Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
       
ANALYSIS OF HYDRAM PUMP PERFORMANCE ON VARIATION OF WATERFALL ANGLES [PDF]
Rudy Sutanto, SujitaWater is one of the most important and necessary factors in the life of living things. Therefore, water must be available anytime and anywhere in sufficient quantity, time, and quality. A hydraulic ram pump is a pump that does not require external energy as its power source. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the inlet angle on the force and efficiency of the hydraulic ram pump. This study uses a hydraulic ram pump with a compressor tube diameter of 3 inches and a height of 20 cm. The height of the water drop is 2 meters with five variations of the waterfall angle of the pump, namely 45o, 40o, 31o, 26o and 22o as well as two variations of the installation arrangement, namely input-compressor-waste (IKL) and input-waste-compressor (ILK). The method of analysis is done by analyzing the data obtained during the study, where the results are quantitative data presented in the form of tables and figures. The results showed that the best efficiency of the hydraulic ram pump with the ILK arrangement was 22.3%, which was obtained at a waterfall angle of 26o, while in the IKL arrangement it was 14.2%, which was obtained at a waterfall angle of 45o. The suction force obtained on average is almost the same, namely 156.5 N in both the ILK arrangement and the IKL arrangement for all variations of the inlet waterfall angle. While the best discharge force was obtained at an angle of 31o which is 11.18 N for the IKL arrangement while for the ILK arrangement the best discharge force was obtained at an angle of 22o which was 12.42 N.
EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICIES ON LENDING BEHAVIOUR OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY [PDF]
Fasesin, Oladipo Oluwafolakemi , Aina, Adeyemi Olaolu & Babalola, Olusola AdebolaThe purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of monetary policies on the lending behaviour of commercial banks in an emerging economy. Commercial banks are in the business of mobilizing and lending financial resources to borrowers .The bank lending channel suggests that banks play a special role in the transmission of monetary policies. Commercial banks are profit motivated institutions and their response to monetary policies largely influence their profit margins. The study analysed the response of commercial banks to monetary policies in context of interest rates (cost of lending) and reserves available for lending. The study employed a descriptive research design. The study target population was drawn from the five most profitable commercial banks in Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to select respondents from credit department - lending department of each commercial bank while descriptive statistics and standard deviation were used to help in data analysis. Tables and other graphical presentations as appropriate were used to present the data collected for ease of understanding and analysis. The study established that Central Bank Rate CBR, cash reserve ratio, open market operation and uncertainty caused by possible outcomes caused by monetary policy changes influences lending behaviour by commercial banks .
Determinants of capital structure on the Financing of Small Business start-ups. Case study: London School of Science & Technology (LSST) [PDF]
Dr. Ibrahim OSMAN SESAY ,Prof. Dr. Frank Forbes –MENSON , Nzabirinda EtienneThis article investigates the determinants of capital structure and types of financing used around business start-ups utilizing a survey that reduces the confounding effects of survivorship bias. In particular, the influence of start-up size, asset structure, organization type, growth orientation, and owners’ characteristics are examined both in the choice and in the magnitude of finance use. The results are consistent with the theoretical models incorporating issues, such as information asymmetries, agency theory, and transaction costs. The results also demonstrate linkages among providers of finance, maturity of assets, and the capital structure of start-ups. While the results provide insights into business finances near the time of creation, some recommendations for future research are discussed.
Determinants of capital structure on the Financing of Small Business start-ups. Case study: London School of Science & Technology (LSST) [PDF]
Dr. Ibrahim OSMAN SESAY ,Prof.Dr. Frank Forbes –MENSON , Nzabirinda Etienne, Henry TuckerThis article investigates the determinants of capital structure and types of financing used around business start-ups utilizing a survey that reduces the confounding effects of survivorship bias. In particular, the influence of start-up size, asset structure, organization type, growth orientation, and owners’ characteristics are examined both in the choice and in the magnitude of finance use. The results are consistent with the theoretical models incorporating issues, such as information asymmetries, agency theory, and transaction costs. The results also demonstrate linkages among providers of finance, maturity of assets, and the capital structure of start-ups. While the results provide insights into business finances near the time of creation, some recommendations for future research are discussed.
THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN ERADICATING FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN MERU, ISIOLO, SAMBURU & THARAKA: AN INITIATIVE OF WOMEN FELLOWSHIP, METHODIST CHURCK IN KENYA [PDF]
Rev. Dr Mary Kathambi Kinoti PhDFemale Genital mutilation (FGM) has been on decline worldwide due to campaigns against the custom. What was resisted as imperialist has gained acceptance leading to some communities abandoning the custom altogether. However, the practice persists in some communities in Meru, Isiolo, Samburu and Tharaka. The Methodist Church in Kenya-Women Fellowship (MCK-WF) has spearheaded the fight against this practice through education empowerment programme for the local women, leaders and circumcisers in the affected areas. This paper presents findings of a study that aimed at establishing socio-cultural factors influencing FGM and the role of church in ending the practice of FGM. It employed mixed methods and used surveys where open-ended questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted. Methods of data collection were chosen on the basis of their ability of eliciting the information from the respondents. Data was then analyzed using SPSS that generated the results. This study was guided by the following specific objectives: effects of FGM on girls and women, extent and prevalence of FGM in Samburu, Meru and Isiolo county, socio-cultural factors that influence practice of FGM and church intervention on FGM and the role of the Methodist church in Kenya, Women Fellowship in eradicating the practice. The findings collaborated the literature that FGM is harmful to the health to the girls and women and it violates the rights of the women and leads to lose of dignity. It further revealed that cultural and religious beliefs are major promoters of the FGM and have held on its adherents. The effects of FGM are detrimental to women’s health and total wellbeing. Findings also indicated that FGM acts as a barrier to women's progress in education thus rendering them incompetent for leadership in society. From a theological perspective, FGM violates the woman’s body which is the temple of the Holy Spirit. The Church has an evident impact on FGM as areas dominated by the Christians showed lower prevalence compared to the where the church is not established. Alternative rites of passage (ARP) could subsidize other efforts among the traditionalist communities. The Church still has work to do especially among those of the Islamic religion by offering advocacy to the women who are suffering from the dangers of FGM.
Keywords: Female Genital Mutilation, Girls & Women, Meru, Isiolo, Samburu & Tharaka
THE PASTORAL CARE CHALLENGES POSED BY COVID-19 AMONG THE CHURCHES IN KENYA [PDF]
Rev. Dr Mary Kathambi Kinoti PhDPastoral care is similar to conducting societal service in the church. It entails visiting the ill, assisting the impoverished, counseling services, embracing the lonesome, providing for the destitute, and assisting individuals with their difficulties. Pastors tend for individuals' societal, interpersonal, physical, emotional, and occasionally spiritual needs, whilst preachers preach. Pastor means shepherd in the Latin language, pastoral ministry is, therefore, the shepherding of God's people. It is a managerial metaphor that uses the picture of a shepherd to express the tasks and duties of individuals who lead God's people. It is a concept that originates with God, God is the Shepherd and he leads his sheep wherever he pleases. Psalm 23 is arguably the most renowned depiction of this concept. Pastors ought to visit their congregations in their homes and engage them in church events to successfully offer pastoral care to them; yet, owing to Covid 19 pandemic limitations, some pastoral care activities are very difficult to carry out. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to assess the pastoral care problems posed by the Covid 19 pandemic in Kenyan churches.
Keywords; Pastoral care, Church, Covid 19, Challenges, Kenya
The Effect of Assets Growth and Return on Assets on Company Value With Dividend Policy as Intervening Variables in LQ45 Companies Listed on The Indonesia Stock Exchange [PDF]
Astriwati, Andi Runis MakkulauThe purpose of this study was to determine the direct and indirect effect of asset growth and the rate of return on assets mediated by dividend policy on firm value in LQ45 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2012-2014. The population of this research is 45 companies and the research sample is 19 companies. The sampling technique was based on purposive sampling and used the path analysis method using SPSS 20.
The results of this study indicate that asset growth directly has a negative and significant effect on dividend policy, the rate of return on assets has a positive and significant effect on dividend policy, asset growth has no significant effect on firm value, the rate of return on assets has a positive and significant effect on firm value. , dividend policy has a negative and significant effect on firm value. indirectly dividend policy is not able to mediate the effect of asset growth and the rate of return on assets on firm value.
THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS (EDUCATIONAL AND INCOME LEVEL) ON MALE DOMESTIC ABUSE AMONG MARRIED MEN IN AWKA [PDF]
Micheal O. Ezenwa (Prof.), Nnaemeka I. Josephine, Cynthia N.C. UdezeThe study explored the influence of socio-economic status (educational level and income level dimension) on male domestic abuse among married men in Awka. The participants of the study comprised 297 married men drawn from a population of civil servants (119), business men (94) and artisans (83) living within Awka capital territory in Anambra State. The participants’ ages ranged from 37 to 59 years with mean age of 43.50 years and standard deviation of 3.60. Purposive sampling was used to select the three sectors from where the participants were drawn whereas simple random sampling was adopted to select the individual participants. After extensive review of literature, the conceptual model was anchored on Goode’s (1971) Resource theory and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2- 39) developed by Straus (1979) was used for data collection. Being a cross sectional survey study, factorial design and 2-way analysis of variance was adopted as design and statistics for data analysis. The result discriminated mean score across the groups whose mean differences were confirmed in the between subjects effects at F(1, 297) = 4.53, p < .05 and F(1, 297) = 6.59, p < .05 respectively for educational level groups and income level groups. There was also a significant interaction effect between educational level groups and income level groups at F(1, 297) = 3.61, p < .05. Hence, the alternate hypotheses I, II and III were confirmed respectively. It is recommended that population with homogenous characteristics be used in future studies to confirm causative influences as elaborated.
Keywords: Domestic abuse, Education level, Income level and Socio-economic status
Analyzing Past and Future Variation and Trends in Precipitation and Temperature of Arba Minch and Chencha Districts, Gamo Highlands, Ethiopia (for the period 1981-2100) [PDF]
Tadele Badebo BadachoGlobal climate is changing significantly causing changes in the climatic variables especially, precipitation and temperature. This study was conducted to analyze the change in precipitation and temperature in two Arba Minch and Chencha districts, Southern Ethiopia. Daily observed maximum and minimum temperature and pre-cipitation data were taken from the Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency for the years 1981 to 2018. The data from the Climate Hazards Center Infrared precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) was used to fill the missing data. REMO2009, a regional climate model (RCM), was used to extract daily rainfall and temperature data for the period 1981-2100, two representative concentration pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were used for the pro-jection. The model data was corrected according to the observation prior to analysis. The results revealed that the study area has bimodal rainfall characteristics with the peaks in April and October of the first and second main rainy seasons respectively. In a decadal time period, there is a shift in the peak of precipitation during the first main rainy season, indicating seasonal shift. The total rainfall received over a decadal time period also var-ies significantly. In terms of future projections, seasonal rainfall peaks will remain similar on average, but total rainfall will continue to be highly variable. The projections also show that the second main rainy season for both stations will vanish completely by the end of the century, resulting in mono-modal rainfall characteristics.
Desulfurization and demineralization of high sulfur Mianwali Coal using Flotation and Leaching [PDF]
Adnan Miran1, Muhammad Abid1, Shahid Imran Anjum1, Rana Nabeel Amjad1, Muhammad Hamid Butt1*High sulfur low-grade lignite coal of Mianwali was carried out under flotation and leaching process to improve its properties by lowering its sulfur and ash content. After performing the proximate analysis of the Mianwali coal, the sample was processed under flotation and leaching process, respectively. The flotation process reduces the ash and sulfur content up to 30.9% and 20.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the floated sample was carried out under the leaching process in which Ca(OH)2 was used as a leaching agent which effectively reduced the ash and sulfur content up to 53.5% and 54.9%, respectively. The overall reduction in the ash and sulfur content is about 67.6% and 65.7%, respectively which also manifests a positive effect on the gross calorific value of coal. This effort may help on an industrial scale to reduce the ash and sulfur content of Mianwali coal to improve the quality of coal.
DEVELOPMENT OF PATIENTS’ EXAMINATION BED [PDF]
Quadri, M.Abidemi*; Abdulahi A.k and Yusuf SadiqPatients ’Examination Bed was designed and constructed. The design involved the determination of the Distance, dt, translated by the lower leg when the upper leg is at its maximum inclination. The design also involved Jack lifting device static analysis. It as well included determination of the sliding jack device static analysis and so on. During the analysis, distance translated, dt, was determined to be 300m, opposing Forces, FO1 and FO2 which are parts of the Jack lifting device static analysis were computed to be 101N and 135N respectively. Then the sliding device static of sliding Forces FABX and FABY were computed respectively as 815N and 100N
AUTO REGRESSIVE DISTRIBUTED LAG APPROACH TO ENTERPRENEURSHIP FINANCING AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA [PDF]
Akeem Adetokun; Ifeanyi Akadile Alexander; Abdulrasheed Bashir Dauda, & Salawu AbdulkamaruThis study examined the impact of entrepreneurship on poverty reduction in Nigeria, for the period of 27 years (1992- 2020). Data used for the study were obtained from CBN statistical bulletin and world bank data bank. The variables utilized in the study include poverty (POV), credit to SMEs (SMF), unemployment rate (UNM), Exchange rate (EXR) and inflation rate (INF). Descriptive summary was carried out on the variables. More so, the time series variables were tested for stationarity using, Augmented Dickey-Fuller method. additionally, the study utilized ARDL cointegration technique to check for long run relationship between the variables. The result of the regression showed that the key SMF exerts negative and statistically influence on poverty reduction in both short and long run. while UNM, EXR and INF exerts positive influence on poverty reduction in Nigeria in the long run. However, in the short run, EXR exerts negative and statistically insignificant influence on POV in Nigeria. Additionally, the (ecm -1) indicated that in case of any distortion amongst the variable, the system will return to equilibrium by 47.87 percent speed, annually. The study concludes that there is a relationship between poverty reduction and the independent variables. Therefore, the study recommends that the state government and stakeholders should embark on massive fiscal policy so as to reduce poverty and its menace in the state. The effect of fiscal policy direct, faster and to a large extent limits the strength of corruption that hampers government initiatives. Fiscal policy can go a long way in assisting entrepreneurs bring their ideas into reality, considering that start-up capital is the major determining factor in any business idea.
