Volume 10, Issue 4, April 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Influence of 3-Dimensional Architectural Model on Students’ Academic Performance in Brick/Block Laying Programme in Technical Colleges in Rivers State []

ABSTRACT The study explored the influence of 3-dimensional printed Architectural Model on Students academic performance in brick/block laying and concreting programme in Technical colleges in Rivers State. Three specific objectives, research questions and corresponding hypotheses respectively were posed, formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted quasi-experimental research design with experimental and non-equivalent groups. The area of the study was Rivers State and the population for the study comprised 90 National Technical Certificate (NTC) II Block laying/Bricklaying and concreting students in the two technical colleges in Rivers State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two technical colleges out of the four technical colleges in Rivers State. Instrument for data collection was the questionnaire tagged: Blocklaying/Bricklaying and concreting Achievement Test (BTAT) structured in section according to the specific objectives was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts in the field and a measurement and evaluation expert. Reliability was done using test retest and a reliability index of 0.85 was achieved. Findings of this study proved that students taught with the 3dimensional printed Architectural Model teaching technique performed better than students taught with demonstration teaching techniques in building drawing/design in technical colleges in Rivers State. Findings also revealed that students taught with the 3-dimensional printed Architecture Model teaching technique performed better than students taught with demonstration teaching techniques in bricklaying in technical colleges in Rivers State. Based on the findings of this study, conclusion was made and recommendations made amongst others includes technical teachers should subject this newly developed technique to further try-out in order to serve as a means of further assuring its performance usefulness and eventual adoption for continual use in teaching performance skills in Block-laying/Bricklaying and concreting.

Price Risk Management among small scale tomato farmers- A case of Mwalumina Area in Chongwe District of Zambia []

Context: The majority of small-scale tomato farmers in Zambia sell their produce in spot markets located in urban centers. Price variability of tomato produce characterizes the trading of tomatoes. Price variability of tomato produce at markets is a result of lack of long-term cold storage infrastructure in urban markets, lack of coordination among actors in the value chain, lack of a regulatory framework to govern activity in markets and bio-physical factors such as pests and disease damage, erratic rainfall and limited access to irrigation technologies. Purpose: Small scale farmers in the study area face price risk when selling their tomatoes at markets. Historically, the prices for tomato produce in Zambia at wholesale and retail levels have been highly variable to the detriment of farmers especially small-scale farmers. So the objective of this study was to explore the price risk management strategies (PRMS) employed by tomato farmers in the study area and to offer insights on measures to reorganize the tomato value chain to alleviate the problem of price risk for small scale tomato farmers. Research Method: The study made use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches employing descriptive and exploratory research designs. Data collection instruments included survey questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and literature review. Stratified random sampling was used to sample sixty respondent tomato farmers from Mwalumina Area. Purposive sampling was used to sample twelve experts to provide insights on the tomato value chain. Data analysis involved the use coefficient of variance (COV), Chi-test and thematic coding and transcription. Research Limitation: The use of a small sample size means that the results can not be generalized to a larger population. The collection of data on income diversification activities was limited to the types and number of activities and not the scale of the activities; the comparison of income diversification based on the scale of the activity could not be done therefore Originality/Value: Price risk affects the livelihood of the most vulnerable particularly resource-poor small-scale tomato farmers by reducing their ability to participate effectively in markets. The insights generated from this study can help to bridge the knowledge gap that exists on the use of formal and non-formal price risk management strategies (PRM) among small-scale tomato farmers.


