Volume 12, Issue 7, July 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Seismic Performance of Simply Supported Bridges with Restrainer Systems Under Near-Fault velocity impulsive earthquake []

ABSTRACT Simply-supported bridges with isolation bearings are vulnerable to near-fault pulsed ground motion. Such bridges could suffer serious seismic damages, such as unseating, because of the insufficient seat width or excessive displacements of the girder, as evidence collapse of the main girders of the Gaoyuan Bridge in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Unreasonable design often leads to damage even or collapse of the bridges. Now more and more bridges that apply isolated devices are designed, however, the codes haven’t given clear rules about how to design these devices, which creates puzzles for designers. A seismic displacement control method based on unseating prevention device ( UPD) is proposed to solve the problem of beam-falling risk in bridges with laminated rubber bearings ( LRB). Take a six-span highway simply-supported girder bridge as an example, nonlinear time-history method is used to analyze the influence laws of an initial gap on the relative pier-beam displacement under near-fault pulsed earthquake with different seismic acceleration. The study shows that under design earthquake conditions (0.4g-0.5g), the relative displacement between piers and girders remains within safe limits, but under unexpected (0.6-0.85g) earthquake scenarios, beam unseating can occur. The implementation of cable restrainers significantly reduces peak relative displacements, thereby reducing the risk of beam unseating damage. It is recommended to set the initial gap within the range of 60-80% of the seat length to prevent beam unseating without causing excessive increases in internal pier forces. Additionally, the internal force of the pier bottom section decreases with an increase in the restrainer gap, emphasizing the need to check the bearing capacity of the pier bottom section to prevent damage, especially when the initial gap is 20%. Overall, the findings suggest that proper restrainer initial gap can effectively mitigate bridge damage and ensure structural safety during seismic events.


The antibacterial properties of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaf extracts were evaluated using n-hexane and distilled water as extracting solvents. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these extraction methods against Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. The extracts were prepared by washing, air-drying, and grinding the cashew leaves, followed by extraction with the respective solvents. The agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity and estimate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results indicated that both n-hexane and aqueous extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. The n-hexane extract showed significant inhibition zones for Bacillus spp. (15 mm at 400 mg/ml and 11 mm at 200 mg/ml) and Pseudomonas spp. (14 mm at 400 mg/ml and 10 mm at 200 mg/ml). Conversely, the aqueous extract was effective only at the highest tested concentration (400 mg/ml), showing inhibition zones of 11 mm for Bacillus spp. and 10 mm for Pseudomonas spp. The n-hexane extract demonstrated an MIC of 400 mg/ml for both bacteria, whereas the aqueous extract did not reach the MIC for Pseudomonas spp. at the tested concentrations. Statistical analysis, including ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests, confirmed significant differences in antibacterial activity between the various concentrations of the n-hexane extract. The results highlight the superior efficacy of n-hexane in extracting antibacterial compounds from cashew leaves, likely due to its nonpolar nature. This study underscores the importance of solvent choice in optimizing the extraction of bioactive compounds with potential applications in developing antibacterial agents. Key findings of this research suggest that n-hexane extracts are more effective at lower concentrations compared to aqueous extracts. Future research should focus on identifying the specific antibacterial compounds within these extracts and exploring their applications in medicine and agriculture. Additionally, investigating the synergistic effects of combining different solvents may enhance the overall extraction efficiency and antibacterial potency of Anacardium occidentale extracts.


Micromanagement is a prevalent management style among several managers in many organizations. Micromanagement is primarily a management style which entails excessive control and scrutiny over employees' tasks, responsibilities and decisions. In this article, I explore micromanagement as a management style characterized by excessive control and scrutiny over employees. I look at the definition of micromanagement, highlighting its control-oriented nature, and detail its key features, including constant monitoring, frequent intervention, strict adherence to procedures, and resistance to innovation. I examine the implementation of micromanagement in a workplace, through strategies like detailed task management and centralized decision-making. This article further evaluates the pros and cons of micromanagement, noting that while it can lead to precision, quality control, and im-mediate problem resolution, it also negatively impacts employee morale, creativity, decision-making autonomy, productivity, and turnover rates. The article includes recent research on gender differences in micromanagement tendencies and concludes by discussing the detri-mental effects of micromanagement on employee well-being, emphasizing the need to mitigate these negative consequences for a posi-tive work environment. I end the article with examples of individuals and organisations, who where affected by micromanagement practices.

