Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Intelligent Transport Systems and Services is the integration of information and communications technology with transport infrastructure, vehicles and users. The increase in urbanisation and traffic congestion create an urgent need to operate our transportation systems with maximum efficiency In this work, the fuzzy logic and queue algorithms for traffic management in intelligent transportation system was used in metropolitan areas. The proposed algorithms allow to reduce travel time, fuel consumption and emissions. Object oriented design and methodology was used and PHP programming language also was used to implement the model. The results show that the proposed system can significantly reduce average travel time, detection traffic offenders and control of overloads, and viable punishment is given to the offenders and the proposed system is suggested to be distributed throughout the city to provide full coverage of the region

Effect of Seed Rate and Blended NPSB Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Component of Bread Wheat (Tiriticum Astivum L.) in Ayehu Guagusa, North West Ethiopia. []

Bread wheat productivity is mainly constrained by high seed rate and lack of site-specific fertilizer (NPSB) recommendation in the study area. Hence, field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of NPSB blended fertilizer rates and seed rate on growth, yield and yield related traits of bread wheat. Factorial combinations of four blended NPSB levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) with four seed rates (125, 150, 175 and 200 kg ha-1) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. All of the plots were supplemented uniformly with 200 kg urea ha-1. Analysis of the results revealed that number of kernels per spike, grain yield and harvest index were significantly affected by main effects of NPSB fertilizer, seed rate and interaction. Whereas, Thousand’s kernel weight was affected by seeding rates and interaction of blended NPSB rate and seed rates. The highest number of kernels per spike (49.5) were obtained from combined use of 125 kgha-1 seed rate and 150 kgha-1 blended fertilizer. The highest grain yield (4.857tha-1) and the highest harvest index (48.99%) were obtained from interaction of 150kgha-1 blended NPSB rate and175kgha-1 seed rates.

Climate Change in the Niger Delta: Implications for Food Security []

Abstract This paper examines climate change manifestation in the Niger Delta and its implications on food security. It recognises unpredictable rainfall patterns and flooding as major manifestations of climate change in the region. The paper is based on the Marxist theory of Ecology. The theory is an integration of Marxist ideas and ecology; it attributes contemporary global ecological changes on the advanced capitalist societies of the world and holds that capitalism cannot be reformed along ecological lines. The paper generates data from primary and secondary sources like focus group discussion, key informant interview, journal articles, book and book chapters, among others. It argues that the flaring of gases and deforestation feature prominently among the anthropogenic factors that contribute to climate change in the Niger Delta. This manifests in flooding and unpredictable rainfall patterns. Since agriculture is climate-dependent, crop yield is threatened.In addition to the fear among farmers owing to the frequent violent contestations among farmers and herders who had been forced to migrate because of climate change manifestations in the North. The paper recommends that mass enlightenment programmes are required to discourage people from engaging in acts that contribute in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the region. Keywords: Climate Change, Food Security, Greenhouse Gases, Niger Delta


Crude oil is often produced together with water (as free water and emulsion) from the reservoir. This water being undesirable must be removed using different methods and technologies to meet market specification. This research centers on the use of demulsifiers to aid the seperation of crude oil emulsion. A comparative analysis of the effect of five demulsifiers in treating crude oil emulsion from four different fields in the Niger Delta was done using the bottle test method. The best quality oil is oil with the lowest Basic Sediment & Water (BS&W) and best quality in terms of separated water volume. In the performance analysis, a combination of factors such as retention time, temperature effect and quality of separated water (sharpness of the oil-water interface and clarity of the separated water) were used to determine the best treatment. After the analysis, three demulsifiers (BCE 1052, IDD 2005 and TCE 1037) were able to separate the crude oil sample from okomo field and Imax field to < 2% BS&W respectively. The emulsion sample from ADNB OML 123 field was demulsified but not within the < 2% BS&W by any of the demulsifier. Based on the stated combined factors used in determining the best treatment, demulsifier IDD 2005 was adjudged the best suitable demulsifier, followed by BCE 1052 and TCE 1037. An optimum separation time of 10mins was obtained from OKOMO and IMAX field using IDD 2005, BCE 1052, and TCE 1037.