ABSTRACT Parasites play an important role in the ecology of aquatic ecosystem (Moyo and Barson, 2010) while fish play an important role in the human diet (N.B. Salcedo et. al, 2009). The study was conducted to identify and determine the prevalence and abundance of parasites of selected freshwater fishes sold at the supermarket of Cotabato City. A total of 20 specimens at four (4) species such as; Channa striata (dalag), Cyprinus capio rubrofuscus (karpa), Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) and Trichogaster lalius (gourami) were used in the study. Organs examined were intestine, stomach, gills and muscles. Results of the study revealed 7 species of parasites consisting of 3 genera of nematodes; Genus Camallanus, Genus Capillaria and Genus Mononchus and 4 genera of platyhelminths; Clinostomum & Fasciola (Trematodes), Dactylogyrus (Digenea) and Diphyllobothrium (Cestode). Percentage occurrence was 100% on Nematode, Trematode and Monogenea (in 4 selected freshwater fishes) and 15% cestodes on C. striata, O.niloticus and C. carpio rubrofuscus. Nematodes have an average abundance of 13.55; trematode, 6.05; Monogenea, 2.35 and Cestode, 0.7. For an abundance of parasites in individual freshwater fish, C. carpio rubrofuscus had an average abundance of 37; T. lalius, 27.8; O.niloticus, 14.4 and C.striata, 11.4. Parasites were at their juvenile or larval stages and inhabited nearly every organ of the fish. All female fresh water fishes were highly infested of parasites except the male fish, C. carpio rubrofuscus with an average abundance of 38.5 male, 36 female. Female fish T. lalius, O. niloticus and C. striata have an average abundance of 30.6, 20 & 20 while male fresh water fishes have 23.5, 12 and 5.6 average abundance respectively. Key words: helminthic, parasites, freshwater fishes, sold, supermarket, Cotabato City

Detail for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in an Organization []

Radio frequency identification benefits if incorporated in numerous ways, the privilege of achieving greater results is possible under this latest technology. The radio frequency identification being used allows the Sterling Services to better manage the business at lower the cost. To facilitate the customers and stores need they have implemented radio frequency identification for all four convenience stores. The barcode is not as transparent as radio frequency identification as each individual product having a barcode needs to be scanned individually. In many cases where radio frequency identification has been positioned within the product has been strongly opposed as it evades privacy and it can cause cancer. Radio frequency identification makes it simpler for Sterling Services to know what stock should be replaced with the expired stock rather than having problems at later stage.


ABSTRACT This study investigates economic effect of post Covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria. The study employed primary data whereby sample of the study were randomly obtained from the selected agents of the Nigeria economy – among which are households, firms and governments. The data were analysed using simple percentage of respondents responsive to the economic variables and its effects on post Covid 19 pandemic. The results of the findings are as follows: for effect of Covid-19 on Government Finance – 54.6% (adversely impacted oil revenues in the country) while 83.5% (negatively impacted tax revenue accruable to the government); for effect of Covid-19 on international economic engagements - 84.8% (reduction in trade openness in Nigeria as a result of Covid-19), while 72.2% ( increase in the rate of foreign exchange as a result of Covid-19); for effect of Covid-19 on selected sectors in the Nigerian Economy - 67.6% (increase in the rate of interest and low bank loan performance respectively in Nigeria) and 77.2% (reduction in the performance of the capital market as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic), 89.9% (drastic adverse effect of Covid-19 on the aviation sector), 94.8% (tourism sector has been adversely affected by the pandemic); for effect of Covid-19 on economic productivity (GDP growth) - 84.3% (reduction in firms’ productivity); for effect of Covid-19 on economic welfare - 93.7% (reduction of household income), 89.9% (increase in unemployment), 92.3% (increased level of poverty in Nigeria), and 80.6% (inequality has increased as a result of the pandemic); for effectiveness of some interventions in curtailing the economic effect of Covid-19 - 44.3% (CBNs single digit loan has helped improved businesses in Nigeria since the pandemic), while 45.5% (cash transfer by government has helped in curtailing the adverse impact of the pandemic). The following recommendations are suggested: prudence in the management of public finance in Nigeria; borrowing should be strategically done by targeted at critical infrastructure that will stimulate economic transformation; acceleration of the diversification of the economy to increase the economic potentials of the country away from primary products; Improve the ease of doing business and promote a greater enabling business environment to attract FDI; conduct sector specific assessment and develop tailor made interventions to stimulate recovery of critical sector; and develop pro- poor interventions that are targeted at employment generation, reduction of inequality and increasing the real income of households. Keywords: Covid19 pandemic, gross domestic product growth, foreign direct investment, trade openness, inequality, poverty, household income and unemployment.