Relationship Marketing as a Tool for Enhancing Customers’ Loyalty after Fuel Subsidy Removal in Nigeria []

The Nigeria educational sectors have wanted to apply relationship marketing strategies in an effort to strengthen their marketing efficiency. Nevertheless, students in Nigeria often complain about the low quality of educational services together with high service charge especially after the removal of fuel subsidy. This study therefore examined the effect of relationship marketing as a tool for enhancing customers’ loyalty after fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. Judgmental sampling techniques was adopted to select a total number of one hundred (100) students from Adecom college of business and Management, Ibadan where copies of self- administered questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and simple linear regression analysis was adopted to analyzed the hypotheses formulated for the study. The study revealed that promise fulfilment has a significant effect on customer loyalty, and also, that complaint handling has an impact on customer loyalty. The study therefore conclude that relationship marketing are much more considered in determining the ability of an organization to maintain customers’ loyalty and as well been found in this study that, empathy shown to customers has significant effect on loyalty of customers. Finally, the study recommends that there should be systematic procedures which will facilitate complaint handling and communication pattern effectively during and after fuel subsidy removal.

Unleashing Efficiency and Flexibility: The Power of Hybrid Transformers in Modern Energy Distribution []

Hybrid transformers are a revolutionary advancement in electrical engineering, combining traditional magnetic transformers with modern power electronics technology to provide enhanced efficiency, flexibility, and reliability in energy distribution. They are reshaping power transmission processes and are expected to play a significant role in creating smarter, greener, and more resilient power systems in the future. With their energy-saving benefits and adaptable features, hybrid transformers are leading the way towards a sustainable and electrifying future. Industries embracing this innovative technology can unlock new possibilities for energy utilization and distribution, driving progress and innovation in the electrical power sector.

Sediment Hydrocarbon Pollution across Oligohaline and Polyhaline Deltaic Environment of Nigeria. []

Sediments are a vital component of the marine ecological systems. They are habitat to diverse marine coral reefs, benthic and meso-benthic, organisms, marine mammals and aquatic flora and fauna and numerous aquatic biotas. Spills from hydrocarbon exploration and illicit artisanal refineries in the Niger Delta adversely impact sediment quality, marine life and humans. This study adopted the causal-comparative and longitudinal designs to evaluate seasonal (dry and wet/rainy) levels of petroleum-based pollutants in the bottom sediments of the contiguous oligohaline and polyhaline Lower Orashi and Sombriero River Systems, Nigeria. The study area was segmented into 10 grids/sampling sites, where from sediment samples were collected into decontaminated zip lock bags, sealed and appropriately labeled according to sample stations, and placed in ice-parks cooler for preservation of the oxidation states. Standard laboratory methods were adopted for physico-chemical parameters, PAHs and BTEX analysis. FAAS and GC-FID were used to determine heavy metals, total hydrocarbon content, PAHs and BTEX respectively. The findings show that Dry Cd(dry) = 10.8 and Cd(wet) = 48.8, indicating low to very high anthropogenic contamination by the Contamination Factor (Cf) and Degree of Contamination(Cd). Locational Cd(dry) and Cd(wet): ranges in the order: TZ2>OR3>OR4>TZ1>OR1>SR3>SR4>OR2>SR1>SR2 and SR3>TZ1>OR2>SR4>OR4>SR2>OR1>SR1>TZ2>OR3 respectively. Individual metal Cf ranges: Cd>Cr>Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>K>Na. Significant seasonal variation exists in Zn, Fe, K, and Cr only between the sediment at p<0.05. However, no significant seasonal variation exists in the petroleum-based pollutants in sediment except BTEX and Cr. The study revealed elevated levels of trace ecotoxic sediment xenobiotics in the study area with likelihood of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, neurological and organ related illnesses to predisposed populations. Enforcement of mining environmental standards, global best practices, efficient and remediation and sustainable monitoring is needed in the Niger Delta region amongst others. Keywords: Lower Orashi, Sombriero, Sediment, Degree of Contamination and demersal.


