Volume 10, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Cereal-Legume drinks developed using probiotic potential lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kenoko []

Cereals and legumes are rich in nutrients when blended and can therefore be exploited for production of unique probiotic foods that are equally acceptable by consumers. In this study four functional cereal-legume drinks (BPS1, BPS2, BPS3 and BPS4) with different ratios of cereal and legume flour mixtures were developed using 11 probiotic potential lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from kenoko. The products were processed and evaluated for physicochemical properties, viable cell count on storage, shelf life and sensory properties. BPS1 had the highest moisture (84.06%) and fat (2.52%) content while BPS4 recorded an ash content of 0.87%. The protein content of BPS3 and BPS4 was higher at 3.17% and 3.26% respectively. Viable count numbers for probiotic lactic acid bacteria in the products remained reasonably high in all samples throughout the period of storage of 28 days (more than107cfu/mL). The performance of products on sensory evaluation was generally above average on most parameters. The overall consumer acceptability for product sample BPS1 and BPS2 was relatively high with a sensory evaluation score of 6.85 and 6.45 respectively. Findings from this study concluded that kenoko is a potential source of probiotics with unique characteristics which can produce starter cultures for industrial application. More studies are required on products development to assess synergies and interactions between and among the isolates.

ethiopian rangeland condition, management and improvement technique []

Abstract Rangelands are geographical regions dominated by grass and grass like species with or without scattered woody plants. The rangelands cover 62% of the land in Ethiopia. The rangelands of southern Ethiopia comprise 7.6-12.3% of the area of the country. Borana rangelands comprise about 95,000km2. While In Somali region more than 70% are cover by rangelands. Before four decades, the Borana rangelands were known as the best rangeland in east Africa. But yet by the early 1990s it has been observed that productivity of the Borana was in decline. The aim of this paper is to review the concepts of rangeland condition, range management and improvement techniques based on the studies so far done. To meet the objectives data and literatures were collected from different literatures sources and reviewed. The literature review mainly addresses concepts of rangeland degraded conditions, major causes, management and common improvement techniques. The major rangeland conditions are in best and worst condition. Of all well managed for grazing, land use and protection. Management of rangelands is usually limited to grazing, burning and control of woody species. Key words; rangeland, range management and degradation


The study aims to assess the effectiveness of Community Policing in Tuguegarao City. Further, the study tackles the current status of community policing, in terms of patrol activities, organizational work and community Interaction. It also determines the gaps of community policing practices in terms of above-mentioned variables and its recommendations for a better community policing. As depicted in the data gathered through documents review, Key informants interview and focal group discussion, the following were the findings of the study. On the status of community policing based on the three identified variables such as Patrol Activities, Organizational Work and Community Interaction, participants in the KII to include the Provincial Director of Cagayan, Chief of Police of Tuguegarao City, Chief PCR, and the City Mayor of Tuguegarao do not have accurate level of observation on the status of community policing. This may be due to the fact that community policing activities, as being presented, embrace several activities that may hardly be identified by the participants in the interview. On the other hand, understating on the existing directives regarding the Community Service Oriented Policing program, only some of the personnel assigned in PCR section are well verse of the existing program as they are primary responsible in community affairs development activities. Based on document review, there is sufficient basis and mandates for the implementation of the community policing programs and activities although the same should continuously be enhanced and intensified for its full implementation and observation. The establishments of the City Traffic Management Group, the adaptation of PNP programs such as OPLAN SITA, OPLAN VISA, Project POSTE and the deployment of police officers to assist and manage traffic are all manifestations of existence of patrol activities in the City. However, patrol activities are typically perceived as the usual police visibility in the streets of convergence without considering that it even embraces traffic management and control, mobile patrol and other related activities of patrolling, purposely to prevent the occurrence of crimes. On the other hand, it is believed that organizational work would be difficult to organize as there is no assurance of functionality of force multipliers due to insufficient funds and dedication to duty. On community interaction, it has been observed and perceived as a delimited function of the PCR personnel thereby significantly gave a mixed impression of individuality of the PNP personnel when it comes to the implementation of community policing activities. The policies and procedures were not well discussed to the stakeholders much more with their colleagues in the unit. Nevertheless, the local police and stakeholders employ initiatives and continue to discover new innovations in policing to better serve their area of responsibility. KEYWORDS: Community Policing, OPLAN SITA, OPLAN VISA, Project POSTE, Tuguegarao City


