Volume 10, Issue 4, April 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
      
Relationship of Acne and Self Esteem among Adolescent Females [PDF]
Hiyam Mohsin Azooz; Fatima Wanas KhdairBackground: Skin diseases like acne vulgaris have psychological consequences for those who suffer from them, such as feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and social seclusion. Because teens are psychologically disturbed, the beginning of acne vulgaris during puberty causes this condition to be a major source of concern for many people. The current study aims to determine the level of self-esteem in adolescent girls, to compare the level of self-esteem in adolescent females with and without acne, and to find the relationship between female self-esteem and socio-demographic data.
Methods: From November 1, 2021, to July 3, 2022, an observational case-control study was undertaken in secondary schools in Al-Najaf city. To accomplish the study's goals, the researcher used a non-probability purposive sample of 200 female students with acne and 200 female students without acne, which she formed using a self-administrative questionnaire. Experts and cronbach's alpha were used to examine the questionnaire's validity and reliability, while respondents used the questionnaire as a self-report approach.
Result : According to the findings of the study, adolescent female students with acne have a significantly relationship with lower level of self-esteem than adolescent female students without acne.
Conclusions: The study found that the case group has lower self-esteem than the control group because they are girls in this age group who are focusing on self-centered and powerful personalities. It is natural for them to have low self-esteem because they have been withdrawn, have fewer connections with others, and have a lowered body self-image.
Keywords: acne , self-esteem, adolescent females
relationship between project management soft skills and project success in Rwanda.(2015-2018). [PDF]
Niyonkuru Schiman and Dr. Dushimimana Jean de DieuThe study focused on examining the relationship between project management soft skills and project success. Case of advancing citizens’ engagement project prepared and funded by spark microgrants. (2015-2018). Data was collected from 30 participants and the census sampling method was used. Among them there were country coordinator, program manager, district coordinator, directors. In order to analyze the relationship correlation techniques were used as the real technique which display the numerical answer regarding the link amid soft skills and project success which indicated the positive colleration of soft skills on project success. The study used a cross-section survey design and the study focused on Spark microgrant, an international NGO. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches for Data collection like questionnaire, interview, documentary, observation as well as SPSS for descriptive statistics.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLUPENTIXOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE FOR AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM [PDF]
TUMMALA PRUTHVI RAJIn the present work, five simple, sensitive and specific methods (Zero, First, Second order derivative Spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and HPTLC) have been developed for the quantitative estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
PART A: UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
METHOD A: ZERO ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, accurate and precise Zero order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with distilled water. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water. Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 229 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The regression equation was found to be Y = 0.0612 C + 0.0046. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.128 (mcg / ml) and 0.390 (mcg / ml), respectively. Recovery of
Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 98.63 – 99.87 %.
METHOD B: FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise First order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with distilled water. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water. Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 222 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9996. The regression equation was found to be Y = 0.0158 C - 0.0015. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.12 (mcg / ml) and 0.37 (mcg / ml), respectively. The % RSD values were less than 2. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 99.21 - 100.87 %.
METHOD C: SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise Second order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with methanol. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water.
Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 214 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9998. The regression equation
was found to be Y = 0.0036 C + 0.0001. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.36 (mcg / ml) and 1.11 (mcg / ml), respectively. The % RSD values were less than 2. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the
range of 99.18 – 99.87 %.
PART B: HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. A Phenomenex -
Gemini C -18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing Methanol: Water (65: 35, v / v) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and effluents were monitored at 229 nm. Chromatogram showed the main peak at a retention time of 4.28 min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. The linearity was found to be in the range of 10 to 50 mcg / ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.11 (mcg / ml) and 0.34 (mcg / ml), respectively. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 98.95 - 99.88 %.
PART C: HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise high performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for determination of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method uses aluminium plates coated with silica gel 60 F254 as stationary phase and toluene: glacial Acetic Acid (7: 3, v / v) as
mobile phase. Densitometric evaluation of the separated bands was performed at 229 nm. The RF value of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was 0.21 ± 0.02. The validated
calibration range was 300-1500 ng per spot (r2 = 0.9993). The limit of detection was 6.24 ng / spot and Limit of quantitation was 18.92 ng / spot. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and ruggedness.
Flupentixol dihydrochloride, Method validation, Zero order derivative Spectroscopy, First order derivative Spectroscopy, Second order derivative Spectroscopy, RP-HPLC, HPTLC and ICH guidelines.