Corrosion Influential Factors on Bond Mechanism of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Severe Environment []

ABSTRACT The damaging effect from the attack by corrosion has rendered many structures unserviceable and designed life span shortened. Experimental data test conducted on 36 concrete cubes samples of 12 controlled placed in freshwater for 360 days, 12 uncoated and 12 exudates/resin coated samples all embedded with reinforcing steel and immersed in 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution for 360 days and evaluated their performances with examinations, monitoring, checking and testing intervals of 3 months at 90 days, 180 days, 270 days and 360 days. In comparison, the peak obtained values of the failure bond load for the controlled sample are 97.586% against corrosive -46.845% and coated 106.118%. The results of the calculation showed that the ripple samples recorded a lower failure load and decreased the accepted value from the reference range of the controlled sample, while the controlled and coated samples recorded a higher failure load with an increased percentile value with coated performance. The reduction in average and percentile values as a result of the corrosive sampling has been compared with the negative effect of corrosion attacks that have affected the modified interface between concrete and strong steel interaction. From the data obtained from the bond strength, the maximum comparable values from the controlled, corroded, and coated samples are thus; The computed results of the corroded sample shows a failure in low bond strength and decreases the values from the reference point to the controlled and coated samples, with a range of close values but with slightly additional values in the reference point coated. The results showed lower slippage failure and lower slip reported failure and reduced value towards controlled and coated samples with increased values. Index Terms: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Impact of Spiritual Intelligence in Leadership: Some Biblical Cases []

Spiritual intelligence had an impact on different biblical leaders, and in this text, we see some cases to serve as a sample (Joseph, Bezalel, and Daniel). In the Bible, this impact is demonstrated in innovations introduced by Joseph in Egypt, Bezalel the manager of the macro project of building in crisis time, Daniel the politician. It is the supreme intelligence and leaders are invited to make a shift from rationality to spirituality. The more leaders of organizations will use spiritual intelligence, the more leaders and followers will experience satisfaction, joy, accomplishment.

What Causes Divorce among Christian Couples in Kinshasa City? []

Marriage is a great institution for all Christians but its value as a divine institution and the basic unit of any society is declining. The rate of divorce is growing every day. This is due to several causal factors which include sterility as the principal cause, and poverty. To avoid this, the State and the church are invited to sustain the married. This article has four parts namely: introduction, methodology, results and discussion, and conclusion.

The Notion of Ubuntu and its Implications for Sustainable Cities in Africa. The Case of Kinshasa []

Ubuntu as an African philosophy and culture is very important for the transformation of many cities. In this paper, I will show how the notion of Ubuntu can lead to sustainability in African cities especially in Kinshasa, characterized by poverty, marginality, exclusion, and the degradation of the environment. I will begin with an introduction to give an essay on the comprehension of the notion of Ubuntu and sustain cities. My second point will be the explanation of the methodology used in this paper, the third point will be a brief diagnosis of Kinshasa city, the next point underlines how Ubuntu has many implications in the transformation of Kinshasa, and the fifth point will be the conclusion.

Causal Factors of Divorce among Couples of Church Leaders in Kinshasa City []

The value of marriage is declining even among pastors. The rate of divorce is growing with all kinds of consequences in the church and among Christians. This is due to several factors. Infidelity or adultery is the principal cause of divorce and the mismanagement of success in ministry or pastoral office among pastors in Kinshasa City. Through this reflection, I try to seek to understand the causes of this scourge among pastors in order to better fight. It weakens the church and its testimony. Christian social workers are called to work in multidimensional family therapy. This article has four parts namely: introduction, methodology, results and discussion, and conclusion.

A Review on Anaerobic Digestion []

This paper aims to review the anaerobic digestion process of food waste because it is a promising approach for managing biodegradable organic waste materials and biogas is one of the alternative energy sources. Many factors govern and determine the efficiency of anaerobic digestion reactions and microbial metabolic functions. They are pH, temperature, environmental conditions, water content, C: N ratio, nutrient content of the food waste and natural inhibitors, etc. Hence, the above factors should be considered carefully in determining the required conditions for the anaerobic digestion process. Key words: - Anaerobic digestion, Bio-gas, Food waste


Abstract Child mortality rate for under 5 years is leading indicator of the level of child health and over all development in countries all over the world. The least square regression model (Y= a + bt) was used in obtaining the trend of child mortality rate in Nigeria for the period under review (2008 to 2019). A trend equation Y = 22.207 – 0.177t was obtained and forecast was made for 15 years. From our forecast, we found that there would be an estimated child mortality of about 96.91/1000 live birth was obtained by the year 2030. This is far above the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) 2030. It is therefore recommended that government should pay more attention to child health and readdress the ailing points of the child health care sector in Nigeria.