“Pengaruh Membaca Buku Fiksi Terhadap Persepsi Remaja Tentang Realitas” []

Pendidikan memiliki peranan yang penting dalam membentuk karakter remaja di Indonesia, dengan adanya Pendidikan, remaja yang mendapat Pendidikan secara resmi dari sekolah akan diajarkan bagaimana cara berperilaku dengan sesama secara sopan dan santun. Dalam tulisan kali ini, penulis ingin menegaskan mengenai seberapa besar pengaruh membaca buku fiksi terhadap pemikiran/pandangan remaja dengan realita yang akan dihadapi nantinya. Mengingat banyak dari segelintiran remaja di Indonesia memiliki minat baca terkhusus membaca buku-buku yang tidak terjadi secara nyata atau dapat disebut buku fiksi, dimana buku tersebut hanyalah karangan sang penulis buku yang sesuai dengan imajinasinya saja dan para pembaca dibuat untuk terjun langsung untuk bersama-sama mengimajinasikan cerita yang ada di buku fiksi tersebut, Terdapat beberapa efek yang ditimbulkan dari membaca buku fiksi jika terlalu berlebih hingga dapat mengubah perspektif remaja di Indonesia ini. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode studi kepustakaan, yaitu dengan cara mengambil informasinya dari bemacam tempat dari jurnal, dokumen maupun tulisan lainnya yang berkaitan dengan pandangan remaja terhadap cerita fiksi. Berikutnya data tersebut kemudian dianalisis dengan metode kepustakaan yaitu metode yang berusaha untuk mengungkapkan hasil dan pernyataan-pernyataan yang sumbernya sudah didapatkan sebelumnya dari berbagai sumber. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah persepsi mengenai realitas tidak dapat dicampurkan dengan cerita-cerita fiksi yang ada dalam karya sastra, setiap remaja harus memiliki pengetahuan yang cukup dan dapat membedakan antara bepikir logis mengenai realitas kehidupan dengan imajinasi yang dipakai pada saat membaca buku fiksi tersebut.


This paper proves the gender identity as something that has been both misunderstood and misconstrued by people through the evaluation of labor creation in Semi-mechanized brickyards in Rwanda in the year 2020 where it comes to a conclusion that men and women are working in this sector as true partners and beneficiaries. It was realized that 41% of labor in semi-mechanized brickyards in Rwanda in the year 2020 were, while only 17% of brickyards owned and or managed by women employ 29% of the total labor. In addition to that the statistics show that the average workers employed in women owned and/or managed is 233 per brickyard while it is 118 in those owned and managed by men. That takes as to a conclusion that gender identity and development is something misunderstood and misconstrued as most of people consider gender as an issue of women, it is rather a true partnership between men and women towards sustainable development.

Evaluation on Performance of Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) Genotypes under irrigation of Werer Afar, Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT Majors Chickpea producer regions in Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, S.N.N.P. and Tigray, respectively. Chickpea grain production in area coverage in Ethiopia is about 242,703.73 hectares (ha) and whereas grain production is 4,994,255.50 Quantal (qt) and also with national average yield of 20.58 qt per ha. Ethiopia standpoints first among chickpea producers in Africa and seventh in the world. Chickpea grains are an essential part of the daily diet for people in many developing countries where a larger proportion of the population cannot afford animal products. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Belongs to family of Fabaceace and sub family faboideae to the genus Cicer that consists of 43 species. In the Afar regions of Ethiopia cropping system is predominantly mono crop type with cotton being the principal main season crops. After the harvest of cotton the fields are left unplanted till the next main season. Of-season offers a greater opportunity for growing chickpea. However still there is no improved variety for the area. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of the 66 chickpea genotypes which was evaluated during off-season 2017/18 under 6 x11 alpha lattice design having three replications and aim of identifying those with a better seeds yield under irrigated conditions. Data were collected for days to 50% flowering, days to 90% maturity, total number of pod per plant, total number of seed per pod, plant height, total number of seed per plant, number of secondary branches, biomass, hundred seed weight, seed yield and harvest index exhibited highly significant differences(P<0.01) among genotypes. On the other hand, genotypes exhibited significant differences (P<0.05) for number of primary branches per plant. Generally the study revealed that the importance of considering these characters in the process of selection of genotypes for yield and according 5% selection intensity ten genotypes were superior than Habru, the released variety (check), for chickpea seed yield; the result suggested ICCV-11102 and FLIP-03-155C to be evaluated further in Low land of Afar Region under irrigation. Keywords: Cicer arietinum L., Genotypes, Seed yield, Yield components

