Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
     
Composition of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Vaname Shrimp Meat and Vaname Shrimp Waste (Litopenaeus vannamei) [PDF]
Gilang Yandika Sunardi, Rusky Intan Pratama, Zahidah, Iis RostiniThe flavor is a sensation that arises because of the volatile or non-volatile chemical components, which are natural or synthetic, and arise when eating or drinking. Volatile components are components that give a sensation of odor and evaporate very quickly while non-volatile components give sensation to tastes like sweet, bitter, sour and salty, do not give a sensation of odor but are a medium for volatile components, and help resist the evaporation of volatile components. The research method carried out is an experimental method, by testing the composition of volatile flavor compounds and testing proximate to meat broth and vaname shrimp waste. Samples of vaname meat broth and vaname shrimp waste broth were extracted for their volatile flavor compounds by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method to identify volatile flavor compounds using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC / MS) tool. Most of the volatile flavor compounds detected in both samples came from hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic compounds, and others. In the sample of vaname shrimp boiled water, the detected compounds were 111 compounds and in the sample of boiled water vaname shrimp waste were detected as many as 88 compounds. The compounds that had the largest proportion in both samples were compounds of the 1,4-di-iso-propylnaphthalenee hydrocarbon group 13,648% for vaname shrimp meat broth and dimethylspiro [4.5] decane 33.613% for vaname shrimp waste broth.
THE EFFECT OF TEACHER COMPETENCE AND SCHOOL ENVIROMENT ON STUDENT LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT [PDF]
FATHINAH FILLAH, NOVERDI BROSS, ROOSTIANAWAHTI SOEKMONOLearning is a process carried out by someone to obtain a change in new behavior as a whole, as a result of his own experience in interaction with his environment. To find out how far the changes that occur need assessment. The result of this assessment are called learning achiements. This aims of study: firstly the effect of teacher competence on student achievement, secondly the effect of School enviroment on student learning achievement, the third effect of teacher competence and School Enviroment on teacher performance.
It is conducted to the teachersof the district of Cisarua Cluster 1 Bogor. The population of the research is 149 teachers while the sample is 107, it is taken by using purposive random sampling technique. Collection of data method uses a questionnaire. The research method used is path analysis. By using the STATA 13.
The results of this study indicate that in elementary schools in the Cisarua Bogor District teachers competences does not direcly effect on student learning achievement, School Enviroment does not direcly effect on student learning achievement, Teacher competence and the school environment together effect student achievement
Teacher Competence, School Enviroment, Student Learning Achievement, Path Analysis
COMPARATIVE MICRO-STRUCTURAL STUDY OF LOCALLY PRODUCED ALUMINUM ALLOY MOTORCYCLE BRAKE HANDLE USING CLAY AND CEMENT BONED SAND WITH IMPORTED (CAST) BRAKE HANDLE. [PDF]
UKACHI,P.A., ADEWUYI,R.A., AND EMMANUEL,A.A.ABSTRACT
In foundry practice and engineering, there is a common believe and understanding that sand is one of the best moulding materials. There are different types of moulding sand with different binders which has also brought about different casting processes and names. In this work, cement and bentonite clay is used independently in moulding and casting of motorcycle brake handle. Micro structural examination was comparatively carried out on the locally and imported casts alloys with a view to see the behavioral structural arrangements compared with the standard (imported) one using metallurgical digital microscope. The structure showed that the grain structure for the imported consist of nodules of graphic (dark balls) and retained austenite (white constituents) in austferrite with fines grain structure making it harder. The structure of the cement bounded casting is showing thicker concentrations of the grains than the clay bounded moulding sand casting.
Keywords: Microstructure, casting, Foundry Sand, Cement clay.
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE
RELATED TO HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUS INFECTION AMONG MILITARY
PERSONNEL IN ADDIS ABEBA [PDF]
triza tsige,Melakeberhan Dagnew,GetachewWorku,Yakob GebregziabherBackground- Military personnel are high-risk people for sexually transmitted and blood born
diseases such as hepatitis B and C virus. Data regarding knowledge of hepatitis B and C has been
reported to be low among respondents in different studies. Although several studies were done
on HBV and HCV infections among different risk groups, so far there is no published data about
factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C virus
infection among military personnel in Addis Ababa.
Objective - To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors related to
hepatitis B and C virus infection among military personnel in Addis Ababa.
Method- A cross-sectional descriptive study design was conducted from February to march
2018. Total of 427 military personnel were included into the study using a simple random
sampling technique. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face
to face interview and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.