The fisheries sector is an excellent sector in Indonesia that can provide a considerable contribution to the community so that it can improve the regional and national economy such as West Java Province in the fishery processing sector which has advantages in each region and can lead to a development trend. Trends show that there is a change in the value of the variable population change, technology change, and productivity change. This study aims to analysis the trend of the development of the fisheries processing industry in West Java Province from 2010 to 2018. This research was conducted at the Marine and Fisheries Service of West Java Province in January 2021 - July 2021. The method used in this study was the method literature survey for determine the trend of the development of the fishery processing industry in 24 districts/cities in West Java Province. After all the data is processed, the data will be analysis descriptively. The secondary data used are the variables of human resources, facilities and infrastructure, production and application of science and technology sourced from statistical data from the Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of West Java Province from 2010 to 2018. The following are the results of the research obtained showing that the development of the fishery product processing industry in the district/city in West Java Province experienced fluctuating changes during 2010 to 2018.


The Human resource is the most valuable and dynamic assets of organizations. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Human resources practices from the employee perspective. This research is Explanatory research as it provides accurate facts based on the variables and analysis taken that support the research. This research adopted a quantitative research methodology. The study targeted the employees working in ABC group administrators, operations managers, directors, and staff. The sample size is 124 respondents selected randomly. The data analysis shows that there is a weak positive relationship between Training & Development with experience & age which refers that the more experienced, the greater effectiveness of training and development. Furthermore, there is a weak relationship between performance management with age & gender which means that the elder and male employees are more satisfied with the performance management system. Finally, the researcher found that Recruitment & selections process/practices in the ABC group are not effective enough to feed the group with talented employees in order to achieve the group's future goals to be aligned with Oman vision 2040. Training & development practices in the ABC group are not effective enough to encourage the employee to work better to reach the peak performance. Performance management in the ABC group is not effective enough to monitor the performance regular basis and fairly. Lastly, the study concluded by providing some recommendations to enhance human resource practices in the ABC group.


Sex and stature estimation are important factor to be considered in identifying unknown human skeletal remains. Some skeletal body parts have been used like the pelvic and skull bones. However, teeth can also be used on the ground that it has high resistance to post-mortem biodegradation. Also, jaw has complement of thirty-two teeth, thereby when others are missing or destroyed, some could be well preserved. This study was aimed to estimate sex and stature using odontometric parameters in Ikwerre ethnic group in Rivers State of Nigeria. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 200 volunteers between the ages of 15 to 30 years (100 males and 100 females) whose parents are from same ethnic group. The measured parameters were maximum mesiodistal width (MD), buccolingual dimension (BL) and crown height (CH) of the right maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines and premolars. The height of the volunteers was also measured. The teeth were measured using a pair of sterile divider and electronic digital vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm and the height was measured using stadiometer. SPSS software version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Discriminant function analysis was used to design a predictive model for sex. Multivariate Regression Analysis was used to design a predictive model for stature. The results showed that the mean values of all teeth variables were greater in males than in females except buccolingual of second maxillary incisor (BL2), crown height of first mandibular incisor (CH6) and buccolingual of second maxillary premolar (BL10). Discriminant Function Analysis of all measured parameters showed that scores that predict male is 0.711 while -0.711 for female. Stepwise Discriminant Function Analysis showed maxillary canine to be the best predictor of sex followed by mandibular canine. Predictive model for sex identification was generated. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) correlation of height with all measured parameters and was used to derive predictive model for stature estimation. This study showed that the combination of the teeth could be used to estimate sex and stature. Key words: Odontometry, Sex prediction, Stature estimation, Mesiodistal, Buccolingual, Crown height, Ikwerre.

The Importance of Breed Characterization and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources for Climate Change. []

Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastric and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmers targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge.

