Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Study Of Community Participation Level In The Implementation Of Drinking Water Infrastructure In Maros District []


As a program that uses a community-based approach, PAMSIMAS places the community as the main actor and is also responsible for the implementation of the activities. Both at the planning, implementation, and management and maintenance stages of SPAM infrastructure and facilities to ensure the implementation of the program is supported by program management units at the central and regional levels, as well as consultants and facilitators. Community involvement as the main responsibility is intended to increase ownership of program results and be able to independently manage program results. This study aims to determine the level of community participation in the implementation of drinking water infrastructure development in Maros Regency and identify the factors that influence the level of community participation in the implementation of drinking water infrastructure development, and obtain the factors that most influence the level of community participation in the implementation of drinking water infrastructure development in Maros Regency. Data collection was carried out through a survey using a questionnaire. The target respondents in this study were the desa/kelurahan beneficiaries of the PAMSIMAS Program in Maros Regency in Tahun Anggaran 2018 in Kecamatan Cenrana, Desa Limappoccoe and Desa Cenrana Baru. To find the relationship between the factors that influence community participation with the form and level of participation, cross tabulation and data from interviews with respondents as qualitative data are used to get a picture of the level of community participation as well as supporting quantitative analysis. Meanwhile, secondary data and documentation data are presented to complement and provide an overview of the condition of the research object. The results of the factor analysis show that the level of community participation in the implementation of the PAMSIMAS program in the two villages is at the Informing Level (the third step of the eight Arnstein Ladder) and is included in the Degree of Tokenism. Factors affecting the level of community participation in the development of drinking water infrastructure in Maros Regency are Education, Employment, and Income. Contingency coefficient test results of the three factors that most influence the level of community participation is employment. Keywords: Community participation, level of participation, drinking water


Quality Analysis Based on Water Quality Criteria of BMDA’s Drinking Water Supply System in Barind Area. []


An investigation was carried out to assess the water qualities of drinking water supply system and its extents of impurities in groundwater abstracted from BMDA deep tube wells in Barind area. Water samples from a total of 275 deep tube wells were collected and tested in BMDA laboratory. Samples collected from different sites (deep tube wells) were analyzed for physic-chemical, biological and hydrological parameters with standard methods and after chemical analysis of the collected samples, different physic-chemical, biological and hydrological properties were found. Among all considered parameters of ground water, concentrations of arsenic, iron, chloride, pH, total hardness and total E. coli bacteria were found within the permissible limits for potable water. Other parameters like calcium, magnesium, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid etc. were also determined and found within permissible limits. In a very few cases like, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium etc. were slightly without permissible limits. Except those, the quality of drinking water supply system from BMDA’s deep tube wells in the study area is safe for drinking purpose and other domestic uses. It is recommended as more suitable and sustainable drinking water source for this study area.


COMPARATIVE METAGENOMICS STUDY ON SEVERAL ORGAN FISH : A REVIEW []


New metagenome technology has been widely used in molecular medicine, especially in the field of fish biolo-gy. The metagenome technique allows direct extraction of DNA from the environment for analysis of species diversity and function. This is necessary to determine the abundance of community and diversity in fish. The metagenome has proven researchers can obtain large amounts of raw data in a short amount of time. The combination of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics has enhanced our ability to design custom microarrays and study genomes and transcriptomes extensively in various organisms especially in fish. One of the parts of the fish body observed were the intestines, meat and gills. There are differences between these three organs, namely that the intestine is a place for microorganisms to live in relation to immunity and fish metabolism. Whereas the gills are the entry and exit points for fish excrement, and the meat where there is a potential for disease transmission or putrefaction in fish products. This is supported by the main objectives of each study. Where the observed bacteria will differ according to the surrounding environment.


BILATERAL SEROUS RENAL CYSTS REVEALED BY ABDOMINAL MASS SYNDROM AND TREATED BY LAPAROSCOPY []


SUMMARY Cystic kidney disease (CKD) is a heterogeneous group of conditions that have microscopic or large cysts as a common denominator. They are found in both children and adults and can take the form of single or multiple cysts, uni- or bilateral, congenital or acquired, symptomatic or not, and can even lead to end-stage renal failure. We report a case of bilateral giant renal serous cysts in a man presenting with an abdominal mass. The diagnosis of bilateral renal cysts is made and the operation by laparoscopic approach is chosen.


Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria: Error Correction Mechanism Approach (ECM) []


This study examined the effect of corporate social responsibility on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria, between 2005 and 2019. The study adopted variables such as return on asset (ROA), corporate social responsibility expenditure (CSRE), Liquidity ratio (LQR), and interest rate (INT). Annual time series data sourced from Central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin were utilized in the study. Return on Asset was used as the measure of performance. Consequently, error correction mechanism (ECM) was adopted to analyze the regression model. Moreover, the variables were investigated for unit root using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADF). Hence, they were found to be integrated of different order 1(1) and 1(2), thus paving the way for cointegration test. The Engle-Granger Cointegration test showed that ECM (-1) is statistically significant at 5%, and 10% critical level. However, the ECM regression results showed that corporate social responsibility, and Liquidity ratio exert positive significant influence on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria, while interest rate was found to exert negative influence on commercial banks performance in Nigeria for the period under review. The study therefore recommends that commercial banks should pursue policies that will enhance the administration of friendly and flexible interest rate to businesses and entrepreneur in their environment.


THE GOVERNANCE APPROACHES AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOLID WASTE COLLECTION PERFOMANCE IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES IN TANZANIA []


The study assesses the impact of governance approaches on the effectiveness of solid waste management service provision in selected Government authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania. This motivated by the fact that some scholars have linked the effectiveness waste management service provision with the quality of waste management governance. The study was conducted in selected local Government Authorities in Tanzania. It was guided by Actors’ involvement; Adoption of new tools and techniques; Citizens’ active involvement and Power distribution. The research methodology involved a purposefully selection of 5 local Government authorities. Questionnaires, observations, interviews and documentary review used for data collection. Descriptive analysis was used for analyzing the variables. The findings show decentralization and citizens involvement has contributed to the waste collection rate of 90% in Moshi municipality. Adoption of new tools and technologies contributed to the improving waste management data base and increasing the RCCs collection rate by 50% in Ilala Municipality. To this end the study recommends; Decentralization of waste management governance to the Ward level; Adoption of new tools and technology such as electronic customer registration systems and electronic payment systems; and promoting citizens involvement through civil society engagement and government incentives. Keywords: Solid Waste; Solid Waste Governance; Governance: Waste Management: and Tanzania


KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE REGARDING PROSTATE DISEASES AND THEIR SCREENING AMONG OLDER MEN IN A RURAL AREA OF LAHORE []


ABSTRACT Introduction: A prostate is a walnut-sized gland, which is a significant part of the male reproductive system that coils around the urethra posterior to the pubic bone and interior to the rectum, just inferior to the bladder. Its size increases with the growing age and can be of bigger size in older males. Not only age but family history, ethnic background, high levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), obesity, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and poor diet are the major causes of prostatic hyperplasia (PH).(Tanveer, Tahir et al. 2019) The prostate's function is to produce fluid in the semen that nourishes and protects the sperm cells. A hormone called androgen (testosterone) produced by the testicles controls the activity and growth of the prostate.(Steele, Miller et al. 2010) Purpose: The goal of the research is to determine the awareness and attitudes of men in Lahore towards prostate disease. Methodology: A cross-sectional is a study which gathers information from a population at specific time of period. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to evaluate knowledge and attitude regarding prostate diseases and their screening among older men. Results: This chapter contains 3 review sections. Demographic research was the initial analysis. This provides us with insights on three demographic issues. For three variables descriptive analysis was used. One was independent variables (Marital Status, Age and Education) and two were dependent variables (knowledge and attitude of the participants). It tell us about the knowledge and attitude of the participants towards prostate diseases and their screening in older men in Ali Raza Abad community Lahore Conclusion: Through this KAP study assess the knowledge and attitude regarding prostate disease and their screening in an older men in Ali Raza Abad community in which mostly participants were male and married and have more than 50 years age, the score of the participants show that more participants have more knowledge and positive attitude about prostate disease and their screening. The people of the community who were illiterate and more than 40 years age need more education and awareness to enhance their knowledge and screening practice towards prostate. Key Words: Knowledge, Attitude, Benign prostate hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer


On The Effective Ways/ Strategies for Enhancing The Teaching And Learning of The Fundamentals of Mathematics In The Primary Schools In Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. []


This study investigated the effective ways of enhancing the teaching and learning of the fundamentals of mathematics in the primary schools in Etsako West local government of Edo state, Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. One hundred and twenty (120) primary school teachers were randomly sampled from fifteen (15) primary schools in the local Government Area. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire and was completed by the primary school teachers. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard response scores to answer the research questions and t-test statistic to test hypothesis. Based on the findings, the following results emerged; All the effective ways/strategies enhanced teaching and learning of the fundamentals of mathematics, primary school teachers did not implement most of the effective ways/strategies identified in this paper, insufficient number of qualified primary mathematics teachers, heavy workload, large class, poor funding, lack of facilities/equipment, poor working conditions, lack of incentives not giving opportunity to attend in-services courses, seminars, conferences and workshops to update teachers' knowledge were identified as the major obstacles that hinder the proper implementation of the effective ways. Recommendations were made. Location is not a significant factor-in determining the extent of use of the effective ways/ strategies by primary school mathematics teachers.


IMPACT OF FERTILIZER ON MAIZE YIELD GROWTH: DISPARITY AMONG AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF ETHIOPIA []


This study examined the disparity in impact of adoption of fertilizer of any kind (organic, inorganic or both) on maize yield growth using 1040 sample farm households in four major maize growing agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Propensity score matching technique was employed since it is an increasingly utilized standard approach for evaluating impacts using observational data. It was found that adoption of fertilizer of any kind (organic, inorganic or both) didn't have the desired positive and significant impact on maize yield growth in all of the agro-ecological zones considered. Therefore, this study recommended that the agricultural research and extension system of the country should be strengthened to further take into account the differences among different agro-ecological zones and areas having high variability in landscape positions, rain fall, soil characteristics and farming systems in order to generate and scale-up appropriate improved agricultural technologies and information that suits to the specific conditions of each maize producing land pockets of the country.


ETUDE COMPARATIVE DES BILANS HYDRIQUES DES STATIONS METEOROLOGIQUES DE RUMANGABO, RUTSHURU ET RWINDI EN TERRITOIRE DE RUTSHURU, REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO []


RESUME L’étude consiste à comparer le bilan hydrique de trois stations météorologiques dans le territoire de Rutshuru en République Démocratique du Congo afin d’orienter les agriculteurs. La méthodologie a consisté en l’analyse des données des trois stations météorologiques par l’application de la formule de Thornhtwaite. Les résultats ont montré qu’il faut un apport d’eau supplémentaire, à Rutshuru aux mois de Decembre, Janvier et Fevrier, Rwindi il faut l’apport en eau supplémentaire toute l’année, sauf au mois de Janvier et de Septembre et enfin a Rumangabo on n’a pas besoin d’eau supplémentaire. Mots clés : Bilan d’eau, Station météorologique, Reserve d’eau, indice d’aridité, évapotranspiration, déficit agricole, indice climatique ABSTRACT The study intends to compare the water budget of three meteorological stations in Rutshuru region, Democratic of Congo in the purpose of orienting agricultures. The methodology consisted of analysis of the water budget using meteorological data provided by tree meteorological stations: Rumangabo, Rwindi and Rutshuru. From the results it was concluded that at Rumangabo there is no need of water supply throughout the year, at Rutshuru here is a need of water supply in December, January and February and at Rwindo, there a need of water supply throughout the year except in January and September. Keys words. Water budget, metrological station, water reserve, aridity index, evapotranspiration, agriculture deficit, climatic index.


