Volume 12, Issue 4, April 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted at the Lake Chad Research Institute, Research and Experimental Farm in Kuru, Plateau State, Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria, in 2019 and 2020 rainy seasons. The objective of the study was to identify the wheat variety (ies) (Triticum aestivum L.) with genetic ability to adapt to the study area and responds to the application poultry manure at different rates. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design and consisted of five rates of poultry manure (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1) and three wheat varieties (Attila 7, Norman and TeeVee 1) which were replicated three times. Data were collected on plant establishment count, chlorophyll content, leaf area and grain yield. There was no significant difference recorded on plant establishment count between Attila 7 and Norman with the application of poultry manure at 10 t ha-1. Norman on the other hand recorded the highest chlorophyll content (176 g mg-1), leaf area(90.0 cm2) and grain yield at harvest(4761.5 kg ha-1) with the application of poultry manure at 10 t ha-1.This result therefore indicates that Norman has shown higher superiority to adapt in terms of grain yield performance with the application of poultry manure at 10 t ha-1 which out-yielded all other rates under review and can conclusively be the recommended variety and the application rate for poultry manure for optimum wheat production in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria Key words: poultry manure, wheat varieties, tonnes ha-1, grain yield


The purpose of this research was to examine the incorporation of music-based activities into literacy sessions for third graders to produce insights into the effectiveness of this approach and potentially impact instructional practices in elementary education. The objective of the study was to compare the academic achievement of third-grade students prior to and after the incorporation of music. The third-grade students demonstrated exceptional literal comprehension abilities and generally achieved a "very satisfactory" level of performance prior to the implementation of the music integration. The students' aggregate performance reached the "Highest" range following the integra-tion; they continued to demonstrate exceptional literal comprehension and made progress in evaluative and analytical comprehension. The integration of music education resulted in positive outcomes regarding the students' capacity to understand complex concepts, as evidenced by the progress noted in evaluative and analytical comprehension. Based on the researchers' findings, the students' strong literal comprehension skills can serve as a basis for improving their critical analysis abilities by integrating music-related assignments and content strategically. The research suggests that the music integration program be refined further by emphasizing the development of learning experiences that specifically target the enhancement of evaluative and analytical comprehension skills, with a particular focus on inferential abilities.

Attachment Security in Adulthood: A Systems Perspective Literary Review []

Attachment studies were the primary work of Attachment theorists John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. According to Fraley (2019), infants' first attachment is with their primary caregivers. This attachment jumpstarts the kind of interaction that the growing individual will have with others. In John Bowlby’s theory of attachment, he emphasized the importance of an individual’s interpersonal experiences across childhood and adolescence, as it plays a role in shaping individual differences in adult attachment styles (Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Bretherton, 1992; Fraley et al., 2013). As children develop and shift their attachments from their parents to their peers, their attachment styles develop and may shift as well. It is in the interest of this literature review to identify the developmental factors that influence secure attachment in adulthood through Bronfenbrenner's systems and PPCT theory, breaking it down into the following parts: person, process, context, and time. Through proximal processes, reciprocal interactions that become progressively complex as the human goes through life, several life events may influence the direction and strength of different behaviors and tendencies. Specifically, this paper seeks to answer, “What factors in an adult’s lifespan influence attachment security in adulthood?” The researchers also hypothesize that attachment security is not a linear projection of either a positive or negative influence from childhood, but rather a synergy of a multitude of experiences coming from different sources which may either contribute to or buffer the formation of a secure attachment in adulthood. What these events are and how they might influence attachment security are listed and discussed in detail in the following sections.