Multivariate analyses on morphological traits of local chicken ecotypes of Benishangul-gumuz region, western Ethiopia. []

This study was conducted in four districts of Benishangulgumuz regional state western Ethiopia to characterize local chicken population based on morphological variation using multivariate discriminant analyses. A total of 847 matured local chickens (619 females and 228 males) were randomly sampled from the study area and twenty morphometric traits were measured. Based on a discriminant analysis, sample chicken populations were classified into their respective ecotypes with overall hitting rate of (85.73 %) for females and (87.85 %) for males. Step wise discriminant analysis identified back length, beak length, wing span and neck length to have more discriminating power causing morphological variation among female chicken ecotypes. Similarly, best variables that discriminated male sample chicken ecotypes were back length, neck length, and beak length and breast circumference. The study revealed that most of the parameters measured revealed distinctive variations among ecotypes. The present phenotypic information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and selection strategies for the local chicken population in the study area.

Level of Knowledge and Awareness on Occupational Safety and Health Act 2007 Among Electrical Installation Trainees in Vocational Training Centres in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya []

There have been several cases of industrial accidents in electrical sector in Kenya, some of which have been fatal. Awareness of occupational safety and health act (OSHA) is improved by training employees on safety as well as the provisions on its administration and reinforcement. The study assessed level of awareness on OSHA 2007, compliance of risk management and safe systems of work with OSHA 2007. Eleven public Vocational Training Centres in Uasin Gishu county were selected for the study. Participants included trainers, workshop technicians and trainees totaling to 205 respondents. Data was collected using interviews, observation checklist and questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was employed to determine relationship that existed between the independent variables and dependent variable. Qualitative data from interview schedule was transcribed, thematically classified and arranged before they were reported in narrations and quotations. Based on the findings, the study concluded that that most of the instructors/workshop technicians have not attended any refresher course/facilitation regarding occupational safety. Similarly, most of the workshop attendants interviewed admitted that they are not aware of their safety rights at the workplace and generally the labor laws which advocate for the provision of a safe working environment for all people engaged in employment, insurance and regulation. It was also concluded that inadequate and poor quality of resources is a factor affecting proper implementation of skill development among students in technical and vocational training institutions in Uasin Gishu County. The study therefore recommended that vocational and technical training Institutions should be fully equipped with adequate, modern and appropriate training resources.

Does Average Collection Period affect Profitability of Manufacturing and Allied companies listed on NSE? []

The study sought to evaluate the effect of average Collection Period on Profitability of manufacturing and Allied companies listed on NSE. An explanatory research design was used. The area of interest was all the nine firms listed in NSE. The study utilized secondary data, which was acquired from manufacturing and allied firms’ annual reports for the last ten years between 2009 and 2018. The data was then analyzed by employing descriptive as well inferential statistics with the support of Statistical software SPSS for statistical analysis. Additionally, descriptive statistics mainly focused on computation of mean, percentage, standard deviation as well as frequencies. Inferential statistics composed of correlation as well as multivariate regression parameters and coefficients. The study found that ACP has an inverse and significant influence on profitability (ROA) of manufacturing and allied firms cited in NSE (β1=-2375624; p-value=0.000). The study therefore recommends that manufacturing and allied firms should minimize the period of time that their customers take to pay for goods sold to them. This can be achieved through increasing the efficiency of industrial operations. The management of firms should establish ways of increasing ACP so as to improve their firms’ profitability.

Evaluation and Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Strength of NTA Signal in Port Harcourt []

This research work presents the measurement of electromagnetic field strength conducted within the transmitter of Nigerian Television Authority Port Harcourt. The position of the transmitter was taken as the reference point for the measurement. The measuring was conducted in the North, South, West and East directions of the transmitter, with the first measuring point being one kilometer from the transmitter on both directions. The total measurement points were 52, which was 13 points from each of the directions with the transmitter as the reference point. The result of the research work showed that there was more signal loss in the direction of South than in the other directions, while signal transmission was best in the East direction of the transmitter. Terrain, diffraction and scattering of signal by obstacles, and signal reflections due to the earth surface were responsible for the low penetration of signal in certain directions.