Result- a total of 427 military personnel were on the study 55%, 86.9% and 70% of the study
participant had poor knowledge, positive attitude and poor practice respectively with X
knowledge score of 6.88 ± 2.124 SD. Knowledge score was statistically significant with Age
[AOR=0.662, 95%CI (0.351-1.249) p=0.042] Rank [AOR=1.199, 95%CI (0.712-2.019) p=
0.002], Attitude [AOR=2.677, 95%CI (1.381-5.188) p= 0.004] and practice [AOR=1.996,
95%CI (1.301-3.061) p= 0.002]. X attitude and practice scores were 4.66±1.245 SD and
4.52±1.617SD respectively. Religion, rank and Knowledge were predictor for attitude with p
value 0.016, 0.011 and 0.004 respectively. . Practice was significantly associated with knowledge
[AOR=1.196, 95%CI (1.301-3.061) p= 0.002] and attitude [AOR=3.486, 95%CI (1.441-8.434)
Conclusions- KAP of the study participant shows poor knowledge, positive attitude and poor
practice. Educational campaigns among military personnel should be intensified with focus being
on behavior modification.
APPLICATION OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS IN FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES AT OLKARIA (V) FIELDS, KENYA [PDF]
james omwoyo obare, Prof Nicholas Mariita, Dr Njenga MburuGeophysical methods were used in structural foundation investigation at Olkaria (V) field in Kenyan rift valley prior to the construction works. Geophysical techniques were of preference because they are faster, cost effective and non-destructive compared to conventional way such as boring and drilling which are expensive, invasive and provide information in discrete area. Geophysical investigations provide a wider picture of the subsurface that aid in evaluation of ground fitness for construction purposes. The objective of this investigation was to determine the depth to bedrock that forms a firm foundation for development purposes. Electrical resistivity and seismic methods were used in ground assessment for its suitability in structural development. Data was collected using electrical resistivity imaging system, geographical positioning system (GPS), receiver and seismograph. The RES2DINV and Geometrics SeisImager Software respectively were used to process results obtained from these investigations. The methods used gave results that are significant in the preliminary stages of site assessment for foundation works. The techniques probe the depth to the bedrock and reveal weak soils zones. The analysis and interpretation of geophysical data provide a better understanding into the subsurface geology for foundation works.
Compact rock materials were observed from a depth of 14m below ground level extending down to greater depths. Further, the area was characterized by weak Silty material, which has low bearing and consolidation ability. Such materials are prone to frequent washout under conditions of percolating waters hence require utmost care during the placement of engineering structures. Utilization of piles is necessary and should be anchored to a depth greater than 14m below ground level such that they rest directly on the competent bed. In-situ compaction should go before utilization of reinforced concrete amid the development of shallow foundation to achieve the maximum compaction limits due to the anticipated load of the proposed infrastructure. Equally, excavation of the top soil is necessary and thereafter refilling with competent material such as gravel and laterite in order to have a strong basement.
ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP IN DEVELOPING LIBRARY TO SUPPORT STUDENT LEARNING ACHIEVEMENTS
(Case Study in State Elementary School 01, Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province) [PDF]
Rochmad Fitriana,Noverdi Bross, Kabul WahyuUtomoThe purpose of this study is to provide a conclusion about the efforts of the Principal of SDN 01, Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province in developing a school library to support student learning achievement. The focus of this research is to explain the use of school libraries to support student achievement, so that the Principal seeks to find ideas and ways in order to develop student achievement in SDN 01, Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province. This research uses a qualitative approach with a case study method. The data analyzed are the results of study of school and library documents, questionnaires for students, teachers and principals, and interviews with school principals.
The results of this study indicate that the background of the Principal developing the SDN 01 library in Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Province is due to his desire to make students, teachers and all discipline education devices in the teaching and learning process, and continue to strive for high achievement. The School Principal also seeks to open communication networks with related educational institutions to develop the school library to support student learning achievement.
Keywords: Principal, School Library, Student Learning Achievement
Leadership style and performance of Deposit Money banks in Kano [PDF]
Muhammed Alhaji Abubakar, Prof Abdu Jaafaru BambaleAbstract
This study examines effect of leadership styles on performance of deposit money banks in Kano, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the effect of transformational and transactional leadership styles on performance of deposit money banks in Kano. The study employed a survey research design, and a questionnaire was used as the main instrument of data collection. Out of the 200 copies of questionnaire that were distributed using convenience sampling technique, only 148 copies were completed and retrieved. Also, descriptive and inferential analysis (correlation and regression) were used as the main tool for data analysis using SPSS version 25. The result showed that while transactional leadership style had no significant effect on performance, transformational leadership style had positive and significant effect on performance of deposit money banks in Kano. The study concluded that transformational leadership style was more appropriate in inducing performance of deposit money banks in Kano than transactional leadership style and therefore, recommended that emphasis be placed more on transformational leadership style.