REGULATING ONLINE ADVERTISING IN THE INTERNET AGE: A STUDY OF ADVERTISING PRACTITIONERS COUNCIL OF NIGERIA (APCON) [PDF]
OKO-EPELLE LYDIA, OMOWALE ADELABU, PhD, SUNDAY ADEAGBOOnline advertisements regulation has become one of the challenges the advertising industry in Nigeria is faced. The emergence of the internet has turned the world into a global village where advertisers can reach the target audience with various sales messages using different online platforms. Thus the easily assessable nature of online platforms has left humanity at the mercy of advertisers who disseminate harmful messages without regulation or vetting from the appropriate agencies. Therefore, this paper made emphasis how the regulation of online advertisements is limited to APCON members. This means non-members are not to be forced into APCON regulations. This shows the extent to which APCON is misunderstood. The regulatory agency’s situation is not healthy for humanity as it will expose people to harmful online advertisement messages. This paper recommended among others that relevant regulation should be evolved to guide online advertising practice and to support the existing legal framework. It also recommended that APCON and other stakeholders should support online media literacy campaigns to equip online users against offensive and deceptive advertising. This is important to address the obvious misconceptions about online advertisements and the rights and responsibilities of the players in the digital advertising industry in Nigeria. A consumers awareness campaign should be put in place to encourage consumers to make complaints to the appropriate authority whenever their rights are trampled upon through advertising practice.
Material Management Skills Required of Brick/Block Laying and Concreting Graduates in Building Construction Sites in Technical Colleges in Rivers State [PDF]
Author: IDEOZU, Samuel & Co- Author: Prof P.C. OkwelleThe study aimed at assessing material management skills required of brick / block laying and concreting graduates in building construction sites in technical colleges in Rivers state. Three specific objectives, research questions and three corresponding hypotheses were posed, formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Area of the study was Rivers state and the population was 80 respondents comprising of 20 brick/block laying teachers and 60 construction site workers in the four technical colleges in Rivers state. Sample was the entire population of the 80 respondents and census was adopted as sample. Instrument used was a structured one tagged Material Management Skills Required of Brick/Block Laying and Concreting Graduates in Building Construction (MMSRBLCGBC) questionnaire. The instrument was structured in a likert of strongly Agreed to Strongly Disagreed. The validation was face and content validation by three (3) experts in vocational and Technology Education and a measurement and evaluation expert and reliability index of 0.77 was achieved through test re-test method. Findings from the study revealed that the respondents agreed that materials planning skills are required of brick/block laying and concreting graduates in building construction sites in technical colleges in Rivers state. Findings also revealed that the respondents agreed that material purchasing skills are required of brick/block laying and concreting graduates in building construction sites in technical colleges. Based on the findings, conclusion was made and recommendations made amongst others included that material supply should be optimum to avoid stock out while work in progress and organisation should always take into cognizance the cost of production or price of raw materials before arriving at selling price.
The Effect of Nano-Silica on Drilling Mud [PDF]
Fonssouo Pelap Tresor D'aquin, Kingdom K. Dune, Fidelis O. WoparaThis study investigated the effectiveness of nano-particles, mainly silica, as an additive to water based muds to the extent of High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) conditions. Specifically, the study ascertained the impact of silica nano-particles in improving performance of water based mud, the study also investigated the effect of nano-silica on mud density and also investigated the quality of silica nano-particles as a fluid loss agent and rheology modifier. The laboratory study was divided into four parts: viscosity determination, fluid loss test, sand content determination, and density determination. All these studies were conducted using water-based mud with and without silica nanoparticles. In the course of the study, the rheological, fluid loss properties, the rheological behaviour of the mud, and the cuttings transportation efficiency were directly and indirectly ascertained. From the findings, it was ascertained that nano silica improves mud viscosity for plastic viscosity by 87.5%, the apparent viscosity of the mud by 6.8%, and mud density by 1.92%, and also reduces yield point by 2.9%, and fluid loss between 17.5% and 42.9% for time intervals of between 5 – 50 minutes in which the experiment was conducted for which harmonises and complements previous standardized researches done.
Modern Building Skills Required for Self-Reliance of Students of Technical Colleges in Rivers State [PDF]
IDEOZU, Samuel, Prof P.C. OkwelleThe study assessed modern building skills required for self-reliance of students of Technical Colleges in
Rivers State. Four purposes, research questions and hypotheses guided the study. This study adopted a
descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out in Rivers State Nigeria and had a population of
65 respondents, comprising 40 brick/block laying teachers and 25 instructors in the four Government
Technical Colleges in Rivers State. The study was a census as the entire population was studied. The
instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “Modern Building Skills Questionnaire”.