Integrated approach to estimate agricultural drought severity using satellite sensors for drought adaptation and mitigation at highland and lowland in northeastern Ethiopia []

Abstract Agriculture is the backbone of Ethiopia and it is the most vulnerable and sensitive sector that is frequently affected by drought due to spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Correspondingly, including the study area in the northeastern parts of the country, suffered by drought due to failure in crop production because of rainfall fluctuation. Integrating various weather-based indices derived from the Earth observing (EO)-sensors can help capture drought in order to assist planning in the agricultural sector. Both the study areas, Dessie and Bati districts are contrasting agro-ecological zones which selected in northeastern Ethiopia. Multiple indices derived from earth observing sensors are a method used to estimate agricultural drought severity and frequency to assist agricultural drought adaptation and mitigation strategy. The most significant indices, such as SPEI, SPI NDVI, and LST are used as an integrated drought indicator (IDI) from EO-sensors products (LST, NDVI, ENACT and CHIRPS). The result shows that ENACT and CHIRPS satellite estimates rainfall have a better correlation with ground rainfall observations which are 0.98 and 0.90 respectively. The correlation coefficients between IDI with SPEI are 0.85 and 0.76 in Lowland (Bati) and Highland (Dessie) district respectively. On the other hand, correlations IDI with VHI have 0.79 and 0.71 at Bati, and Dessie_Zuria district respectively. Furthermore, crop production with IDI shows a good correlation coefficient in Bati and Dessie-Zuria district, which are 0.72 and 0.56 respectively. Results show that a most part of the study area was affected by different levels of drought severity during 2002, 2011, and 2015. During those years, 97 %, 95 %, and 100 %, of the area were affected by drought respectively. Specifically, during 2015 more than 77 % of the areas were shaken by severe drought. Based on field survey and drought indicators, the frequency of drought was observed at least one drought year during three successive years while the probability of extreme drought occurred at five percent in the study area. Based on field survey, the main adaptation and mitigation strategy was by using water harvesting, short period cropping and supporting by Safety-Net program in the community of the study area. Upcoming will be solved by implement permanently constrictive project. Such as, constructing irrigation canals in drought-affecting areas, either river diverts or excavate of underground water, while water harvest during the rainy season, on the other hand improving crop production by using fertilizers, selective seeds, facilitate afforestation, soil and water conservation.


This study aims to determine and analyze: (1) The Effect of Motivation on employee Performance. (2) The Effect of Motivation on organizational performance. (3) The Effect of Training on the performance. (4) The effect of training on organizational performance. (5) The influence of employee performance on organizational performance. (6) The role of employee performance in mediating motivation on organizational performance. (7) The role of employee performance in mediating the effect of training on organizational performance. The population of this study was all employees at the Department of Tourism and Culture of West Muna Regency, as many as 38 people, not including the leadership. The research data were collected using a questionnaire and processed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of the study show that: (1) Motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (2) training has a positive and significant effect on organizational performance. (3) Training has a significant positive effect on performance. (4) Training has a significant negative effect on organizational performance. (5) Employee performance has a significant positive effect on organizational performance. (6) Employee performance mediates the effect of motivation on organizational performance. (7) Employee performance mediates the effect of training on organizational performance.