EFFECTIVITY TEST OF MORINGA LEAF EXTRACT ON Bacillus cereus AS FISH SPOILAGE BACTERIA AND Staphylococcus aureus AS COMPARISON [PDF]
Winly Felicia, Fatimah Azzhara Lubis, Boyke Marthin SimbolonThis study was aimed to determine whether moringa leaf extract showed an effectivity on 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concentrations as an antibacterial on Bacillus cereus as fish spoilage and on Staphylococcus aureus as a comparison. Bacillus cereus are rod-shaped gram-positive bacteria with harmful effects, and Staphylococcus aureus are infectious round-shaped gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted using an experimental method, and the samples were collected through purposive sampling. The effectivity test of moringa leaf extract on Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus was performed by diffusion using disk papers and measurement of bacterial inhibition zone on disk papers stained by leaf extract. Afterward, data analysis was performed using the Post-hoc test, which explained that there were significant differences between each group with a 95% confidence interval. One hundred percent Moringa leaf extract had higher effectivity on Bacillus cereus compared to Staphylococcus aureus. This was caused by a higher inhibition zone of 100% Moringa leaf extract on Bacillus cereus, which consisted of 8 mm, compared to Staphylococcus aureus, with 6.2 mm.
Keywords: Moringa leaf extract, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus.
General Certificate (A-Level) and Higher Secondary Certificate Education System with Special Reference to Physics: A Comparative Study [PDF]
Niamatullah1, Ajaz Shaheen1 & Noor Mohammad1The purpose of the study was to compare the basic sciences at GCE (A-Level and HSC Level with special reference to objectives, contents, teaching methodologies and evaluation. The scope was limited to GCE A-Level and HSC level institutes, teachers, students and principals. The population was comprised of experts, teachers and students of Physics from both systems of education. A sample of forty experts 20 from each system, 225 teachers, 750 students from 50 institutions offering HSC and 25 institutions offering A-level was drawn. Data were collected and analyzed. It was found that A-Level system of education in urban Sindh was due to effective learning models, flexible science of studies extensive knowledge based education a symbol of status for the family and local, international demand of that qualification. The experts of both the systems opined that the objectives of Physics were well defined and clear but opinion of the teachers of both the systems differed significantly. According to the teachers of HSC program the objectives of Physics were not well defined and clear whereas the teachers of A-Level expressed that objectives of physics were well defined and clear. Majority of the teachers of HSC system were found dissatisfied with the present scheme of studies being offered at higher secondary level whereas majority of the teachers of A-Level expressed their satisfaction on the scheme of studies of A-Level. According to the teachers of HSC programme, objectives of Physics were not well defined and clear. Curriculum would be over hauled and modified according to the needs and requirements of 21st century. Science education plays a pivotal role in the development of a country, therefore the education system would be same in all respect to bring it at par with the needs of international level.
New horizons of integration processes in Central Asia [PDF]
Ilkhomjon MuminovAbstract: In this article author analyses the current bilateral; and multilateral relations in Central Asia which may let to strengthen the integration processes in the region. Activities taken by countries for developing bilateral and multilateral relations among Central Asian Republics in a zigzag form during Independence years and will of countries for further deepening integration are researched. As well as shortcomings and achievements of integration attempts taken by countries in the 1990s are considered. Taking into account the shortcomings and achievements of integration attempts as well as obstacles of integration some recommendations are suggested by analyzing integration processes in the other parts of the World.
Relationship of work engagement and job satisfaction among nurses [PDF]
Rfeaa Sajid, Sana Sehar, Muhammad AfzalAbstract
Introduction: Work is an important part of life, in which everyone is involved. Whether a housewife, an employee and a worker. Keeping one’s self happy with in the work give positive attitude and brings motivation which increases the performance (Kuntsi, 2014). Work engagement is important for nursing profession for the betterment of health care system and patient care, which relies on job satisfaction. Dedication, motivation and absorption are basic components to satisfy job. Work should be done with full devotion to make it productive and meaningful. One should be evolved in work at a level where he dose forget everything.
Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study design with quantitative methods was used to assess the relationship of work engagement and job satisfaction.
Results: The results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction. The results of my study shows a significant result between motivation, absorption and job satisfaction sig ( <0.05), while the results of my study shows non-significant relationship between dedication and job satisfaction (> 0.05).
Conclusions: Conclusions drawn from the regression analysis and descriptive statistics of independent and dependent variables is that there is positive relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction.
Keywords- work engagement, dedication, motivation, absorption and job satisfaction.