This study addressed the critical challenge organizations face in securing and maintaining customer loyalty amidst intense market competition. Recognizing that loyal customers offer substantial benefits such as reduced marketing costs and increased profitability, the research explored the factors influencing customer loyalty and its impact on business performance. By examining elements like brand recognition, emotional attachment, and customer satisfaction. The study aimed to provide insights into building strong customer relationships and enhancing business outcomes. Utilizing a descriptive research design, the study employed simple random sampling to gather data from 368 third- and fourth-year students at Tagoloan Community College, focusing on their perceptions and experiences as customers. Statistical analyses, including weighted mean and Pearson correlation coefficient, were used to identify patterns and relationships within the data. The findings shed light on key aspects influencing customer loyalty and business performance among BSBA students. Brand recognition was found to be moderately influential, with a recommendation to strengthen emotional connections to enhance loyalty. The study also highlighted the significance of sales growth in driving business performance, suggesting the need for strategies to improve customer retention and encourage repeat business. The strong correlation between positive customer experiences and business performance underscored the importance of prioritizing customer-centric approaches for long-term success. Based on these findings, the study made recommendations to optimize operational strategies, enhance customer experiences, and meet consumer expectations for sustained growth and profitability in today's competitive landscape.

Green Marketing Orientations Toward Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms in Region XII: A Sequential Explanatory Design []

Sustainability is becoming an increasingly important topic for the present generation to address and prevent adverse consequences in the future. Studies report that this will become a key issue for the business community as economic, social, and environmental challenges grow. The purpose of this research was to establish which of the three dimensions of green marketing orientation (GMO)—strategic GMO, tactical GMO, and internal GMO—had the strongest influence on sustainability. The survey was conducted among 157 manufacturing firms in Region XII that produce food, beverages, wood, and agricultural products. Upon conducting multiple regression analysis on the quantitative data, 13 managers and business owners of manufacturing firms were chosen for further validation of the findings through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study revealed that tactical GMO is the only and strongest predictor of sustainability. The thematic analysis of the qualitative data revealed essential themes that generally validate the identified influence and its particulars. The findings of this study offer valuable insights for policymakers and manufacturers to guide actions toward sustainability. Keywords: Green marketing orientations, sustainability, multiple regression analysis, manufacturing firms

Alloy NPs of gold ad platinum as nanozymes of peroxidase-like activity []

Nanozymes are nanomaterials with intrinsic enzyme-like capabilities that have gained relevance over the past decade due to their potential to circumvent natural enzyme restrictions such as high cost, low stability, and challenging storage. Since the publication of the key work on nanozymes in 2007, researchers have conducted substantial research on their catalytic mechanism and set standards to assess their catalytic powers. Due to their particular optical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic capabilities, bimetallic or alloyed nanoparticles have become prominent in research and technology during the past decade. Gold is expensive, and combining it with another metal alters the systemdensity of electrons as well as the length of the metal-metal bond, which improves the catalytic ability. Two metals precursor (gold and platinum) were used to synthesize bimetallic nanoparticles using the chemical reduction method of the bottom-up approach and with a fixed polymeric stabilizer to prevent the aggregation of the particles and various concentrations of NaBH4 as a reducing agent such that the metal atoms were reduced to the zero-valent state. This research reports the inherent peroxidase-like properties of gold-platinum- bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-Pt-BNPs); likewise, their preparations and storage are relatively simple and have reasonable sensitivity and selectivity. The peroxidase-mimic activity of the prepared Au-Pt-BNPs towards anionic 4- aminopyrine (4-AAP) and cationic o-phenylenediamine (OPD) substrates was investigated, and the results showed that the Au-Pt-BNPs had high activity. It was observed that pH influenced the peroxidase-like activity of the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs, such that at pH 6.5 and 7.5, the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs demonstrated a high peroxidase-like activity using 4- AAP as a substrate. Hence, an increase in the pH led to a decrease in the activity of the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs. Moreover, an increase in time increased the size and the reactivity of the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs such that the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs were very active after several weeks of being synthesized. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to determine the hydrodynamic diameter of the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs. In addition, the ultraviolet-visible spectra of the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs revealed that the synthesized Au-Pt-BNPs was not a simple mixture of monometallic Au or Pt NPs but a mixed alloyed with either randomly mixed or intermixed. Due to their usability and sensitivity, these bimetallic nanoparticles are anticipated to hold great promise in environmental chemistry, biotechnology, biology, and medicine. As an alternative method for enzymes, bimetallic nanoparticle applications in chemical and immunoassays may be considered as they have future potential, from in vitro detection to in vivo monitoring and catalytic therapy.Keywords: Peroxidase-mimic, Bimetallic NPs, HBPG, OPD, 4-AAP