The instrument contained four sections A-D. The instrument was structured on five-point likert type rating
scale of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Undecided (U), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD). A
corresponding numerical value of 5,4,3,2 and 1 was assigned to the response scale for each item as
represented below with real limits. The instrument was subjected to face and content-validation by three
experts in vocational and technical Education and a measurement and evaluation expert. The internal
consistency of the instrument was established using test-retest reliability method. This gave a reliability
coefficient of 0.68. The findings of the study revealed that the respondents agreed on the tiling skills
required for self- reliance of students of Technical Colleges in Rivers State. Findings of the study also
showed that the respondents also agreed on the production and installation of baluster’s skills required for
self- reliance of students of Technical colleges in Rivers State. The findings of the study showed that the
respondents agreed on the three-Dimensional (3D) modelling skills required for self- reliance of students of
Technical colleges in Rivers State. Base on the findings, conclusion was made and recommendations made
amongst others include that seminars, workshops and conferences should be regularly organized for teachers
and workshop attendants. Where experts in the industries will train the teachers, workshop attendants and on
the current technical competencies and skills in order for them to be updated with the current trends in the
production and installation of interlock concrete paver. Block-laying and concreting students should be
placed on industrial training and should be strictly supervised since this will create excellent opportunities to
acquire the technical competencies required for production and installation of balusters. Greater emphasis
should be made on practical classes by the teachers and attendants in order to acquire the tiling and other
skills required for employment.
Monitoring & Evaluation Practices and Performance of Health Development Initiative in Rwanda [PDF]
Mr. Jérémie Nteziyaremye , Dr. Paul Munene Muiruri (PhD)This project assessed the influence of monitoring and evaluation practices on performance of Health Development Initiative (HDI) in Rwanda. The objectives of the study were; to determine influences of M&E budget on performance of Health Development Initiatives (HDI) in Rwanda, to assess influences of M&E stakeholders ‘involvement on performance of Health Development Initiatives (HDI) in Rwanda and to examine influence of M&E organization’s leadership on performance of Health Development Initiatives (HDI) in Rwanda. This project used a descriptive research design in answering the research questions. Target population was 300 beneficiaries of HDI Rwanda. The sample size for this study was 75 beneficiaries of HDI Rwanda. The study used the questionnaires to collect main information. Data analysis was done by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 through which the census method was applied, and the descriptive method was used to make the conclusion and has been applied to determine the reliability and validity at 0.8%. The findings were analysed by descriptive statistic such as standard deviation and means as well as inferential statistic such as regression and correlation analysis. This was a potential problem that could affect the performance of the projects available in the organization. Inferential statistics were also performed using the field data and tested at 5% level of significance and it resulted the followings: The finding shows M&E stakeholder involvement had have strong positive relationship (r= 0.769 and sig=.000), M&E Organization leadership had had strong positive relationship (r= 0.932 and sig=.000) while M&E budget have strong positive relationship (r= 0.950nd sig=.000).By using the regression analysis method, it indicated that M&E practices affect HDI performance. Therefore, the regression analysis (R2) of 0.841 means that reveals that M&E budget, M&E Organization leadership, M&E stakeholders contribute 84.1% to HDI performance and 15.9% is contributed by other factors. Then, the calculated F statistics is (3,45) was 79.220 with P value of 0.00 which was less than 0.005 which showed that overall multivariate regression model adopted in this study was appropriate. According to hypothesis testing results indicated that H01 was not rejected and concluded that conclude that findings reveal that stakeholder’s involvement has no significant influence on HDI performance, H02 M&E budget was rejected and concluded that M&E budget has significant influence on HDI performance, and H03 M&E organization leadership was also rejected and concluded that M&E budget has significant influence on HDI performance. The researcher recommended that the public institution in charge of granting operating license for NGOs must review if the applicant indicated that the organization has M&E unit prior to approval the requested operating license.