PROPORTION OF DRY EYE IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS [PDF]
Samia iqbal,Faiza Ayyub,Ahmed RiyanPurpose: The main purpose of this study is to review the proportion of dry eye in patients of diabetes mellitus.
Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectionalstudy.
Duration and Place of Study:Ophthalmology department,The university of Lahore teaching hospital,Lahore, From August 2018 to February 2019.
Material & Methods: Data was collected by self-designed proforma after taking consent from patient. The schirmer test was performed. The study was conducted on 80 patients having positive history of Diabetes mellitus. The sample size was collected by non-probability convenient method. All patients were diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus by Department of Medicine, The university of Lahore teaching hospital Lahore. Patients having any other systemic disorders were excluded from the study. Schirmer test was used for the measurement of tear film breakup time. Data was collected by a self-designed proforma after written informed consent. Data entry and statistical analysis was done by Arithmetical Software SPSS.
Results: The schirmer test was performed to assess dry eye in patients with diabetes mellitus. The results showed that total 80patients were assessed out of 80,30(37.5%) were males and 50(62.5%) were females. Study shows 39(48.70%) patients have mild (9-14mm) schirmer test value, 12(15.%) patients have moderate (4-8mm) schirmer test value and 29(36.2%) patients have severe (<4mm) schirmer test values.
Conclusion: It is concluded that there is risk of dry eye in diabetic patients.
KEY WORDS: Dry eye in diabetes, ocular surface changes in diabetic mellitus patients.
The Role of Transformational Leadership Style on Employee’s Job Performance:
A Case of University of Gondar, Ethiopia [PDF]
Oumer Muhammed EshetuAbstract
In an existing rapid change and competitive environment, skillful and knowledge-based employees must be retained in the organizations to be successful and responsive to the interests of their stakeholders. Hence, highly skill full and quality man power base is essential for all types of organizations. From this perspective leaderships approach and competences in the organization in all aspects are important to enhance employee’s job performance within the organization. This study investigates the effects of transformational leadership style on employee’s job performance. The study population was University of Gondar employees. The data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 350 employees, the study was used proportional stratified sampling and simple random sampling method as sample design. Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) was used to measure transformational leadership styles effects on employee’s job performance. The major findings of the study were, the four variables of transformational leadership style (individual consideration, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation) collectively predict employee’s job performance by 50.1%.
Key Words: Job performance, Individual consideration, Idealized influence, Transformational leadership
COMPARATIVE DEGRADATION OF PARAQUAT HERBICIDES IN THE PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF ZnO SEMI-CONDUCTOR USING UV ILLUMINATION [PDF]
Nasiru Aminu Rano, Khalid Haliru, Zulyadaini Yahuza Abba,Alhassan Kabiru Usman,Kamal DanazumiThe importance of herbicides towards agricultural production is paramount. Most of these herbicides turn to be toxic to plant and contaminate soil and water which produces poor-quality and unsuitable for ecological health. Water purification through photocatalysis is the most important requirement due to increase health, environment and energy conservation concerns. Nanomatrials are reported to have enhanced surface and particular changes in their biological, physical and chemical properties. This properties makes them gain attention in environmental chemistry. Many scientific methods have been developed to breakdown organic contaminants in water, ZnO nanoparticle is a promising material in terms of nanostructuring and photocatalysis. Recently, the extraordinary properties of ZnO photocatalysis makes it attract more attention in photocatalysis. The heterogeneous catalytic structure through ZnO semiconductors have the capacity to work efficiently and effectively for waste water treatment. In this present work, Paraquat herbicide was degraded without and with catalyst using UV-Light illumination with time variation. The result obtained showed that the photodegradation efficiency of paraquat without and with ZnO semiconductor after 60 min was found to be 17.8% and 51.6% respectively. After 120 min interval, the efficiency increases to 33.45% and 71.8% respectively. This indicate that ZnO semiconductor has the potentials of degrading paraquat more effectively and less time consuming compared to its degradation in the absence of catalyst.
Keywords: Degradation, Catalyst, Paraquat and Semiconductor
GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BY USING FLY ASH IN CONSTRUCTION [PDF]
Engr. Shakir Ullah, Engr.Fawad AhmadThe alkali activation of waste materials is a chemical process that allows the user to transform glassy structures into very compact well-cemented composites. Nowadays, the knowledge concerning the mechanisms controlling the alkali activation process is considerably advanced; however, there are still many things to investigate. In the present paper, the mechanism of activation of a fly ash (no other solid material was used) with highly alkaline solutions is described. These solutions, made with NaOH, Na2Sio3.This paper, report on the study of the processing of geopolymer using fly ash and alkaline activator with geopolymerization process. The factors that influence the early age compressive strength such as molarities of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) have been studied. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used as an alkaline activator. These studies comprises the comparison of the ratios of Na2Si03&NaOH at the values 0.39&2.51.The geopolymer paste samples were cured at 60°C for 1 day and keep in room temperature until the testing days. The compressive strength was done at 7 and 28 days. The result showed that the geopolymer paste with NaOH concentration, compressive strength increase with molarities increases.