SELF-EFFICACY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: TOWARDS SOCIETAL RE-ENGINEERING []


Entrepreneurship is a derivative of entrepreneurial learning which promotes functional unemployment reduction through university education. However, universities in Nigeria have turned to producers of unemployed graduates instead of job creators in the face of high rate of global unemployment. This is due to the non appreciation of entrepreneurship among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Few studies have been conducted on the effect of self-efficacy and entrepreneurial mindset for societal, re-engineering with most scholars concentrating on entrepreneurship and economic growth. This study adopted survey research design. The population comprised of 25,353 four hundred level undergraduates in all Federal Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample size of 1,673 was obtained using Krejcie and Morgan formula. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting the respondents. A validated structured questionnaire with Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranging from 0.73 to 0.95 was employed in the study. The response rate was 76.91%. The study adopted stratified random sampling technique and a structured questionnaire with 6-point Likert scale was used for data collection). Self-efficacy had a significant effect on mindsets towards entrepreneurship (R2 = 0.238, t(1671) =22.843, β = 1.029, p<0.05).The study recommended that, government, academia and the society should focus on measure to promote university undergraduates’ self-efficacy.


THE EFFECT OF FISCAL TRANSFER AND VILLAGE FUND ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN INDONESIA []


This study aims to determine and analyze the direct and indirect effect of Fiscal Transfers in the form of Special Allocation Funds (DAK) and Village Funds on Income Inequality in Indonesia through Human Development as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) and Economic Growth. The data used in this study are secondary data in the form of time series from 2015 to 2018 and panel data from 33 provinces in Indonesia. In this study using the path analysis method using SPSS 22 software. The results of this study indicate that the Fiscal Transfer in the form of DAK does not directly affect Income Inequality in Indonesia. However, indirectly through Human Development, it has a significant negative effect on Income Inequality in Indonesia. This study also shows that the Village Fund directly or indirectly through human development has a positive effect on income inequality. This means, since the launch of the Village Fund from 2015 to 2018 it has not maximally reduced income inequality, but has actually had an effect on increasing income inequality. The inadequate distribution of Village Funds to reduce inequality is caused by the inadequate use of village funds, especially in the field of empowerment and development of village communities. In addition, the village fund budget that focuses on village development and infrastructure is only enjoyed by elite groups in the village which results in increased income inequality Keywords: Income Inequality, DAK, Village Funds, Economic Growth, and Human Development


ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESHNESS VANAME SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei) IN RANCAEKEK, RESIK JATINANGOR AND TANJUNGSARI TRADITIONAL MARKET []


This study aims to determine the level of freshness from vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Rancaekek, Resik Jatinangor and Tanjungsari traditional markets. The writer used survey research method and the level of freshness of the sample is determined using a scoring test through organoleptic observation and the degree of acidity (pH). The samples were observed organoleptically including appearance, aroma, and texture. Based on the results of observations from the vaname shrimp appearance, aroma and texture parameters, it shows that the shrimp marketed by the Rancaekek market obtained a score of 7 with a degree of acidity (pH) of 6.4 which means that they are in the fresh category, the shrimp in the Resik Jatinangor market get a score of 7 with The degree of acidity (pH) is 6.6 which means it is in the fresh category, and the shrimp in Tanjungsari market gets a score of 8 with a degree of acidity (pH) of 6.2 which means that it is in the fresh category.


THE TOXIC EFFECT OF NANO SILVER ON SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS, TUTA ABSOLUTA AND LIRIOMYZA SATIVAE []


This present study aimed to evaluate the effect of nanosilver material against larvae of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera litoralis, tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta and leaf miner flies, Liriomyza trifolii. These pests are considered the most serious pests all over the world on many vegetables especially tomato. Because of their infestation, the crops lose their quality and yield. Because of the problems caused by chemical pesticides to all organisms and environment, the natural control replaced pesticides. Nanomaterials control is one of newly effective methods used for pests control, especially nanometals that proved good results in pest control. Nanosilver is very effective against L. trifolii more than T. absoluta and S. litoralis with LC50 7.41, 7.72 and 9.93 ppm for L. trifolii, T. absoluta and S. litoralis, respectively, in laboratory. Also, in the field, reduction percentage was 73.5% for L. trifolii, 65.1% for T. absoluta and 54.8% for S. litoralis.