Aliens Among Us: An Exploration of Ancient Evidence and Modern Beliefs []

The belief that extraterrestrial beings have influenced human history and continue to live among us is a fascinating and controversial subject. This article explores ancient myths, historical records, and modern interpretations to argue that many gods and powerful figures from antiquity may have been extraterrestrial visitors. Focusing on the legendary King Ravana of Sri Lanka and his purported spacecraft, the "Dandu Monara," this research will examine evidence from various cultures to support the hypothesis of extraterrestrial influence.

The Tuition Industry and Education System in Sri Lanka: A Marketing-Centric Perspective []

The tuition industry in Sri Lanka has witnessed significant growth over the past decade, evolving into a vital component of the educational landscape. This research article explores the dynamics of the tuition education system in Sri Lanka, focusing on the marketing strategies employed by tuition centers. The findings indicate that marketing techniques often overshadow pedagogical quality, impacting students' educational outcomes. The study draws on five years of industry experience and examines how marketing influences the sector's success.

Assessing Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy and Associated Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study in Pakistan []

This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence and outcomes of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in Pakistan. Data were collected from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in various regions. The study revealed a significant prevalence of hypertensive disorders, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. Maternal complications, such as severe preeclampsia and eclampsia, were identified, contributing to adverse outcomes such as maternal mortality and severe morbidity. Fetal complications, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth, were also observed among women with hypertensive disorders. Statistical analysis unveiled associations between demographic factors and the risk of developing hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, highlighting the importance of timely detection and management. These findings underscore the urgent need for comprehensive maternal healthcare strategies and targeted interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of hypertensive disorders on maternal and fetal health in Pakistan. Strengthening antenatal care services and implementing evidence-based practices are crucial steps toward improving pregnancy outcomes and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality rates associated with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in Pakistan.

The Role of 5G Technology in Transforming Emerging Markets: A Case Study of Nigeria []

The paper posits to explore the unknown transformative prospects of 5G technology in emerging markets with specific focus on Nigeria. This article discusses the considerable advancements with 5G and how it can accelerate connectivity, data transfer rates as well advancement of IoT (Internet of Things), edge computing or hosting platforms used to process decentralized business logic by using blockchain technology. The study cites how all industry verticals, from education to healthcare and fintech to manufacturing. It also discusses economic growth scenarios, social benefits and 5G in the smart cities. The study highlights the difficulties and potential of 5G adoption in Nigeria, showing insights into their current telecommunications infrastructure as well future digital transformation.