Flexible Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution/Elastic Natural Rubber Tube Strain Sensor [PDF]
Sekyere Nana Gyamfi, Professor Yuan WeifengA high flexibility strain sensor based on ionic liquid is developed with the utilization of an aqueous sodium chloride solution encapsulated within a natural rubber tube and copper-coated fibers as electrodes are inserted into both ends of the tube to make good contact with the aqueous sodium chloride solution as a mean for piezoresistive enormous strain estimation. When an external force (tensile or compressive or transverse) is applied to the natural rubber tube, the electrical and geometrical properties of the aqueous sodium chloride solution inside the natural rubber tube changes, resulting in an adjustment in resistance of the strain sensor. The fabricated aqueous sodium chloride solution/elastic natural rubber tube strain sensor was experimentally characterized and the exploratory outcomes demonstrate that the fabricated ionic fluid strain sensor is profoundly adaptable (i.e. can be stretched over 100%, twisted over 180 degrees and over with a steady gauge factor of 2.1 for a prolongation of over 30%), profoundly versatile (i.e. can retain its unique shape in the wake of being stretch several times) and exceptionally sensitive to strain.
Moreover, the flexible strain sensors exhibited the capability of multiple deformation forms including strain and bending, which exhibited their application in the detection of finger touching, finger, wrist and elbow joint movement, throat muscle movement and pulse waveforms.
The design, fabrication process and experimental testing of the flexible strain sensor based on aqueous sodium chloride solution and elastic natural rubber tube are presented in this report.
COMPARATIVE DEGRADATION OF PARAQUAT HERBICIDES IN THE PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF ZnO SEMI-CONDUCTOR USING UV ILLUMINATION [PDF]
Nasiru Aminu Rano, Khalid Haliru and Zulyadaini Yahuza AbbaThe importance of herbicides towards agricultural production is paramount. Most of these herbicides turn to be toxic to plant and contaminate soil and water which produces poor-quality and unsuitable for ecological health. Water purification through photocatalysis is the most important requirement due to increase health, environment and energy conservation concerns. Nanomatrials are reported to have enhanced surface and particular changes in their biological, physical and chemical properties. This properties makes them gain attention in environmental chemistry. Many scientific methods have been developed to breakdown organic contaminants in water, ZnO nanoparticle is a promising material in terms of nanostructuring and photocatalysis. Recently, the extraordinary properties of ZnO photocatalysis makes it attract more attention in photocatalysis. The heterogeneous catalytic structure through ZnO semiconductors have the capacity to work efficiently and effectively for waste water treatment. In this present work, Paraquat herbicide was degraded without and with catalyst using UV-Light illumination with time variation. The result obtained showed that the photodegradation efficiency of paraquat without and with ZnO semiconductor after 60 min was found to be 17.8% and 51.6% respectively. After 120 min interval, the efficiency increases to 33.45% and 71.8% respectively. This indicate that ZnO semiconductor has the potentials of degrading paraquat more effectively and less time consuming compared to its degradation in the absence of catalyst.
Keywords: Degradation, Catalyst, Paraquat and Semiconductor
Graphic Organizers and Students’ Achievement in Physics and Chemistry: Integrating Technology in Science Classroom [PDF]
Mary Felicia Opara and Ayanari Ilaye LamiThis study which investigated the effect of graphic organizers on students’ achievement in physics and chemistry was conducted in three Education Zones in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. 354 secondary school students participated in the study. The study adopted a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Physics and Chemistry Achievement Test (PCAT) instrument used for the study was validated and trial-tested using Kuder-Richardson K-R20 and the reliability was established at 0.80. Descriptive statistics was used to answer the research questions and analysis of covariance ANCOVA was used to test the research hypotheses. Results revealed that the pretest mean achievement scores of experimental and control groups were 17.14 and 14.83 respectively, while the posttest mean achievement scores for experimental and control groups were 40.44 23.83 respectively, with a mean gain of 23.3 for experimental group and 9.06 for the control group; the pretest mean achievement scores of both male and female students were 17.22 and 17.03 while the posttest mean scores were 40.1 and 40.9 respectively; the pretest mean achievement scores of urban and rural students were 17.72 and 15.25 respectively, while the posttest mean achievement scores for urban and rural students were 40.78 and 39.32 respectively. ANCOVA results showed that students taught using graphic organizers had significantly higher achievement scores in selected topics from physics and chemistry than the students taught using conventional method. There was no significant difference in achievement of male and female students taught selected topics in physics and chemistry using graphic organizers. No significant difference was found between the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught selected topics in Physics and Chemistry using graphic organizers. Based on the findings of the study a few recommendations were highlighted.
