used questionnaires to employees and beneficiaries of Speak Out project and documentation was used as secondary data. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze data. The findings revealed that stakeholder participation in project identification has significance influence in performance of Speak out Project as indicated by β1= 0.144, p=0.007<0.05, t=2.712. The implication is that an increase in stakeholder participation in project identification would lead to an increase in performance of Speak out Project by β1= 0.144 units. The findings revealed that stakeholder participation in project planning has a positive and significance influence in performance of Speak out Project as indicated by β2= 0.391, p=0.000 <0.05, t= 6.406. The implication is that an increase in stakeholder participation in project planning would lead to an increase in performance of Speak Out Project by β2= 0.391 units. The results further revealed that stakeholder participation in project monitoring and evaluation has a positive and significance influence in performance of Speak Out Project as indicated by β3= 0.341, p=0.000<0.05, t= 7.605. The implication is that an increase in stakeholder participation in project monitoring and evaluation would lead to an increase in performance of Speak out Project by β3= 0.341 units. The findings revealed that stakeholder participation in resource mobilization has a positive and significance influence in performance of Speak out Project as indicated by β4=0.199, p=0.001<0.05, t= 7.882. Based on the study findings, the study concluded that stakeholder’s participation in resource mobilization, project monitoring and evaluation, project identification, project planning had positive significant effect on the performance of Speak Out Project.
INNOVATION AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CRS) OF NIGERIAN MULTINATIONALS [PDF]
Dr Akinwale OmotolaThe study investigated the relationship between innovation and corporate social responsibility of multinational firms. The study made use of expo-facto research design to sample ten (10) multinational firms from quoted consumer goods and industrial goods firms for the period of 2014 to 2019 and employ descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression technique in the analysis of data. The result showed that economic dimension of corporate social responsibility has a positive coefficient and significant relationship with innovative performance of multinational firm, humanitarian dimension of corporate social responsibility has a positive coefficient and significant relationship with innovative performance of multinational firm and firm size as a control variable has a negative coefficient and significant relationship with innovative performance of multinational firm at 1% level of significance. The study recommended that relevant stakeholders of multinational firms in Nigeria should pay much attention to corporate social responsibility in order to gain competitive advantage in the international market through innovation.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Economic Dimension, Humanitarian Dimension and Firm Size
DEVELOPMENT OF A FLOATING SURFACE WATER ROBOTIC OIL SPILLAGE SURVEILLANCE (SWROSS) SYSTEM [PDF]
Akpoyibo Tamaraulayefa Peter, Dr. Mrs. M. I Akazue, Ukadike Ifeanyi DestinyThe severity of an oil spill's impact depends on how quickly it is detected when spills occur. The location where they happen, oil spills have a significant effect on the economy, ecology, health, and society. In the detection of spills, several techniques have been used, such as real-time remote observation by flying aircraft with surveillance crews to stop oil bunkering and vandalism in the Obotobo and Ogulagha communities in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. This paper focuses on developing a floating surface water robotic oil spillage surveillance system. The designing of the system consists of hardware and software components, the hardware components are an Arduino Wemos D1 board, a Wifi camera, a battery, solar, a Node microcontroller unit, and wheel chassis. The development was aided by the following software: Arduino IDE, Blynk IoT platform, and a Windows 10 Operating System. Software development involves the prototype approach and the C++ programming language. The Alpha Test method was used to test and evaluate the system. The result reveals a fast notification of oil spill alert message sent to the device receiving the notification located in the base station whenever an oil spill is detected. This paper is recommended for oil companies to effectively monitor and manage oil leakage.
Les sept maîtres de Marrakech, des matrices historiques de l'organisation sociale, religieuse et culturelle du Maroc [PDF]
Habiballah Mohamed, Issam LamharrekPlus qu’un mythe, la ville de Marrakech, est une réalité qui s’assujettit aux fantaisies, aux caprices des personnes, ou encore qui habite l’imaginaire des visiteurs étrangers et des chercheurs universitaires. Depuis longtemps et jusqu’à nos jours, la ville de Marrakech interpelle le saint, l’artiste, le badaud, l’écrivain, le poète et le chercheur.
Marrakech, Tombeau des saints, Turbat al-awliyâ’. Al- Hassan Al- Yûsî a instauré le pèlerinage aux sept saints ou encore patrons de Marrakech. Il n’est pas fortuit qu’un homme docte, lettré, soufi initié, y ait institué un pèlerinage à sept saints. Une élite spirituelle illustre consacrée par la mémoire, l’histoire, la topographie, et intégrée à un circuit sacré qui a donné un autre nom « la ville aux sept saint », « Madînat Sab’atu Rijâl »
Les sept maîtres, des histoires et des discussions prenaient place dans mon entourage à leurs propos dont je n’accordais aucune importance, certains éprouvent une grande admiration en leur faveur, d’autres, encore, l’ignorent et considèrent leurs histoires comme racontars, conscient de valeurs et de l’histoire de mon pays ainsi que de l’héritage laissé par nos aïeuls, je pris ce choix d’entamer cette recherche afin de savoir qui étaient ces sept maîtres, comment sont-ils arrivés à Marrakech et le rôle religieux, social et culturel joué par eux ?
FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESSION PLANNING IN NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS. THE CASE OF ONE ACRE FUND RWANDA [PDF]
Nadie Niyonkuru, Dr Jean de Dieu DushimimanaThe main reason for ineffective succession planning in NGOs in Rwanda is due to different factors such as poor talent management, low top management support, lack of career development and poor job rotation which resulted in poor performance of the organization and also created a leadership transition crisis in the absence of the succession planning implementation. The study entitled “Factors Influencing Succession Planning in Non-Profit Organizations of One Acre Fund Rwanda” was guided by four specific objectives: to analyze the impact of top management support on effective succession planning in One Acre Fund, to determine the role of talent management on succession planning in One Acre Fund, to assess the influence of career development on succession planning in One Acre Fund and to examine the influence of job rotation on succession planning in One Acre Fund. The research design to be used in this study was descriptive research design and inferential research design. The population of the study was 104 employees of One Acre Fund. The study used universal sampling techniques to select104 employees of One Acre Fund. The study used questionnaires as data collection instruments and the researcher used descriptive statistics using both quantitative and qualitative approach and inferential statistics such as correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis as methods of data analysis. For the first objective, the findings revealed that top management support has a significant positive relationship with succession planning in One Acre Fund as indicated by β1= 0.431, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 7.344. For the second objective, the findings revealed that talent management has a significant positive relationship with succession planning in One Acre Fund as indicated by β2= 0.326, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 5.390. For the third objective, the findings revealed that career development has a significant positive effect on succession planning in One Acre Fund as indicated by β3= 0.425, p-value=0.011<0.05, t= 2.428. For the fourth objective, the findings revealed that job rotation has significance positive with the succession planning in One Acre Fund as indicated by β4= 0.137, p-value=0.037<0.05, t= 2.112. The findings revealed that 71.2% of respondents strongly agreed that in One Acre Fund succession planning puts into consideration all key positions and 81.7% of respondents strongly agreed that their organization's succession planning is clearly communicated to all employees. The study also suggested that One Acre Fund and other organizations should run a needs assessment survey across the organization, and allocate the budget to fund the professional certifications to employees with high performance. Establishing this program will not only develop the career paths of the employees, but also ensure the high potential employees are equipped with the necessary skills