This study introduces a cutting-edge lighting control system designed specifically for the AI TV-5 display at Aemilianum College Inc. The system leverages Red Green Blue (RGB) Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology, controlled via a Personal Computer (PC)-based interface, to offer a versatile and customizable lighting solution. By integrating advanced control software, users gain the ability to fine-tune lighting settings in real-time, enhancing the visual experience and ambiance of the display. The development process of the PC-based RGB LED lighting control system is outlined, encompassing design considerations, hardware implementation, and software integration. Through a systematic approach, the system architecture is optimized to ensure seamless compatibility with the AI TV-5 and intuitive user interaction. Key features such as color selection, brightness adjustment, and dynamic lighting effects are meticulously crafted to deliver a captivating viewing experience. Practical applications and potential benefits of the lighting control system are discussed, focusing on its utility in educational and entertainment settings. In educational contexts, the system offers enhanced visual aids and immersive learning environments, facilitating dynamic presentations and engaging classroom experiences. For entertainment purposes, the customizable lighting effects add flair and ambiance to multimedia content, elevating the viewing experience for students and audiences alike. Overall, the PC-based RGB LED lighting control system represents a significant advancement in display technology, offering unprecedented flexibility and control over lighting settings. With its intuitive interface and versatile functionality, the system has the potential to transform the AI TV-5 display into a dynamic and visually captivating focal point within Aemilianum College Inc., enriching both educational and entertainment experiences for students, faculty, and audiences. Key Words: Aemilianum College Inc., AI TV-5, display technology, dynamic presentations, entertainment, immersive learning, lighting control system, personal computer, RGB LED, visual ambiance


The advent of digital assessment platforms has revolutionized the landscape of academic evaluation, offering enhanced efficiency and flexibility. This paper presents ExamMaster, a digital assessment platform tailored specifically for the College of Law at Aemilianum College Inc. ExamMaster aims to address the evolving needs of modern education by integrating advanced proctoring systems, ensuring data integrity, implementing robust exam-point tracking, and evaluating system performance using ISO 25010 criteria. ExamMaster is an advanced proctoring system that employs AI-driven monitoring techniques for heightened surveillance during examinations. This system includes user authentication and verification mechanisms to ensure the integrity and credibility of assessment processes. By leveraging artificial intelligence, ExamMaster not only monitors test-takers but also detects any suspicious behavior, thus enhancing the overall security of examinations. Data integrity is paramount in any assessment platform, and ExamMaster achieves this through integrated encryption. By implementing robust encryption protocols, the platform safeguards sensitive exam data, ensuring confidentiality and preventing unauthorized access. Exam verification mechanisms further bolster data integrity by validating the authenticity of exams, mitigating the risk of tampering or manipulation. To facilitate comprehensive assessment tracking, ExamMaster incorporates features for exam-point tracking and secure storage. This enables transparent and accountable evaluation processes, enhancing trust and reliability in assessment outcomes. Moreover, the platform ensures compliance with ISO 25010 standards by evaluating its functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, usability, reliability, security, maintainability, and portability. In conclusion, ExamMaster represents a sophisticated solution tailored to the specific needs of the College of Law at Aemilianum College Inc. By integrating advanced proctoring systems, ensuring data integrity, implementing robust exam-point tracking, and adhering to ISO 25010 standards, ExamMaster promises to elevate the standards of academic assessment, fostering a secure, reliable, and efficient evaluation environment. Key Words: Academic assessment, Aemilianum College Inc., AI-driven monitoring, Digital assessment platform, Evaluation environment, Exam-point tracking, and Proctoring system.


This study focuses on the development and implementation of a Digital Attendance Management System with Quick Response Code Integration, aiming to improve attendance monitoring in educational settings. Specifically, the study aimed to achieve several objectives: firstly, to create a user-friendly interface for attendance monitoring, facilitating ease of use for both students and faculty. Secondly, the integration of QR code technology was intended to streamline attendance tracking processes, allowing for efficient and accurate recording of attendance data. Additionally, the study aimed to enhance data integrity and security through encryption integration and the implementation of authentication protocols, ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of attendance records. Moreover, the establishment of robust attendance tracking mechanisms, including the development of algorithms for real-time recording and secure storage solutions, aimed to improve the accuracy and reliability of attendance data management. Finally, the study evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed system using ISO 25010 criteria, assessing various quality characteristics such as functional suitability, performance efficiency, usability, reliability, security, maintainability, and portability. Through these efforts, the study sought to contribute to the advancement of attendance management practices in educational institutions. The implementation of a Digital Attendance Management System with Quick Response Code Integration represents a significant step towards modernizing attendance tracking processes in educational institutions. By incorporating QR code technology, the system provides a more efficient and convenient method for recording attendance, reducing the administrative burden on faculty and improving accuracy. Moreover, the emphasis on data integrity and security through encryption integration and authentication protocols ensures that attendance records remain confidential and tamper-proof, addressing concerns regarding data privacy and reliability. The robust attendance tracking mechanisms established in this study, including real-time recording algorithms and secure storage solutions, contribute to more accurate and reliable attendance data management, enabling educational institutions to make informed decisions based on attendance trends and patterns. Overall, this study underscores the importance of leveraging technology to enhance attendance management practices, ultimately promoting efficiency, transparency, and accountability in educational settings. Key Words. Aemilianum College Inc., Attendance Monitoring, Attendance Tracking, Digital Attendance Management, QR Code Technology, Quick Response Code Integration