The Use of Biomimicry Principles in Hotel Architecture Design: Case studies of Biomimicry Applications in Luxury Hotels. [PDF]
David Munachimso B. , Prof. Imaah Napoleon Ono.As the hospitality industry rises in popularity, tourists constantly look for places that are unique, diversified, exotic, and ecologically responsible. Biomimicry is being used by architects, engineers, and builders who are devoted to enhancing energy efficiency while improving the qualitative human experience of ecotourism. Biomimicry, the practice of replicating the best of nature to generate visually appealing designs with high energy efficiency and minimal effect on the natural environment, enables the travel industry to develop one-of-a-kind, aesthetically beautiful, sustainable vacation destinations of exceptional quality. This study uses qualitative research methods to analyze the features of biomimicry in hotel architecture, how its design may significantly contribute to the development of appealing vacation locations that give eco-luxury, comfort, and a distinctive traveler's experience, and presents numerous case studies to show these notions. According to the findings of the study, applying principles of biomimicry in design and construction approaches may increase the performance of facilities while also being ecologically beneficial. Understanding and executing the features adds value to the facilities. The research challenge is described by highlighting numerous biomimetic methods of architectural designs by examining all prior ideas and researches, as well as analyzing biomimetic technologies that lead to varied results as an introduction to sustainability.
Impacts Of Climate Change On rainfall In The Didesa River Catchment, Western Ethiopia [PDF]
Melkamu DiribaRecently, the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) initiative has made multiple Regional Climate Models’ (RCMs') outputs available for end users across the African continent. But their accuracy has to be evaluated before running climate simulations in impact studies. Therefore, in this study the impact of climate change projections on rainfall over the Didesa catchment of Abay basin were evaluated using three independent regional climate model. The performance of all models was assessed based on their bias, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and Coefficient of Variation (CV). Findings of this study indicated that the annual rainfall bias of the models varies between -21.9% and 15%, suggesting high variation. Based on the finding, climate change studies may benefit from the use of multi model simulation. Biases of most of the models proved that correction for the systematic error of RCM outputs must be made before the model outputs could be utilized by users. Compared to the base line period, all the models indicated that the total annualrainfall increases in midterm period (2021-2050) and long term (2051-2080) as projected under the RCP4.5. In long-term periods, climate models predicted that a decrease in rainfall in all seasons of the year except for summer season under RCP8.5 scenario, where as rainfall is predicted to increase when compared to the base line period. The overall conclusion of the study is that Didesa catchment of Abay basin is likely to experience more flow in the future than baseline period .
CAN THE AFTER-EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS BE MITIGATED? [PDF]
Cedric HattinghConspiracy theories often become cloudy and dangerous; they cause governments to topple and even wars in the past. QAnon’s influence on American minds and lives is not straightforward to determine. The American Christian Evangelicals embraced the QAnon conspiracy, which allowed Donald Trump to become president of the United States of America. QAnon spread the new disinformation to unite people against mandatory vaccinations, the government, and the elite. The January the 6th insurrection on the capital of the United States of America and Hillary Clinton losing her election bid clarifies how volatile social movements can be.
SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF PUBG MOBILE ON SUPERIOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS [PDF]
SHAHZAIB KHAN ZULFIQAR ALI HAMNA ZULFIQAR SHABBIR HUSSAINAbstract:
Investigate the information was expediently composed from PUBG gamers (marital=200) age range beginning 16-29 years through casual sampling technique.
According to end results, an outstanding consistency of these measures was conventional that there are a lot of negative impacts of PUBG Mobile including addiction, Aggressive behavior, disturbance of sleep pattern and also that excess playing of PUBG Mobile leads towards an isolation
Effectiveness of Work-Life Balance on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Commitment in Work From Home Conditions at the Financial Education and Training Agency: A Conceptual Model [PDF]
Eko Wasito Adi, Kabul Wahyu Utomo, Dwi Sunu KantoThe COVID-19 pandemic has had various impacts on the business processes of public sector organizations. During this time of a global pandemic, public sector organizations are starting to think about new work styles for their employees. The Financial Education and Training Agency (FETA) implement policies to reduce the number of employees working in the office. Meanwhile, leaders tend to worry that the absence of employees in the office will cause productivity to decline. Work-Life Balance is a theory that the author believes can be a bridge in increasing organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of employees.
Factors Affecting Stock Returns in Food and Beverage Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange [PDF]
Yusuf Baiquni Ahmad, S.Pd, S.Ak, MM, Indonesia Ir. Ahmad Gamal, SE, MMThis study aims to determine whether stock returns of food and beverage issuers in LQ45 companies in Indonesia are influenced by financial performance variables (return on assets and net profit margin). This research method uses panel data regression analysis using data for the 2017-2019 periods. The results showed that there was a Return On Assets that had a significant effect on stock returns in food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in the 2017-2019 periods. Net Profit Margin has a significant effect on Stock Return in food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in the 2017-2019 periods.