Factors affecting Youth Entrepreneurs development in Nepal []

Young generation of Nepal is currently facing major economic challenges. This research is quantative in nature and descriptive research design is used in this research. Since the population is unknown in this research so convenient sampling technique is used in this research with sample size (n= 405).From descriptive statistics the mean value of unemployment is reported highest as 4.22 so the unemployment has greater impact on Youth entrepreneurship development.Gender has significant effect on Youth entrepreneurship development.Education and Youth Entrepreneurship development has no any significant relationship. It means Education is one important factor that does not effect on the Youth Entrepreneurship development in Nepal.Generally, 31-35 age groups of youth entrepreneurs are found to be more focused in starting the business in Nepal.Likewise Majority of respondent having education qualification of Graduation in Nepal and are interested in starting the business in Nepal.From this research it is found that Education does not affect in starting the business.The result Highlight that there is a significant positive relationship between Education/Training, Entrepreneurial Skills,Access of Finance, and Unemploymentwith Youth entrepreneurship development in Nepal. Since the p value of all variable are less than 0.05 at 5 percent level of significance.


This article aims to analyze the effects of public debt on the general price level in Sub-Saharan Africa in a context where governments are recording increasing internal and external financing. Using data from 39 countries in sub-Saharan Africa covering the period 1982 to 2017, we tested the effects of external debt and domestic debt on inflation in sub-Saharan Africa. The results of econometric estimates obtained by the GMM method show that the external debt and the internal debt have positive and significant effects on inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results show that the external public debt is more inflationary than the domestic public debt in this zone.


Prostate cancer is the number one cancer in males in Africa, both in terms of incidence and mortality, accounting for 40,000 (13%) male cancers and 28,000 (11.3%) male cancer-associated deaths. In the developed world, the probability of being diagnosed with cancer is more than twice as high as in developing countries. In developing countries, most cancer victims are diagnosed at late stage, with incurable tumors, pointing to the need for education schemes and better detection programs. The main purpose for this study is to find out the level of awareness and risk factors of prostate cancer among maritime workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers state. Cross-sectional descriptive approach was used for this study, Data was collected using structured questionnaires and summarized using descriptive statistics and presented in tables and pie charts. Respondents were within the ages of 30 and 54 years and above. The most frequently reported source of information about prostate cancer was the mass media 78 (24.84%) and multiple sources105(33.44%). 207 (165.92%) of the respondents had good knowledge of prostate cancer. 128 (40.76%) takes fat and 186 (59.24%) does not take fat. 132 (42.04%) of the respondents takes cigarette smoking and 182 (57.96%) does not take cigarette, 194 (61.78%) takes Alcohol and 120 (38.22%) does not take alcohol. Maritime workers (Men) from this study respondents generally displayed a positive knowledge and attitude toward prostate cancer, as about two-third of them highlighted risk factor that promote prostate cancer and how to prevent it. A significant proportion of staff however, exhibited poor knowledge and negative attitude and knowledge of prostate cancer screening and treatments. This is an indicator to the need for more intensive educational programs which encourage screening behavior and early presentation. As this is a major key to reduce massive morbidity and mortality of Prostate cancer. For early detection and treatment to be feasible, the level of knowledge possessed by the average Nigerian must increase exponentially. This would in turn lead to positive perception and attitude towards screening and treatment of this disease.


This project is based on developing an Innovative Sparkplug Tester with the entire ignition System driven by AC induction Motor. It helped the College of Engineering Technology major in Automotive Technology in Tagoloan Community College to have a prototype for Testing Spark quality output and use also as an instructional mock-up for demonstration in line to the Ignition System. The Project Goal is to Test the Spark quality Output for the better performance of the Internal Combustion Engine. Since the project is cost-efficient, the materials are readily available in sales car parts. The study is focused on the Innovative Sparkplug Tester. The research design that was used in this study is Developmental Research. The study focuses on innovating an existing product which is the Prototype Sparkplug Tester for Motorcycle. Developmental research is a systematic work drawing on existing knowledge that is directed to producing new materials, products, and devices; installing new processes, systems, and services; and improving substantially those already produced or installed. Before the study was conducted, the approval to conduct this study was secured from the office of the Dean of the College of Engineering Technology, and the researcher provided all the necessary materials and components used in making the Innovative Sparkplug Tester. After finishing the final product of this study which is the Innovative Sparkplug Tester for Testing Spark Quality Output, it was found out that after doing functional testing and evaluation, the Innovative Sparkplug Tester is exceptionally functional. It was also easy to operate by the student or instructors because of the simple and well- guided switches.