In an era marked by technological advancements and the increasing digitization of administrative processes, educational institutions are continuously seeking innovative solutions to streamline operations and enhance services for students. The Student Services Digital Records Management System for the Registrar's Office at Veritas College of Irosin emerges as a pioneering initiative aimed at revolutionizing the management of student records and document transactions. With a specific focus on addressing the evolving needs of modern education, this study embarks on the development of a comprehensive online portal tailored to the unique requirements of Veritas College. The primary objectives of this system are multifaceted, encompassing the creation of an online portal to maintain detailed records of every student's credential and ensure timely document disbursement for compliance purposes. This includes crucial documents such as transcripts, diplomas, good moral certificates, honorable dismissals, and other pertinent certifications. Additionally, the study seeks to develop a module for report generation of requested documents, providing an intuitive interface for viewing and printing documents as needed. Furthermore, the integration of notification functionalities, such as email verification for student registration, is envisioned to enhance communication and administrative processes within the institution. Importantly, the study also aims to evaluate the software quality of the developed system based on ISO/IEC 25010:2011 standards, assessing factors such as portability, performance efficiency, compatibility, usability, reliability, security, and maintainability. Through a comprehensive exploration of these objectives, the Student Services Digital Records Management System endeavors to redefine administrative practices, foster efficiency, and elevate the student experience at Veritas College of Irosin. Key Words: Academic Records, Accessibility Improvement, Administrative Efficiency, Aemilianum College Inc., Digital Management, Efficiency Enhancement, Information Management, Registrar's Office, Student Services, System Implementation, Technology Integration


Africa’s contemporary poverty index has been linked to colonial and post-colonial relations, rudimentary infrastructure, political instability, weak institutions, dismal capital formation, debt-overhang and so on. Yet, religion has seldom been mentioned as one of the harbingers and reinforcers of sustained poverty in Nigeria. To be sure, Nigeria is deeply religious and this has been noted in several dimensions including politics, economics and social relationships. In point of fact, contemporary religious elites have gone further to manipulate the credulity of the masses to their own advantage. Consequently, religion has been seen as a drag ship rather than a flagship in the development enterprise across Nigeria. These elites, especially of the Christian genre, have technically speaking, “formatted” the ordinary “worshippers”, who, in the main, belong to the mass of poverty-stricken Nigerians. Though “promised” better conditions of life bye and bye by several pastorpreneurs, yet, poverty stares them in the face “eternally” and they, in turn, reinforce poverty through omission and commission. It is a view point that has been severally peripheralised and in some instance, clearly discounted in the development debate. This paper therefore examines the taut liaison between religion and poverty and notes that the Christian religion, in spite of its social engineering propensity, has paradoxically “created” new dimensions of sustained poverty in contemporary Nigeria. The study recommends that a critical examination of religious messaging used by religious elites, especially in the Christian genre must be taken into consideration, to understand how they influence perceptions of wealth and poverty among worshippers.