Keywords: Return on Assets, Net Profit Margin, and stock returns
Effect de la fertilisation à base d’urine humaine sur la croissance du riz NERICA 4 en zone soudano-sahélienne dans le village de N’djinina commune de Guegneka au Mali. [PDF]
Ousmane COULIBALY1, Yacouba MAIGA1, Boubacar Kola TOURE1, Mohamed S MAIGA1En Afrique de l’ouest et particulièrement au Mali, le riz constitue la base de l’alimentation de la population. Cependant sa production est confronté à différentes contraintes parmi lesquelles la pauvreté des sols d’une part et d’autre part l’accès difficile aux intrants. Par ailleurs, les déchets en particulier les excréta contiennent des éléments nutritifs indispensables au développement des cultures. C’est dans ce cadre que cette étude a été conduite afin de déterminer l’effet de l’urine humaine sur la production du riz NERICA 4 en zone soudano-sahélienne. Différentes doses d’urine en combinaison ou non avec la fumure organique ont été mises en compétition à travers un dispositif expérimental en Bloc de Ficher à huit répétitions. Les résultats après analyse de variance ont montré des différences statistiques entre les traitements. L’augmentation de la taille est plus marquée par l’apport de la dose d’urine de 111 kg N/ha +5 t FO (T7) avec 75,43 cm qui concurrence la dose de la fumure minérale vulgarisée avec 74,18 cm à la date 75ième jour après semis. A tous les stades de développement de la plante la dose d’urine de 111 kg N/ha +5 t FO (T7) augmente la taille de la plante par rapport au témoin.
BUFFER TRAFFIC-AWAR WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK FOR EFFECTIVE PACKETS TRANSMISSION [PDF]
Matthew Iyobhebhe, James. G. Bashayi, Caleb. A. Amlabu, Benjamin Kwembe, Ishaya. C. Botson, Chukwudi. J. Ezugwu, and Omojo;a. B. AWireless Body Area Network is an integral part of Wireless Sensor Network, designed to provide healthcare services to the patient, where sensor nodes are strategically deployed in the human body and communicate the body condition to assigned medical personnel via the internet. In WBANs, one of its challenges is limited energy due to its finite nature, hence, well-efficient and effective management of the network energy must be deployed to have a continuous operation of the network activities. In this study, we adopt the Buffer traffic scenario and Time-division multiple access to enhance the network energy efficiency. The simulation result shows that the improved algorithm outperforms the existing algorithm with a percentage improvement of 6.59% in terms of throughput.
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-ADHERENCE TO ANTIDIABETIC MEDICATION AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AT MASAKA DISTRICT HOSPITAL, KIGALI CITY, RWANDA [PDF]
Mr. Sylvestre Hategekimana, Dr. Alphonse Habineza, Dr. Monica MochamaIntroduction: Non-adherence to medication is the degree to which the behavior of patient (in terms of taking prescribed medicines, execution of agreed lifestyle changes, enduring medical tests and respecting appointments and follow-up) does not comply with the recommendations and advice given by competent healthcare provider. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with non-adherence to antidiabetic medication among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Masaka district hospital, Kigali city, Rwanda.
Methods: Cross-sectional design with quantitative approach was used in this study. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 217 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending appointments for follow-up services at Masaka district hospital. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 21, Chi-square test was used to determine association; P-value less than 0.05 taken as significant to analyze and assess non-adherence. Regression analysis was done to find out adjusted odds ratio, confidence interval and probability value (p-value).
Findings: The study findings showed that the majority of participants 59.0% were female, the proportion of non-adherence was 35.9%, the main factors found to be statistically significant associated with non-adherence to antidiabetic medication were: forgetfulness with AOR=0.165; 95%CI=[0.081-0.334]; P=<0.001, being on insulin(s) with AOR=4.371; 95%CI=[1.725-11.077]; P=0.002, being on insulin(s) with oral hypoglycemic agent(s) with AOR=13.371; 95%CI=[3.604-49.617]; P=<0.001, unpleasant way of taking medication with AOR=0.356; 95%CI=[0.171-0.743]; P=0.006, unhappy clinic visit with AOR=3.019; 95%CI=[1.617-5.638]; P=0.001.
Conclusion: The study concluded that above the half of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Masaka district hospital were adherent to antidiabetic medication. This study recommended to minimize the waiting period of time patients spent waiting for services, strengthen counseling and health education, reduction or eradication if possible the problem of stock out of medication.