The Professional life of a Teacher-Researcher in a blended teaching-learning environment phenomenon and live practice to theory. Traditionally, adult education is a challenge in the Non-formal education and the Out-Of-School Youth Program which was tailored to the Life-Long Program in the present curriculum maker. It is a challenge to Wi-Fi and PsyFi generation whose competence to a teacher not only as a teacher and a professional but a teacher who is a researcher. Adult learners in the 4th industrial revolution necessitate its implementation glocally (Global & Local). Thus, the Project HERO: Seminar and Workshop about American Psychological Association (APA) 6th edition and Mendeley Software Usage was designed to uncover the live experience of the teacher participants to mirror into a journey – path and road to enlightenment. The path is wondering, grasping, and realizing. On the other hand, the roads were competence, application, and empowerment. Thus, this established the positive impact of the program on the professional growth of its teacher participants in the realization that a teacher is also a researcher.


Abstract This study aims to find out how the influence of healthy lifestyle, psychological well-being, and selfefficacy on auditor performance is moderated by auditor integrity. The study used multiple regression analysis methods and moderation regression analysis. The results show that. healthy life style, psychological well-being,and self-efficacy have a positive and significant effort on auditor performance. The result also shows that, auditor integrity becomes a moderator between positive and significant effort healthy lifestyle on auditor performance, although on the other side can't be a moderator between psychological well-being and self efficacy on auditor performance. Keywords: Health Lifestyle, Auditor Integrity, Auditor Performance, Psychological well-being, Self Efficacy.

Development of a Multiple Linear Regression Model for Rainfall Distribution on Other Meteorological Parameters: A Case Study of Idofian, Kwara State, Nigeria. []

This research work presents the development of a multiple linear regression model for rainfall distribution using other meteorological parameter a case study of Idofian. The required data were obtained from the meteorological section of the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM). The variables were subjected to multiple linear regressions, measures of central tendency and dispersion. The result of the analysis shows that meteorological parameters at the location revealed fluctuation of different patterns. Relative humidity, minimum temperature and evaporation depict downward trend while wind speed and maximum temperature depict upward trend at the study area confirming the continual reduction in rainfall at the location over the years, which will eventually affect availability of water for agricultural production and other uses.

Modernization and Underdevelopment: A Case of Kaptai Hydro-electric Project []

This article discusses the impact of the Kaptai hydroelectric project, located in Bangladesh's Chittagong hill regions, on the lives and livelihoods of local populations from a modernization and underdevelopment standpoint. The project involves the construction of an artificial dam covering an area of 56,000 hectors of land and providing just 230 megawatts of electricity, or about 2% of our entire national electricity production. According to an official report, about 100,000 individuals were removed from the area in the 1960s without proper compensation or even a pre-expulsion assessment of their ability to live comfortably. Additionally, a few fortunate individuals received recompense that was far from enough, leaving others uncompensated and still yearning for a better standard of living. Thus, the project, particularly the dam, had deprived them of their home, cultivating land, other means of subsistence, and nearly everything else. As a total, it can be asserted that the dam has altered the lifestyles of the displaced population in that area, putting them in perilous circumstances. Not only in our country, but also in other countries, dam construction has led in harmful environmental and social consequences as a result of immoral new settlements and livelihood facilities. The purpose of this article is to assess the Kaptai Hydroelectric Dam project from the standpoints of modernization and underdevelopment.


The study aimed to identify the symptoms, types and causes of low-rise buildings subsidence, and the precautions that must be taken to reduce buildings’ subsidence. Compression, secondary subsidence, and subsidence in sandy soil. Among the most common causes of building collapse are: earthquakes, inappropriate structural and architectural design, poor compliance with standards and specifications, neglect of building maintenance, and environmental factors, The study put forward some proposals that may contribute to reducing the slump of low-rise buildings