The Effect of Using E-Learning Tools in Online and Campus-based Classrooms on Student’s Performance, Achievement and Motivation. A Pilot Case Study Examining Blackboard Learn 9.1 (BBL). []

In the past two decades, the development of new information technology has brought significant changes in all areas of society. Accordingly, the rhythm of a contemporary life and the process of interaction with the outside world has been accelerated. The use of the Internet has allowed the creation and development of remote employment of people, providing them with access to information and educational resources throughout the world. These changes have inevitably affected education, as evidenced by the increasingly frequent use of teachers and students themselves to Internet resources, Internet services, various online educational programs and installed applications and other forms of distance learning. The study investigates the effectiveness of using E-Learning technologies in teaching in the United Arab Emirates public institution using Blackboard Leaning. BBL is a web-based server software which emphasizes course management and scalable design that allows integration with student information systems and authentication protocols. BBL has been implemented in researched higher education institution and used as a tool to deliver e-content. Additionally, BBL provides faculty to add resources for students to access online courses for students to enhance teaching and learning efforts. The paper analyzes motivation of students towards using E-Learning approach as a crucial factor in learning and especially in business education learning environment. In particular, the utilization and active use of interactive features as BBL increases motivation and as a result leads to better learning results. Keywords: E-Learning, E-Learning technology, motivation, student centered interaction.

Econometrical analysis of effects of advertisements on sales revenues Case study: London School of Science & Technology(LSST)' due Umanis IU-Rwanda is processing in Rwanda []

Background: Although advertising by using Newspaper, Television builds brand recognition and builds long-term profitability, researchers want to recognize which types of advertising will generate more profitability and brand recognition over others to make data-driven decisions and priority about types of advertising to be used with respect to limited funds to invest in advertising.Objective: The main objective of the research was to measure the effects of advertisements on the Sales revenues of the company.Methods: Secondary data was taken from companies taken regularly during 8years about sales revenue generated by Newspaper, Television and then STATA was deployed for data analysis.Results: Findings suggest that the model used to fit the data with R squared capture 91.9% variability in the Sales revenue variable, The other 8.1% cannot be explained by the model used and a change of a unit in TV advertising increases Sales revenue by 2.29 units while a unit changes in the Newspaper increases Sales revenue by 1.301 with Statistically significant since its p-value is much less than 0.05 level of significance.Conclusions: Given the findings with respect to the effect of TV ads on Sales revenue, it is highly likely TV ads build brand recognition and sales revenues than newspapers.


This article addressed the Brazilian government-owned land invasion negotiation case, aiming at improving the negotiation skills of government negotiators, scholars, decision-makers, and practitioners through a two-party, multiple-issue role-play simulation. The case involved an energy company director, and a military organization commander, regarding the Grant for Real Right of Use (GRRU). Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving (i) legal boundaries; (ii) value creation to design solutions to complex issues to achieve mutual benefit agreements; (iii) integrative strategies, such as understanding the other party's underlying interests, to avoid the case judicialization, and consequent loss for all parties. Further implications suggest the case replication to other scenarios such as governmental acquisitions. A complete set of instructions, case mechanics, and applications compile the present work.


Alternative fish feed supply research has delved into a variety of potential resources, yielding a variety of outcomes and responses from diverse types of farmed fish. In Indonesia, Lemna sp. is one of the most well-known aquatic plant species. Lemna, often known as duckweed, is an aquatic plant that is found throughout Indonesian seas. Lemna has a protein content of 10–45 percent, as well as 7–14 percent fiber, 35 per-cent carbs, 3–7% fat, and a high vitamin and mineral content. Lemna's abundance has the potential to be developed to support aquaculture activities, such as as a feed source or to improve the quality of aquaculture water through the bioremediation process. Alternative feed should be chosen based on the requirements of feed ingredients, such as being easy to obtain, low in price, high in nutritious value, and not conflicting with human needs. Lemna has the smallest amount of crude fiber and a delicate leaf to root texture. When used as feed, Lemna has a high digestibility as a result of this. Several experiments using Lemna as a protein source in feed have had positive results.