PRODUCTION OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE USING CRUSHED STONE SAND AND SILICA FUME [PDF]
Shahab Akhtar,Adeed khanThe paper describes the use of Crushed Stone Sand (CSS ) and Silica Fume ( SF ) in the concrete towards the production of High strength concrete. Sand taken from river sources are expensive due to transportation expenses. Also depletion of these natural sources causes environmental problem. As environmental, transportation and other constraints make the availability and use of river sand less attractive, a substitute or replacement product for concrete needs to be found. Based on these reasons we used CSS as a replacement of river sand in the project. Concrete with targeted strength of 10,000 psi, incorporating 5%, 10%, and 15% of silica fume (SF) with complete replacement of CSS were examined in fresh and hardened state. Experimental investigation showed that crushed stone sand (CSS) has significantly higher water absorption. The compressive and flexural strength was seen to increase with an increase of silica fume. Workability of the concrete was found to be decrease as the percentage of SF increased in the mix. In this particular research work 10% replacement of silica fume (SF) with a complete replacement of CSS as a fine aggregate in concrete mix was recorded to be optimum value. Where, concrete was able to achieve only 4477psi of compressive high strength value at 28 days which is way lesser than that of the targeted high strength of 10,000 psi.
Study the gama ray attenuation parameters of some phosphate glass containing various amounte of BCD [PDF]
A.G. Mostafa1, S.M. Salem1, O.M. Yassin1, and R.A. Abu-GasserABSTRACT
By-Pass Cement Dust, as an industrial cement waste, was used here to pre-pare some gamma-ray shielding glasses aiming to protect people and environment from radiations hazard impact Some phosphate glasses containing different amounts of by-pass cement dust have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The selected molecular composition was [ (100-x) % P2O5 - (x) % By-Pass Cement Dust (where 30 ≤ x≥ 60)]. The obtained experimental density and molar volume values were inspected and were then compared with those obtained empirically for the close packed structure of the corresponding compounds. These comparisons evidenced the short-range order and randomness character of the studied samples. The electric and dielectric properties were thoroughly investigated.
X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the amorphous nature of all the pre-pared glasses.
The appearance of maxima and minima in the total conductivity by pass cement dust concentration dependence can be attributed to the mixed alkali – alkaline earth effect (K2O & CaO). The suitability of such glasses to act as gamma-ray shielding materials was also examined and a correlation between the chemical composition (By-Pass Cement Dust content) and gamma-ray attenuation behavior was established.
A mini-review on Pollution of water resources: causes and consequences [PDF]
Bomoi Matita H.J1, Gédéon Bongo Ngiala2, Mpiana PT3, Léonard Ukondalemba Mindele2, Nzau Matiaba1, Lobota Lopili1, Booto Bokonda E1, Clément M. Mbadiko2Water is an indispensable resource for the continuation of life on planet earth and is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. However, it is threatened daily by pollution of all kinds. In order to better understand the issues related to water pollution, several points have been developed in this mini review article (definition of water pollution, distribution and importance of water, different types of water pollution, their origins and consequences).
Keywords: Water pollution, micropollutants
Evaluation of Rutting Performance of Asphalt Modified with Nano Silica [PDF]
Numan Ghani, Yaseen Mahmood, Fawad Khan, Maaz Ahmad, Mehran Khan, Haidar Ali Khan, Muzamil KhanAsphalt is the major parameter of pavement and there are two major types of distresses produced during its serviceability that is permanent deformation which is also known as rutting and the second one is moisture damage. It is the first priority of the Pavement Engineers to build a sustainable pavement and reduce these distresses by modifying binder which is the basic component of the asphalt. Different types of traditional additives such as rubber, clay, polymers etc are used for the modification of the binder. Currently the Nano technology has drawn the attention of the researchers and they have started using Nano particles for the modification of asphalt. The Nano particles used in this research is Nano silica (NS) 1%NS, 3%NS and 5%NS by weight of the bitumen. Basic test of bitumen, (i.e.) penetration, softening point, ductility, flash and fire point were conducted in order evaluate physical properties of bitumen. These basic tests showed that Ductility and penetration (grade) of Bitumen was reduced showing the modified bitumen had become stiffer while softening point was increased by incorporating Nano silica in bitumen. Some advance test like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were taken on different pixels in order to ensure the homogeneous dispersion of Nano silica in the binder. In order to know about the comparison of the rheological properties of the neat binder and the Nano silica modified binder the dynamic shear rheometer test was also conducted. The effect of Nano silica was evaluated by carried out wheel tracking test. The results of the testing revealed that Nano silica stiffened the bitumen and enhanced asphalt resistance to rutting. Thus, it was concluded that Nano silica increased its rutting resistance and enhanced performance of asphaltic mixture.