POTENTIAL RADIOLOGICAL DOSE OF 210Po TO MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSUMER IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA []


Potential radiological dose of 210Po to common marine fishes and their consumer in Peninsular Malaysia was studied. The main objectives of this work are to quantify the activity concentration of 210Po in fishes and evaluate the total dose rate of 210Po to fishes using the ERICA Tool Assessment and annual effective dose to their consumer. Selected common fishes were obtained from around near shore in the east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia either by using fishing rods or purchased from local fisherman. It is observed that the concentrations of 210Po in the pelagic and demersal fishes in the ranges of 4.06 ± 0.18 Bq/kg fw. to 50.13 ± 2.24 Bq/kg fw. The pelagic fish of Yellowtail scad was identified to accumulate higher concentrations of 210Po suggesting that they could serve as a locally bio-indicator of radionuclides in the Malaysian marine waters. Interestingly, the total dose rate for each fish was found to be well below the screening value of 10 µGy/hr as recommended by the ERICA Assessment Tool. This indicated that the 210Po activity concentration in the Peninsular Malaysia marine environment was far below the screening value and this pose no risk to the marine living organism. Since higher concentration of 210Po can contribute significantly the dietary dose of ionising radiation to high fish consumers, however such magnitude varies are considerably radiological safe for those consumers in Peninsular Malaysia. Ideally, before deciding the estimated dose value poses a risk to fish consumers, thus the volatility behaviour of 210Po should be considered before ingestion.


IMPLEMENTATION OF VOLUNTARY HIV/AIDS COUNSELLING AND TESTING IN MASVINGO URBAN []


This research study was prompted by the ever increasing numbers of HIV/AIDS infections as well as the city of Masvingo being central route to boarder posts. The study sought to find out the level of peoples awareness of Voluntary Counselling and Testing. A total of twenty (20) clients represented the sample of respondents. The study sought to establish acceptability of VCT among potential clients in light of the quality of services provided by the testing centres in Masvingo. It also sought to establish the real benefits of VCT and the extent to which the centres managed to deliver the benefits to its clients.The study revealed that more women than men seek VCT. This confirms findings of MOHCW (2004) which stated that most women are willing to go for HIV testing so as to protect their babies but they fear stigmatization as well as rejection if they are found to be HIV positive. Other researchers done by other people and organisations in the past have shown dominance of pregnant women as VCT clients. The sample randomly selected for this research was dominated by people who have considerable average level of education. Through education they have been empowered to fight stigma better than the less educated. . Respondents highlighted been linked to support groups as their greatest benefit. Through medical care (ARVs) and moral support (support groups), the HIV Positive have reclaimed back their liberty and are now moving forward. . All VCT clients used for this study described the counsellors who attended them as professional, friendly, well researched and accommodative. This showed how professionalism has developed and embedded in counselling. A duty that was culturally associated with the elders has now been turned into a profession that requires training and grooming.The study brought out the following recommendations:Since campaign materials should be in different languages to ensure that language barrier is eliminated and all people who speak different languages in Zimbabwe are well informed.Different media should be used for the outreach programmes to ensure that the rich and the poor are catered for. Cheap media such as flyers distributed through schools can increase awareness.VCT centres should decentralise to less privileged communities to increase accessibility the closer the people the centre is the more influential it becomes and the more potential clients it can attract.More emphasis should be made that VCT is not for the sick, neither is it for the pregnant woman. A lot of effort should be made to ensure change of attitude among man and those who think that they are fit and make them realise that they will be better off if they know their status than not.VCT centres should help establish community support groups for people living positively and network with them to create a strong voice which can reduce stigma and also encourage others to consider VCT. VCT centres should nurture strong post testing relationship with clients for value edition and fast tracking of behaviour change as well as making clients accept and understand their condition.The centres should also extend counselling to the affected members instead of limiting it to the infected.Centres should consider learning and improvement as a continuous process. While confidentiality of clients’ records remains fundamentally important, counselling should encourage and empower clients disclose their status to the public. This helps reduce stigma and push other people to consider VCT.In marking material benefits VCT should not take precedence over spiritual and psychological benefits. These are equally important. People should not get tested for wrong reasons. Service centres should also decentralise to advise increased accessibility. Networking of voluntary Counselling and testing centres and community support groups, non governmental organisations (NGOs) government and other stakeholders can deepen the benefits of VCT and also help create an accommodative society .