BLOOD DONORS ATTITUDE AND LIFE-STYLE PRACTICES TO EXPOSURE TO HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN IKENNE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA [PDF]
BETIKU Anthony, ADEYEMO Oluwatosin Funso, OLUGASA Babasola, OLARINMOYE AyodejiIntroduction
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a major global health concern, responsible for estimated 500,000 to 1.2 million human deaths each year. The clinical manifestations of HBV-related deaths usually arise after chronic-hepatitis includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The transfusion of blood is a critical risk point for inadvertent transmission of Hepatitis B virus at emergency healthcare points. This poses a significant public health challenge especially in developing countries. The impact of this challenge in Ikenne Local Government area is yet to be estimated. This study was designed to assess the level of attitude and life-style of blood donors in the four major towns in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
A questionnaire survey enlisted 143 blood donors at selected blood banks in Ikenne, Ilishan, Iperu and Irolu towns in Ikenne Local Government Area, Ogun State, from February 4th to March 24th, 2021. Data collected were summarized using descriptive and correlation test statistics. 90 (69.2%) respondents were sexually active and about 62.3% had sexual contact in the last six months. Only 18(13.8%) of the subjects had more than one sexual partner. The data analysis revealed that 67.7% of the respondents had no idea about Hepatitis B virus status of their sexual partners. The result shows that only 15.4% of the respondents had at least one sexual partner or wife or husband as the case may be. Similarly a majority 112 did not practice bloodletting or ritual practices as only about 18 (13.8%) respondents did engage in these risky practices.
The mean ± standard deviation of attitude of respondents was 4.207 ± 0.859, while a weak positive correlation was found between respondents’ Attitude and their risk behaviour (R = 0.225; P = < 0.010).
The mean ± standard deviation of life-style of respondents was 7.000 ± 0.923, while a weak positive correlation was found between respondents. Life-style and their risk behaviour (R = 0.225; P = 0.010)
Blood donors previously screened for the virus in general had better knowledge and behavioural attitude that were compliant with Hepatitis B prevention, compared with previously unscreened individuals who exhibited high risk behaviour to the virus.
Keywords: Knowledge, HBV (Hepatitis B virus), Ikenne Local Government Area.
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The Antibacteria and Antiglycemic profile of Chromolaela odorata and Tridax procumbens in wound healing [PDF]
Nwokorie Chukwuma ChigozieThis study evaluated the antibacterial and antiglycemic profile, of Chromolaela odorata and Tridax procumbence leaf and stembark extract.A total of One hundred and twenty(120),8-weeks old male albino wistar rats(220g and 229g bw) were divided into different groups(control and treatment groups),10g of pulverized plant extracts were homogenized in distilled water.The samples of the plant extract were soaked in ethanol and aqueous solvents.The antibacterial activity was determined using agar well diffusion method.Ethanol showed a clear zone of inhibition Staphylococcus aureus (35±0.01mm), for C odorata leaf extract and Pseudomonas aeruginosa( 31±0.01mm) for the stem bark extract,also T procumbens had 32±0.01mm and 30±0.01mm for leaf and Stem bark extract with MIC and MBC of 9mg/ml and 10mg/ml.The total viable bacterial cell from the wound excision was determined using 10% and 20% concentrations of the plant extract and gentamycin ointment and normal saline as the control P˂0.05 .The effect of both Ethanolic and aqueous plant extracts on Streptozotocin –induced diabetic rat were not significant(P˂0.05), ranging from (250-500mg/kg) of Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride(mg/dl).The weight of the induced diabetic rat showed a significant values( 1-21days)