Keywords: Asphalt, Nano Silica (NS), Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
A Stylistic Analysis of Katherin Mansfield’s Short Story A Cup of Tea [PDF]
Assil GHARIRIThis article deals with the stylistic analysis of Katherin Mansfield’ short story A Cup of Tea. It argues that the words and the expressions chosen by the authore to be used in the story hide a lot about the heroine Rosemary’s personalty. The article deals, as well, with the other characters related to the heroine clarifying the relation between them through their words.
The stylistic analysis of this story is done through Michael Halliday’s Transitive theory. Halliday put some processes through which the words uttered by the characters in a literary text could be analysed. The use of certain kinds of verbs, adjectives and expressions are discussed in this article as valuable tools behind which the authores hide the reality of the characters they present to the readers.
Keywords : stylistic ; transitive theory ; Halliday ; processes ; Katherin Mansfield.
Factors influencing the performance of Small and Micro Enterprises in Ethiopia, the case of Ficthe town [PDF]
Tolossa Dadi Wedajo (Lecturer)Abstract:-Micro and small enterprise (MSE) sector has been recognized worldwide for its role in wealth generation, employment creation, and poverty reduction. In respective of this, the purpose of this study is to examine the factors that mostly influencing the performance of SMEs in North Shoa Zone, Fitche town. To do this, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Stratified simple random sampling was employed to select proportional number of samples from the study area. The main instrument of data collection was the questionnaire and supported by interview and group discussion. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. To obtain the primary data, questionnaires were designed and distributed for 254 Small and Micro sized enterprises owners and managers to know the performance status of their respective sectors and also to examine the factors that affect their performance accordingly. Secondary data were collected from books, journals, past research work, official documents like performance reports. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics with using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). The data were presented in tables as frequency, charts and graphs to identify the factors that mostly affect the performance of SMEs. The study elicited both internal and external factors were affecting the performance of SMEs that includes:-personal attitude towards the sector, lack of knowledge and skills, conflict among the member of the sector, corruption, irrelevant business plan, saving habit from profit were identified as internal factors. Rules and regulation of the country, loaning system, high interest rate, lack of proper market chain, access to raw materials, access to technology and inflation were identified as external factors. The researcher recommended that the concerned government body should revise the rules and regulation related to the sector and also facilitate the easy loaning system with low interest rate. On the other hand, training should be given to all participants of the sector on business management, business plan preparation, money saving and awareness creation on the benefits of SMEs in the economic development and poverty reduction.
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Bloated Light Weight Aggregate Concrete Blocks Masonry [PDF]
Jawad HussainSelf-weight of the structure is an important issue. The self-weight of the structure represents the large portion of the total load. By reducing the self-weight of the members helps us not only in the material cost but also in the construction cost. By doing this considerable savings could be attained. The aim of the project is to carry out the mechanical characterization of solid blocks masonry made from light weight aggregate concrete blocks, through experimental investigation. The basic material properties of masonry including compressive strength, diagonal tensile strength, shear strength, young’s and shear moduli are obtained through laboratory testing on masonry prisms, triplets and wallets. The samples are made up of light weight aggregate concrete blocks. The light weight aggregate used is expanded slate light weight aggregate. The size of the blocks is 12”x8”x6” (LxWxH). Various physical and mechanical tests are carried out including absorption, density, compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. The blocks are solid. Concrete mix is designed for the concrete block in order to achieve minimum concrete block strength required by building code of Pakistan. The concrete mix designed for the blocks shows lower density and having the compressive strength that comply with the minimum requirement of building code of Pakistan. After detail cost analysis of both normal weight concrete blocks and light weight concrete blocks, when used as masonry infill wall in frame structure. The cost is reduced by 5% when light weight concrete blocks are used.
ANALYSIS OF TREND IN EXTREME TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL OVER ADDIS ABABA CITY, THE CASE OF BOLE METEOROLOGICAL STATION [PDF]
Gezahegn BekeleChanges in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are likely to have more impact on environment and human activities than changes in the mean climate (Andre St-hilaire, 2005 et al.). During the last decade, climatic events with strong impacts on environmental and economic activities have been experienced in Ethiopia.For example the major floods such as in Diredawa and Omo basin of June 2006 illustrates the risks to ecosystems, human health and welfare, and infrastructure from short- duration weather extremes.