Utilization of Infertility Combating Information Resources in Teaching Hospital Medical Libraries of South East Nigeria. []

This study centered on the Utilization of Infertility Combating Information Resources in the Teaching Hospital Medical Libraries in South East Nigeria. A research objective, research question and as well, a research hypothesis guided the study. It gave an insight on infertility and most likely causes of it, also highlighted some of the treatments to combat it and then the information resources available to users in to combat infertility. Literature on infertility, medical library and as well measures to combat infertility were also reviewed. The population was 4425 medical library users form the 8 teaching hospital medical libraries in the 5 States of South East zone of Nigeria. 885 were sampled by simple random sampling, 618 responded adequately to the instrument. Analysis was made using mean scores and standard deviation. It was revealed that both the federal and state teaching hospital medical libraries users make good use of the provided infertility combating information resources. Recommendations were equally made based on the findings.

Anthropogenic 137Cs distribution and Radiological risk assessment in the Coastal Environments of Sri Lanka []

The radionuclide concentration from one location to another is varied due to spreading, transferring and mixing in the huge amount of seawater. Further, the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan and the massive expansion of nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries has highlighted the importance of continuously monitoring the radioactivity of the coastal marine environment of Sri Lanka. Anthropogenic 137Cs activity concentration, in surface seawater along the coast of Sri Lanka has been estimated using the co-precipitation technique. The classical ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) pre-concentration method has been used routinely to determine 137Cs (Cesium-137) in seawater. All the samples were analyzed by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with relative efficiency of 32.6% for 72,000 seconds in order to improve the counting statistics. The radioisotope, 137Cs, which has a half-life of 30.17 years ranged from 0.33 Bqm-3 to 0.94 Bqm-3, with an average of 0.73 Bqm-3 in 2019. 134Cs (Cesium-134) was not detected. The effective half-life of 137Cs in surface water was calculated to be 15.1 years on average in the range from 13.1 to 17.8 years in surface waters in all the monitoring areas. The results prevailed that the spatial distribution confers no fresh input of 137Cs in Sri Lanka coastal region, thus showing pre-existing contamination due to past fallout.

E-learningUsage in Tertiary Institutions During Covid-19: A Case of Zimbabwe Open University, Chinhoyi Campus []

The study investigated the e-learning challenges encountered by first year students at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) Chinhoyi Campus faculty of Applied Social Sciences. It also examined whether using e-learning during the coronavirus pandemic was helpful to students to the degree anticipated. To achieve the purpose of this study, literature from various scholars was used as the conceptual framework. The research employed a mixed research approach to triangulate the results. The study used a case study research design to solicit information. Data were collected using a WhatsApp questionnaire. The study sample were 100 first year students from faculty of Applied Social Sciences. The random sampling technique was employed. The study findings revealed that ZOU Chinhoyi Campus first year students were faced with challenges such as: digital divide, high cost of internet data, ICT gadgets being expensive to purchase, unreliable power supply, and internet connectivity. This study also discovered that first year students were cognisant of the benefits of e-learning as a learning approach. In addition, the study found out that first year students had mixed feelings towards use of a stand-alone e-learning approach. The study recommends that ZOU must provide practical training to students in the field of e-learning skills; assist students to acquire ICT gadgets and internet data at low costs. Another recommendation for the institution is to offer compulsory e-learning courses in the curricula of all first-year students to equip them with e-learning skills as well as improve accessibility toe-learning. In addition, students must consider partnering with internet service providers who offer good internet bandwidth.

Medical laboratories and IoT (internet of things) []

Medical laboratories with IoT (internet of things) connections through machines and sensors make the way with restoring of balanced work-life. IoT devices collect the data through the physical world and formed the data availability in the laboratory cloud. The connectivity is properly exploited through different tasks and performed continual monitoring over it. The laboratory environment and data collection processes are performed through the smart environment, robotics, online doctors, remote results, and cloud storage. The laboratory devices are connected properly for the workflows performed in a streamlined manner. The assurance is provided to the equipment and all processes that run smoothly with adherence to the regulatory guidelines. In the proposed research work, the IoT involvement is highlighted properly that are linked through the medical laboratories throughout the world with cloud-stored health information. The customer's samples are collected in the laboratory system through advanced IoT technology means and results are uploaded also over the websites through which customers get the results by the personal log-in process. The brief clarification is explained out that are related to the medical laboratories function over IoT world with different proposed plans.