Syzygium aromaticum L. is commonly known as clove and is an evergreen tropical plant, which has been used for cooking and therapeutic properties throughout the world. After the minerals value of the plant seeds had been pulverized and turned into paste, the antinutrient and micronutrient (minerals and vitamins) contents of clove seeds (Syzygium aromaticum) were tested using recognized techniques. In the seed plant sample, the micronutrients assay identified the presence of calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe2+), magnesium (Mg2+), manganese (Mn2+), and phosphorous (P+). Potassium (K+) was the microelement with the highest concentration while zinc (Zn2+) had the lowest concentration in Syzygium aromaticum seeds at 0.807 mg/kg. Two water-soluble vitamins, B and C, as well as the fat-soluble vitamin D, were found, according to the results. Vitamin C is 21.18 g/100g, vitamin B1 is 4.11 mg/100g, and vitamin D is 57.86 g/100g. Phenol, glycosides, saponin, tannin, terpenes, and steroids were also quantified as antinutrients, and their ranges were as follows: 0.257% to 0.0028%. The findings indicated that clove seeds contain a significant amount of micronutrients, vitamins, and low levels of antinutrients, which could help the body meet its necessary dietary allowance. Keywords: Antinutrients, micronutrients, minerals, Syzygium aromaticum, vitamins. † Corresponding author

Predisposition to Start International New Ventures by Entrepreneurs in Developing Economies: Investigating the Determinants. []

This study explores the determinants influencing entrepreneurs' inclination to start businesses in foreign countries, particularly focusing on developing economies. Through a survey of 113 Nigerian entrepreneurs, we investigate the relationships between key factors such as entrepreneurs' perception of ease of doing foreign business, knowledge of the process of starting a business, awareness of government foreign business regulations, and international travel experience. The results reveal significant associations between these variables and entrepreneurs' propensity to engage in international business ventures. The study employs descriptive statistical measures and chi-square tests of independence to analyze the data. The findings offer theoretical insights into the intricate interplay of factors influencing international entrepreneurship and hold practical implications for entrepreneurs, policymakers, and support organizations. However, limitations include the predominantly Nigerian sample and the quantitative nature of the study. Future research could expand the scope to include diverse cultures and incorporate qualitative approaches for a more comprehensive understanding. Overall, this research contributes to the understanding of entrepreneurial behavior in internationalization, providing valuable guidance for those seeking to navigate the challenges and opportunities of cross-border business activities.

Study of the Performance of Organic and Inorganic Binders for the Production of Ecological Charcoal Fuels Based on Dead Biomass of Azadirachta indica []

In Sahelian cities, desertification with its climatic corollary is due to the excessive use of firewood by increasingly growing populations. However, the dead biomasses of Azadirachta indica swept away from households and unnecessarily buried in urban waste dumps could be recycled into ecological charcoal. But, it is necessary to know the binder best suited to better recovery in order to produce highperformance ecological charcoal for cooking. Thus, in this study, its valuation as cooking energy aims to determine the performance of organic and inorganic binders for the production of combustible ecological charcoal based on the dead biomass of Azadirachta indica. The collection and sorting of these plants made it possible to prepare the raw material and the binder. The mechanical method allowed the production of ecological coal by way of carbonization. Their physical and chemical characterization made it possible to respectively obtain the average density which is 1.13 ± 0.02, the average moisture content which is 3.17 ± 0.04%, the average of volatile matter content which is 46.92±1.93%, while the average fixed carbon content is 10.28±1.04%. The energy efficiency of the charcoals show that average calorific value which is 30.83 ± 1.08 MJ / Kg, an average maximum temperature of 540.37 ± 11.53 ° C and a heat of the ash post combustion 262.95±18.37°C. The cooking test shows that with ecological charcoal based on Azadirachta indica (90%) bonded to organic matter (10%), the average start of boiling of water is 6.38 ± 1.76 minutes while the average boiling time of water is interesting with ecological charcoal based on Azadirachta indica (85 to 90%) bonded to inorganic matter (10 to 15%) of 12.8 ± 0.25 minutes.