Monitoring Volunteerism Constraints as a Determinant of Community Development among Jazan University Students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia []

Background: Volunteering is a specific sort of helping conduct. Volunteering is an activity undertaken by an individual that does not provide any financial reward or benefit to anyone other than the volunteer. Other manifestations of volunteering are mutual assistance in health and social care and philanthropy for others within voluntary or community organizations. Objective: Monitoring volunteerism constraints as a determinant of community development in the health field among students of health majors at Jazan University. Methods: The study design used a descriptive cross-sectional study on the Monitoring volunteerism constraints as a determinant of community development in the health field among students of health majors at Jazan University - Saudi Arabia, 2023. This study was conducted by collecting the necessary information to find the results according to the objectives by contacting the participants (students) from the health specializations at Jazan University in the Jazan region, using the simple probability random sampling method with a sample size of 430 male and female . Result: This study included 430 male and female students from various health specializations at Jazan University. The sample consisted of (20.0%) males and (80.0%) females. All the values of the correlation coefficients to volunteering in the health field, and all dimensions to monitoring volunteerism constraints as a determinant of community development in the health field among students of health majors at Jazan University are very large, indicating a level of 0.05. The majority of the sample from the colleges was from the College of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, with a percentage of (38.4%), while the percentage was distributed among other academic levels (61.6%). As shown, the percentage of the study sample who never volunteered was (59.5%) ,the percentage of volunteers was (40.5%). Results showed that the total degree of obstacles to volunteering in the health field among students of health specializations at Jazan University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was at the average level, with a rate of (69.7%). It is necessary to take into account the desires and goals of the volunteer and to choose the appropriate times for volunteer work, as they do not conflict with study and lecture times. Keywords: Volunteering, Constraints, Community Services.

Assessment of Pollution Load in Surface and Borehole Water Obtained from Some Locations in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria []

Water quality is very important to human, animals and plant’s physiology and health. This work aimed at assessing the pollutant load in surface and borehole water obtained from some selected location in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The physicochemical properties of the water such as pH, Electrical conductivity (EC) Temperature (T), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Hardness, Total Dissolved solid (TDS) and chlorine were analyzed. Heavy metals such as Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb were also analyzed using standard procedure. the results obtained were analyzed statistically using One-Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) while Duncan Multiple Range Test was used for comparison between location. possibilities P < 0.005 were considered statistically significant. The results obtained for heavy metal Cadmium and Zinc were found to be above the permissible limit of WHO physiochemical parameters were found to be within the permissible limit given by WHO (2006), which shows that the surface and borehole water of the areas studied need to be monitored to prevent total pollution.. Keywords: Pollution, Physicochemical, Heavy Metal, Surface Water and Borehole Water


The aim of this research is to evaluate the nutritional and sensory properties of Lactic acid fermented maize flour fortified with Bambara groundnut. Maize and Bambara groundnut were obtained from Birnin Kebbi Central market, prepared and fermented. Various analytical methods were employee to evaluate the nutritional and sensory properties of the fortified maize flour. Proximate analysis was used to determine the levels of moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrates. Also sensory properties of the gumba produced was assessed based on colour, texture, aroma (flavor), taste and overall acceptability. The maize was analyzed peeled and fried bambara groundnut separately. Also the starter cultures of the mixtures were analyzed separately from spontaneous mixture with varied proportion. The result shows that all the samples have moderate moisture contents ranging from 7.66% to 13.62% with spontaneous sample containing maize and groundnut (60:40) having the highest among all. The protein content of the eight samples revealed that Maize with Peeled Bambara groundnut Starter Based MAPBSB (60:40), possesses the highest protein (14.82%), while the same culture produces the highest crude fibre 3.5% with proportion of (70:30). This result indicates that all the samples have high level of carbohydrate and the presence of high carbohydrate content in these samples suggested that it may serve as a source of energy. It may also aid digestion and assimilation of other nutrients. The fibre contents recorded in this study are also lower than those recorded in the study by Hillocks et al. (2012). Dietary fibre helps to maintain the health of gastrointestinal track but, in excess, may bind trace elements, leading to deficiencies of some of these micro nutrients in the body. This result indicates that all the samples have high level of carbohydrate and the presence of high carbohydrate content in these samples suggested that it may serve as a source of energy. It may also aid digestion and assimilation of other nutrients. Both the fried and peeled bambara groundnut maize flours fermented spontaneously and with Lactic Acid Bacteria have both excellent eating and nutritional qualities. Results of this study revealed that the nutritional contents also depend on the concentration of the millet and bambara ground nut.