This study aimed to determine the authenticity of the Halal food industry in Cotabato City: An opinion survey among Muslim Religious Leaders. Most specifically, the following Questions were asked: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, status, occupation and educational attainment? What are the authenticated Halal food industries in Cotabato City? What are the perceptions of the respondents regarding the authenticity of the Halal food industry? What are the requirements in applying for authentic Halal food? What are the problems encountered by the Halal Certifying board in Cotabato City? The study adopted the qualitative method of research to explain the data gathered through narrative description of each of the tables that served as the indicatives. Accordingly, this method used primary data from in-depth interviews and other qualitative data to identify and describe the underlying themes of the experiences of a phenomenon (Bara, 2011). The characteristics of qualitative method of research are as follows: a.) the method takes place in natural setting; b.) Uses multiple methods that are interpretative; c.) is emergent rather than tightly Pre-figured; d.) is fundamentally interpretative; e.) holistically views research or social phenomenon; f.) reflects systematically on who the researcher is inquiring and is sensitive to his or her personal biography and how it shapes the study; g.) Researcher uses complex reasoning that is multifaceted; h.) Interactive and simultaneous; j.) Researcher adopts and uses one or more strategies of inquiry (Prudence and Aguja, 2014). It was found out also that the majority fifty one percent (51%) of the respondents do not believe on the existence of Palakasan System in the issuance of Halal certification, while the largest minority or forty nine percent (49%) of the respondents believed that there is Palakasan System in the issuance of Halal certification. Likewise, they agreed on the problems encountered by the respondents like multiple and complex problems as Halal certifier such as a.) shortage of volunteer Muslim technical experts, b.) shortage of trained Halal auditors, c.) problem of fund resources, d.) lack of cooperation, e.) lack of trust to the certifier, f.) unwillingness of the company, and g.) waste of time on the part of the company. On the other hand, there were also problems encountered by the Halal certifying board such as: a.) hiring of practicing Muslims by non-Muslim owned establishments as required by the board, b.) various ingredients mixed in the product, c.) problem of cooperation and disclosure of the company, and sources of Halal certified ingredients in food services, d.) problem on the procedure on how the products are processed, e.) problem of preservatives used in the products, f.) problem of enzymes and others, and g.) problem on materials being used. KEYWORS: Authenticity, Halal Food, Muslim Religious Leaders, Cotabato City


Due to ever increasing demand of electricity throughout the world, new ways of extracting and harvesting energy through clean sources is becoming more mainstream than ever before. After the industrial revolution, the need of electrical energy has been increased drastically. Today, electrical energy has become an essential requirement for every individual and the quest for its generation to fulfill its exponentially increasing demand without affecting the ecosystem and environment has become a challenge which is being addressed through research and innovation. The major causes of power losses in transmission lines and provide a viable solution regarding the reduction of these losses through an adaptive controller. The power losses in transmission lines can vary due to several reasons such as environmental conditions and load profile, which is why an adaptive compensator that is able to alter its parameters to cater for the inductive and capacitive losses. This research would aim to reduce the losses in overhead power transmission lines by implementing adaptive control of the compensators and filters which would be able to readjust themselves as per the compensation requirements. This would include the use of FACTS devices, harmonic filters and adaptive controllers. The reactive part of the power flow would thus be controlled by these devices in transmission lines and the losses will be reduced significantly.


The project performance is influenced by many factors of which project governance key groups responsibilities are inclusive. Many researches have shown that poor project governance key groups responsibilities negatively effect on project performance. The aim of this research project is thus, to examine the effect of project governance key groups responsibilities on project performance of One Government Network Project in Rwanda Information Society Authority. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the effect of project sponsor on performance of one Government Network (OGN) Project in Rwanda Information Society, to investigate the effect of project manager on performance of one Government Network (OGN) Project in Rwanda Information Society and to evaluate the impact of project steering committee on performance of one Government Network (OGN) Project in Rwanda Information Society. The results of this research were useful to different individuals involved in the project management and other future researchers interested in the field of project governance key groups responsibilities and project performance. The research design adopted for this study are descriptive and correlational research design and quantitative data gathered using a questionnaire while qualitative information gathered using interview. The firsthand information gathered from people working under the project of one Government Network in Rwanda Information Society Authority. Informants selected using multistage and purposive sampling method. Analysis of quantitative data computed using SPSS version 25.0 whereas data gathered using interviews analyzed thematically using content analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) also done for the purpose of testing correlation between variables. The research measured validity using pilot test while ethical consideration performed through requiring research permission letter from administration of one Government Network Project. The results indicated p=0.000<0.05 with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.693. This indicates that there is a significant moderate relationship between project sponsor responsibilities and the performance of one government network (OGN). Model summary results of a regression analysis between project manager responsibilities and project performance are a value of R of 0.715, R Square of 0.512, and an adjusted R Square of 0.507 indicate that project manager responsibilities increase the performance of the One Government Network (OGN) project by 50.7%. Findings show analysis of variance between independent variable and dependent variable whereby F=92.821 and p value of 0.000<0.05 indicates that project steering committee responsibilities is good predictor of performance of one government network (OGN) project in the Rwanda Information Society Authority.. Results showed that the objectives of the study had been achieved and all null hypotheses had been rejected. It has been suggested that OGN strengthen its project management tools and techniques in order to achieve high-level outcomes.