This study is aimed at exploring the tannin content in Bonny Island mangrove bark, The effect of particle size, solvent volume and extraction time on the extraction of tannin from the mangrove bark was investigated using solvent extraction method.50% concentration of methanol was used and the time varies at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mins with particle sizes of 6, 8, 10, 12 BSS and solvent volume of 25,50,75 and 100mls. The extracted tannin was further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and the functional group were reviewed as O-H stretch, C=O stretch, N-H bend and C-F stretch. However, the variation in the process factor affected the tannin yield in the extract. Smaller particle size produced higher yield due to the greater surface area for mass transfer exhibited when the particle is finer. Tannin yield increased significantly as the solvent volume and time keeps increasing due to the solvent having greater chance penetrating all the active sites of the sample and the cell structure are destroyed with time. High amount of solvent (100mls) gave better yield of tannin at the longest extraction time of 30 mins producing high percentage of tannin (9.26%) from particle size of 10 BSS and mass of 10grams mangrove bark. The generated model showed the Lack of Fit was quadratic. Using ANOVA, the P-value from the model is less than 0.0001 which indicates the model term are significant. This study proofs tannin presence of tannin in mangrove bark. Particle size, time and solvent volume plays a vital role in tannin extraction.


This study delves into the intricate dynamics guiding consumer choices when purchasing motor vehicles, centering on customers of CFAO Motors Zambia Limited (CFAO) and the company’s key brand offerings: Toyota, Ford, Suzuki, and Volkswagen (VW). The research paper aims to identify the primary drivers of consumer decisions and their hierarchical significance, offering practical guidance for CFAO and the automotive sector at large. The study focuses on unraveling the complexities of consumer decision-making, analyzing how factors such as brand loyalty, pricing, infrastructure accessibility, environmental concerns, and social influences influence consumer decision making when buying motor vehicles. Key findings underscore the pivotal roles of brand loyalty and pricing in consumers' decisions, with infrastructure availability, environmental considerations, and social factors also exerting influence, in that respective order. Notably, a direct link between brand loyalty and the decision to purchase is observed. The research paper’s limitations include the study's narrow focus on CFAO and its brands, potentially constraining its broader applicability. Additionally, the evolving landscape, especially with the rise of electric vehicles (EVs), may affect the study's relevance over time. Recommendation’s encompass strengthening weaker brands through targeted marketing and enhancing infrastructure for maintenance and service centers. Embracing a customer-centric approach, sustainability, and leveraging brand loyalty metrics are advised for continual improvement. Overall, the study enriches understanding of consumer decision-making in the automotive sector, offering actionable insights to enhance industry competitiveness and consumer satisfaction.


Petrographic studies of sandstone from Abeokuta Group of Dahomey Basin, southwestern Nigeria show that the sedimentary rock consists of conglomerates, sandstone, siltstone and claystone which are ferruginized to varying degrees. Previous works on geological and geochemical data have been adequate to provide sufficient information on the mineralization potential, depositional environment facies and diagenetic changes in the clastic sediments. The current investigation therefore offer a unique approach of using mineralogical, whole-rock and microchemical methods to obtain vital information on possible mineralization, geochemical environment,diagenesis and probable source rocks of the Upper Cretaceous sediments of Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. Geological mapping of the study area was carried out around Abeokuta and Ijebu areas. Representative samples (100) of the rocks were collected from exposed sedimentary sections subjected to petrographic analysis. Polished sections were prepared from the rocks and were subjected to electron probe micro-analysis to determine the mineral chemistry. Additional mineralogical study was carried out using X-ray diffraction. Major, trace and rare-earth elements of the rocks were obtained using X-ray fluorescence. The petrographic studies revealed quartz, muscovite and biotite flakes with potassic and plagioclase feldspars that are embedded in kaolinitic cement. Zircon, rutite, tourmaline, sillimanite and ilmenite are some of the heavy minerals present in the sandstone. Chemical data show that the clastic sediments are rich in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, which constitute about 87.43 to 95.33%. The remaining oxides, CaO, MnO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5, Cr2O3, V2O3are generally less than 1% each. Microchemical investigation shows that secondary enrichment of iron was accomplished through diagenetic replacement of quartz and kaolinite by limonite, which subsequently dehydrates to goethite and hematite at higher temperature. Mineralogical and chemical composition of the sandstone most especially the presence of tourmaline, sillimanite, arkosic sand and up to 70% kaolinite, suggest granitic and gneissic origin. Also, the presence of elongated zircon grains and the angularity of the quartz grains and the accessory minerals indicate a short distance of transportation. The trace element data, the low MgO and high V/Cr ratio strongly support restricted shallow water, oxygen-rich depositional environment.