An Overview of Major Bacterial Diseases of Rice and Management Strategies for Their Control in Malaysia [PDF]
Sayma Serine Chompa, Amaily Akter , Alghuraibawi Buraq Musa Sadeq, Md Ekhlasur Rahman, Harun Or Rashid, Nabilah Ibnat, Md Belal HossainRice (Oryza sativa L.) is consumed as excellent food in many countries worldwide, in Malaysia as well. Unfortunately, though, rice production is acknowledged to decrease owing to the attack of several emerging diseases-causal agents is a bacterial pathogen. Among all the bacterial diseases, Malaysia is experiencing few primary bacterial infections. However, two devastating diseases, particularly bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and bacterial panicle blight (BPB) affect rice production and reduces commercial and economic activities challenging the nation's food security. Even though the improvement of resistance cultivars or chemical control to mitigate the impairment triggered by bacterial pathogens is in advancement, very little is known about the virulence mechanisms and the most significant phases of the bacterium cycle of disease. Therefore, this review has objected to the primary bacterial infection, causal agents, pathogenic variations, symptoms, overwintering, and sustainable environment-friendly management tactics.
TRIANGLE’S COMMON FORMULA OF HEIGHT AND AREA [PDF]
Nrusingh Charan MohapatraA triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. The area is the amount of space taken up by a two dimensional shape . The height is the perpendicular drawn from any vertex to any opposite side base of any triangle. There are three types of triangle based on angles and three types of triangle based on sides .Scalene Triangle, Isosceles Triangle and Equilateral Triangle are based on sides. Acute Triangle, Obtuse Triangle and Right Triangle are based on angles. There is a common height formula on any side of any triangle and also a common area formula of it .If ABC is any triangle then AD , BE and CF are the heights on the sides of BC, AC and AB respectively.
Hence Common Height = (1/ 2 base) √((a+b+c)(b+c-a)(c+a-b)(a+b-c))
Here Base is any side of the triangle on which the height is calculated And
Common Area = ( ¼ ) √((a+b+c)(b+c-a)(c+a-b)(a+b-c))
INVESTIGATING THE CONSTRAINTS FARMERS FACE IN ADOPTING CA PRACTICES ADOPTION AND RANKING OF THE FACTORS ACCORDING TO PRIORITIES BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN THE BAWKU MUNICIPALITY OF GHANA. [PDF]
Abu Tia Jambedu, David Millar, Mohammed Dimbie, Richard Naabe YaroClimate change is worsening the plight of farmers in the Bawku municipal area of Ghana. Floods and long dry spells of drought are being caused by global warming and variability in rainfall patterns, resulting in reduced food crop productivity, soil erosion, soil fertility decline, and livestock production. CA has thus been identified in the Bawku Municipal area as a viable alternative to conventional agriculture for long-term agricultural productivity and also to mitigate the effects of climate change. This study was conducted to investigate the constraints smallholders face in adopting CA. The study used a survey research design. A questionnaire was administered to forty (40) respondents from each of the ten (10) communities in the municipality using simple random sampling. After cleaning the data, 358 respondents were used for the analysis. The study's target population was Bawku's maize farmers. The data was analyzed using SPSS. The study found that high demand for household income and access to credit were ranked the most pressing priorities, or the first rank, and cultural barriers were the least in rank.
KEYWORDS: Conservation agriculture, Garret Ranking, Constraints, Smallholder Farmer, Climate change
Intervention analysis of daily Australian dollar/Nigeria naira exchange rate [PDF]
Ogbonna Godswill ugochukwuABSTRACT
Intervention Analysis seek to measure the effect of a particular situation, such as the global pandemic pronounced in March 2020 which affected exchange rate of several countries. In this study which was geared towards developing an intervention model to forecast daily Australian dollar (AUD) /Nigerian naira (NGN) exchange. It was discovered that two hundred and seventy four daily amount of naira (NGN) per dollar from 12th August 2020 on up till 26th December 2020 a sudden jump from 289 to 300. The level increased and decreased leading to a perturbation. The point of post intervention are made on the basis of forecast. Pre-intervention exchange rate are certified as non-stationary and first order differencing renders them stationary. The autocorrelation structure indicated as SARIMA (1,0,1) (1,0,1)2 model is a better model AIC ground and is therefore adopted. Post –intervention forecast are obtained on the basis of the model. The difference between the forecast and their corresponding actual observation is modelled to obtain the intervention model