Awareness about Disaster Risk Reduction Education among University Students–A Case Study of Institute of Business Management, Karachi .Pakistan. []

The purpose of this research study was to critically analyse the level of awareness about Disaster Risk Reduction Education (DRRE) among university students. For this purpose Institute Of Business Management, Karachi was selected. To get the required information for analysis, 80 students were selected from different departments of the university using convenience sampling procedure. A questionnaire was developed to collect data having 5-point likert scale. The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The findings from the analysis of collected data reveal that majority of the students have knowledge of DRRE, there is no difference found between male and female, graduate and under graduate students in understanding about DRRE. Most of the students wish that government/HEC/university management should arrange mock exercise in their university for better handling of future disastrous situations. Keeping in view the knowledge of students about DRRE, it is recommended that government, HEC and university management should use different sources to create awareness among university students about DRRE Keywords: Disaster, awareness, preparedness, disaster risk reduction education


This study aims to comparison the quality control of raw milk and the awareness of producers, sellers, and consumers about application of quality control measures in Gezira state- Sudan. The primary data were collected by descriptive using questionnaire instrument to measure the different factors leading to milk quality selected producers, sellers, and consumers in the study area. Chemical analysis of milk was used approx-imate analysis according to AOAC standard method and minerals determination by atomic absorption Spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer, 2380). The present study showed that there are significant differences (P≥ 0.01) between producers for explaining the availability of milk distri-bution centers in milk quality in Gezira state. The study showed there are highly significant differences between those who use plastic and steel milk containers in milk quality, and they also explained that they distribute milk inside the state using runs (Donkeys) as means of transporta-tion and distribution. The majority of producer and sellers were not aware about the measures applied in quality control and most of them were not believed on the importance of application of quality control measures. Chemical analysis in summer of milk samples taken from pro-ducer's containers showed higher record for moisture, ash and fat, K and Fe and higher PH at winter. Seller milk samples showed higher records in total solid material and Na and Ca at summer and protein, carbohydrate, and density in winter. The study recommended that Manufacturing of Aluminum and steel containers are recommended, and Participants must be equipped in the different techniques of quality control measures


University biorisk management infrastructure in Kenya is poorly developed despite the rapid emergence of highly infectious diseases. Similarly, life scientists at universities (students, lecturers, and laboratory technologists) have been indicted in incidences of fatal and nonfatal injuries. The main objective of the study was to determine if there is a linear relationship between the biorisk knowledge levels and the Biological Risk Management Level of university bioscience laboratories. It was part of a larger doctoral study that investigated the predictors of biorisk management. The study design was a quantitative, descriptive survey type and was delivered through a survey by both the researchers and online to 1300 university students, lecturers, and laboratory technologists with a response rate of 79.5%. A questionnaire designed to capture independent variable (level of biorisk knowledge of life scientists) and dependent variable (Biorisk Management Level) scores were used. Excel and IBM SPSS software assisted in computing analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficients, and simple linear regression analysis. Data were summarized as tables and other descriptive statistics. A majority (55.4%) of the respondents did not exhibit high biorisk knowledge. Less than half (45.6%) of the respondents reported high biorisk knowledge. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that 21.9% of the variation in Biological Risk Management Level at the universities was explained by variation in biorisk knowledge (R Square= .219, p<0.001). It was concluded that as biorisk knowledge increases so does the biorisk management level. To improve biorisk management at the universities, there is a need to develop biorisk knowledge of life scientists. Universities and other key partners should develop the capacity of life scientists in biorisk knowledge while future studies should consider other types of knowledge other than self-rated knowledge.