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEGREE PROGRAMME CHOICE BY WORKING CLASS STUDENTS – A CASE FOR STUDENTS ENROLLED WITH UNIVERSITIES IN MASVINGO. []


This paper sought to assess the factors that influence the choice of degree programme by students already employed. The study was prompted by some awkward programme choices that some students were enrolling for as they had no relation with the jobs they were doing. Some students even settled for programmes that they were struggling to complete beside not being relevant to the jobs held. The study used a descriptive design narrative and a qualitative discourse. The descriptive survey design was preferred for its suitability and simplicity as well as its focus on analyzing data gathered for purpose of describing attitudes and behaviours that influence and shape how the population under study feel and understand things around them. The descriptive study has the power to describe the phenomena / characteristics associated with the subject population, estimate the proportions of the population with the characteristics of interest as well discovering the association between variables. The data for the study was mainly collected through use of questionnaires. Questionnaires were chosen for its advantage of collecting data in a form that makes it easy to present and analyze. The targeted population comprised all undergraduate students enrolled with the universities in Masvingo . The study used convenient stratified random sampling to come up with forty (40) students in employment drawn from all the undergraduate students across faculties. The study revealed that choosing a degree programme is a complex issue for some working class students. Despite enjoying some independence associated with age and gainful employment, the students still faced multiple and competing factors which result in them making some mistakes in the choices they make. Internal influences such as enhancing skills for advancement in a career already chosen, correcting wrong choices made in the past, utilizing qualifications already attained and following one’s changing interests had as much driving force as external forces such as adjusting to better paying jobs and fulfilling the wishes and aspirations of family and peers. The study also revealed some mistakes committed by the students such as choosing a programme for what it can pay basing on current market trends that can change even before one completes the programme, falling for programmes suggested by others without regard to one’s interests and picking a programme simply because it has a sponsor still affect them. The most detrimental mistake some committed however, was taking up programmes that prepare them for a different career path when they had gone past the prime age of getting attention for entry grade jobs from prospective employers. The study recommends that provision of career guidance and counselling services must not only focus on school leavers should be emphasized at all levels including those at the peak of their careers. This will help prospective students to avoid making decisions or choices that they may live to regret. Prospective students should be advised to seek professional career guidance and counselling first before they pick a programme to pursue. This will equip them with the right information on which they can base their decisions. Last but not least, there is need for deep self- introspection on the part of the prospective student. One must be aware of dominant abilities, aptitudes and interest such that they make choices that are compatible and avoid programmes in which they end up dropping after wasting resources


TO EVALUATE THE DURABILITY OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE BY USING STEEL SLAG AND MANUFACTURED SAND AS REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE. []


The paper presents the durability characteristics of self-compacting concrete (SCC) of iron slags (IS). For this, a control sample was originally designed and then the small units (0, 10, 25, and 40%) were partially replaced with iron slages. Various studies have been performed on the properties, compressive strength, and durability of recent SCCs, such as rapid chloride permeability, water uptake, sulfate resistance, and ultrasonic heart rate for up to 365 days. SEM analyzes were also performed. The test result shows that SCC, including iron slag, offers greater strength and durability than the SCC control mixture and can be used correctly in SCC.


“Post- COVID-19 syndrome”: Rising from the dead? []


A significant percentage of critically ill COVID-19 patients after recovery of acute phase of the disease, will face physical, cognitive and psychological consequences which stand for long period and are troublesome. These heterogenous signs and symptoms are constitute “post-COVID syndrome”. This syndrome has no definite pathophysiology and the main compliant is fatigue. The most important differential diagnosis of this syndrome is, “post-intensive care syndrome”. There are increasing reports about “post-COVID-19 syndrome” worldwide which means it is a considerable consequence of COVID-19, especially severe types.