What factors affect students' career orientation? The case of some Departments of the University of Buea []

When students enroll in school, it is often than not in other to acquire knowledge that will allow they occupy certain roles in society. Understanding what affects their pathways as they progress through school, is important in providing the impetus required to sustain their dreams. The objective of this study was to identify factors that affect student’s career orientation in Buea municipality. By understanding those factors, the counselor has the advantage to explore avenues that can channel students into roles that will enable them socioeconomically emerge into society when they graduate. The study employed a simple survey design, to collect data from students of various Departments in the University of Buea (UB). A simple questionnaire was employed, alongside the Motivation for Occupational Preference Scale (MOPS), to collect data from 100 respondents. The selection of respondents was simple random selection of undergraduate students enrolled in various departments of UB. The percentage scale was used to describe the data collected in frequencies. The findings of the study were then discussed with respect to the objectives and a few recommendations were made. Key words: career orientation.

An Alternative Idea to the Rubber Sheet Analogy in General Theory of Relativity []

According to GTR(General Theory of Relativity), the Gravity is considered as a four-dimensional curvature of space-time. And this space-time curvature is often visualized as a Rubber Sheet by some Experts. Though some people raise doubts on it. Here, In this paper, I’ve tried to give an Alternative Idea to the Rubber Sheet Analogy in General Theory of Relativity.


The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation practices and youth project performance in Rwanda with the particular goals: to determine the influence of monitoring and evaluation planning on performance of Digital Health project as one of the Youth Project Funded by UNDP Rwanda; to determine the influence of communication in monitoring on performance of Digital Health project as one of the Youth Project Funded by UNDP Rwanda; to evaluate the influence of resource allocation in monitoring and evaluation on performance of Digital Health as one of the Youth Project Funded by UNDP Rwanda; to establish the influence of resources allocation for monitoring and evaluation on performance of Digital Health project as one of the Youth Project Rwanda. The study was under the period of period of 2018 to 2022. Project leadership is critical in executing the theory of constraints. It involves managing project schedules to ensure projects are completed on time and within the scope and budget (IMA, 2019). Managing constraints requires project leaders to coordinate their project teams in order to minimize the effects of constraints effectively. This conflict theory was used to determine clearly the influence of monitoring and evaluation practices on sustainability of World Bank funded project and how conflict can affect negatively project performance. It brings satisfaction of beneficiaries for getting the services for long time on the performance of Digital Health as one of the Youth Project Funded by UNDP Rwanda” this was measured by a mean of 3.90 and standard deviation of 1.104. This indicated that the respondents are strongly agreed with the statement as indicated by the strong mean and heterogeneity of answers as indicated by the standard deviation where the respondents had different opinions of the statement”. The research findings suggest that implementing these strategies and conducting PM&E in Digital Health as one of the Youth Project Funded by UNDP Rwanda and also increasing the number of trainings to the primary beneficiaries, should contribute to increase its performance. Project implementers should involve policy makers at an early stage in the project if policy support is likely to be required to achieve project objectives. This is particularly important when attempting to improve its performance.


This article is the result of a bibliographical survey on distance education, better known as EAD, which began with correspondence and television courses, but it was with the development of new technologies that this educational modality grew exponentially. Because it expanded and became accessible, the internet began to be used as an important tool for academic and professional training, being the predominant format of distance learning today. Distance learning is an educational modality in which teachers and students are basically physically separated. Contact between them and with the materials used in the courses is carried out through communication and information tools and technologies, generally via the internet. This possibility distinguishes distance education from in-person teaching and translates into greater flexibility of time and space for the student.


Delays in payment for the use of subscription water or errors reading in reading water meter by the recorder are the main problems faced by water providers. Overcoming this, the prepaid method was developed using token system. In this paper a methodology for securing data and messages from different kind of cryptography system, symmetric and asymmetric with various encryption methods will be elaborated. The purpose of this research is to encrypt messages with Vigenere and Affine cipher method as a substitution cryptographic system on the water meter using the Matlab programming as a comparison toward manual calculation using table. Cryptographic system is a security system with the concept of making data into a password that is not everyone can read it. These combination cryptographic Vigenere cipher and Affine cipher method will be applied to a smart water token meter system.