Participation is projected to result in better-designed policies and development initiatives, as well as more efficient service delivery and better benefit targeting. It also improves social cohesiveness since communities appreciate the need of collaborating with one another. By making a local government acceptable to the community, community engagement legitimizes it. The impact of community engagement on the implementation of government livelihood projects was examined in this study. Because this study includes a variety of questionnaires and fact-finding inquiries, it employed a descriptive research approach. The survey was conducted among 314 people who live in a specific district in Kamonyi. A stratified random selection approach was utilized to collect 176 respondents. The information gathered was both quantitative and qualitative. To help in analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to display descriptive statistics and regression analysis. As it is easier to show conclusions in the form of graphs and tables, the data is provided using percentages, frequencies, and tables. The study's findings were achieved in accordance with the study's specified goals. The first objective was to find out the effect of need assessment on implementation of Girinka Munyarwanda project in Kamonyi district. The results have revealed that majority of respondents with a mean (4.6364) and SD of .53840 have agreed that need assessment helped the government to know the resources that will be needed during implementation. With respect to the second objective of this study, which was to determine the effects of Planning towards implementation of Girinka Munyarwanda, project at Kamonyi district. The results have revealed that majority of respondents with a mean (4.4545) and SD of (.70766) have agreed that planning facilitated in proper coordination of project activities and personnel. The third objective of study was to determine the effect of community mobilization on implementation of Girinka Munyarwanda project in Kamonyi district. The findings have indicated that majority of respondents with a mean (4.7333) and SD of (.63968) have agreed that community mobilization enables community members to understand the reason and benefits of Girinka Munyarwanda project. The research also shows that there is a high correlation between need assessment, planning, community mobilization Government livelihood projects given by their correlation confident of .603, .787 and .852. These correlations are significant at 0.000. This implies that all variables indicated a positive and strong correlation with Government livelihood projects and hence strong relationship. The research therefore recommended Kaminyi district to keep developing and sustaining other livelihood projects like Girinka Munyanyarwanda to ensure the well-being of its citizens. To train and encourage the beneficiaries to take part and participate in government livelihood projects as a way for their development. To make evaluation and monitor the implementation of the ongoing project and ensure that all resources are being used effectively and if the project is serving the planned beneficiaries.


The task of radio network operators is getting tougher and tougher, to meet the constantly increasing demand for higher throughput mobile data services. The limited technical capabilities of network equipment and properties of the radio propagation environment is being the main hurdle. So far, the radio network planners have been successful in choosing proper tools (or equipment), techniques and doing vigilant planning, to create a cellular communication network providing high performance at minimum implementation cost. However, a few of the techniques used are; competent selection of base station site locations or appropriate base station antenna configurations or using repeaters to name a few. In this research work, the effect of topology in a cellular mobile network was investigated. Through MATLAB simulations, some system-level key performance indicators (such as BER, throughput, transmit powers) were studied in other to mitigate the effect of topology in the cellular mobile network. The adaptive antenna was used as a technique for mitigating the effect of topology on the network. The results show that the Adaptive antenna provides an improvement in coverage and capacity of the network at high angles, providing high throughput values.

Insights of One Person Company in the Frame of Law and Business []

Abstract Purpose – To explore the insights regarding One Person Company. Design/methodology/approach – This paper explores the insights regarding One Person Company following the provisions of law with the analysis of secondary data. Findings – It presents the limitations and high potential of One Person Company. Research implications/limitations – The main limitation is that there is very limited research on it as the issue is new. Practical implications – The findings contribute to the knowledge of law and business both for the academicians and practitioners. Originality/value – This paper is very unique among the existing handful papers on this issue. Keywords – Law and Business, One Person Company (OPC), Registration of OPC, Provision for OPC, Cross-disciplinary Approach. Paper type – Definition paper

Journal []

More than a lobby is a concept that shows the relevance of a public space. In addition to their aesthetics and function, public spaces in hospitals play a critical role in patient happiness and experience. The journal focuses on how spatial characteristics like accessibility, visibility, proximity, and points of egress influence people's behavior and interactions in hospital public spaces. The detailed analysis of three hospitals as well as criteria supporting the design of circulation areas, arrival and entrance has been carried out. Others are the first point of welcome, reception and the hospital interaction.More than a lobby; emphasizes on the quality of space as experienced by the end user as well as the aesthetics comfort it provides.