This study employed trends in indices of climate extremes on the basis of daily series of rainfall and temperature observation data of Addis Ababa city covering period 1985-2014. climpact2 software is recommended by World Meteorological Organization-Commission for Climatology (WMO-CCI) to calculate the climate change indices.
The analysed results showed that increasing trends of hot extremes have been observed. On the other hand, increasing of trends in cold extremes was detected and Precipitation extremes indicate decreasing trends. In general, the trend suggest that the city exhibited warming trends.
Effect of Decreasing Degree of Severity of Nausea and Vomiting during Early Pregnancy on Women’s Quality of Life. [PDF]
H. E. A. Nada1, Prof. D. M. K. Eshra2, Prof. I. K. A. kassem3Abstract: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common condition that affects the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can diminish the woman’s quality of life and also contributes to health care costs and time lost from work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effect of decreasing degree of severity of nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy on women’s quality of life. Method: Design: a quasi-experimental design was utilized. Sample: A purposive sample of 202 pregnant women. Setting: The study was carried out at the Maternal and Child Health Center at Shebin El-Koom (Qebly), Menoufia Governorate. Instruments: four instruments were used throughout the course of this study (1) A structured interviewing questionnaire, (2) A Modified 24-hour Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis/Nausea Scoring Index questionnaire , (3) A nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy Health Related Quality of Life questionnaire and (4) Alternative Treatments for Nausea and Vomiting during Early Pregnancy . The results revealed that there was a negative relation between degree of severity of NVP and normal functioning quality of life of the study participants. Conclusion: The current study findings supported the study hypotheses. It is concluded that, nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy negatively impact physical and psychosocial health of the pregnant women, also severe degree of NVP decreases the quality of life of the pregnant women and should be monitored. Recommendation: Early treatment of nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy help to reduce the severity of symptoms, and leads to fetal and maternal well health
Primary Care Management of Nausea and Vomiting during Early Pregnancy [PDF]
H. E. A. Nada1, Prof. D. M. K. Eshra2, Prof. I. K. A. kassem3Abstract: The most prevalent symptoms for women during pregnancy are nausea and vomiting. If left untreated may lead to multiple problems related to physical and psychological health. These problems ultimately call for an alternative treatment for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of primary care management on nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy. Method: Design: a quasi-experimental design was utilized. Sample: A purposive sample of 202 pregnant women. Setting: The study was carried out at the Maternal and Child Health Center at Shebin El-Koom (Qebly), Menoufia Governorate. Instruments: three instruments were used throughout the course of this study (1) A structured interviewing questionnaire, (2) A Modified 24-hour Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis/Nausea Scoring Index questionnaire and (3) Primary care management for nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy questionnaire. The results revealed that primary care management has a positive effect on relieving severity of nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy. Conclusion: The current study findings supported the study hypotheses. It is concluded that, primary care management, dietary and lifestyle interventions have been shown to lower the severity of symptoms and enabled women to continue their everyday life and work with minimal disruption. Recommendation: Early treatment of nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy help to reduce the severity of symptoms, and leads to fetal and maternal well health.
EXPLORATION OF RICE CULTIVATION AND OPPORTUNITIES IN SIERRA LEONE:
USING AN ARMINGTON BASED PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TECHNIQUE [PDF]
Abdul Joseph Fofanah, Saidu Koroma, Alpha Bilahl Sesay, Ahmed FofanaIn this paper, we presents an armington based partial equilibrium mode techniques for exploration of rice cultivation and opportuni-ties in Sierra Leone: The rising import bill of rice and the dependence of Sierra Leone on imported rice coupled with the growing so-phistication of the rice consumer for quality rice and the agronomic advantages in rice cultivation initiated this research into Sierra Leone’s rice sub-sector. The research question for this study is what opportunities do the current state of Sierra Leone’s rice sub-sector offer compared with the rice imports? Therefore, the first objective is to analyze the development of Sierra Leone’s rice sub-sector through a trend analysis of production levels, acreage under cultivation, and yield per hectare and rice import penetration ratio from 2000 to 2018. The results show that although rice cultivation in Sierra Leone is increasing at a rate of about 5.8 percent annu-ally between the years 2000 and 2018, Sierra Leone still depends heavily on imported rice. The import penetration ratio in 2011 was about 66 percent. Secondly, the study shows analysis of the rice distribution network and identify the opportunities to shift to rice varieties demanded by consumers thanks to a schema of the rice distribution network. The analysis of the rice distribution net-work shows that the imported rice channel is more efficient than the local rice channel. The most influential operators in the imported rice channel is the rice importer whiles the rice wholesalers (market women) are the most influential in the local rice channel. There exists some form of oligopolistic system between market women and the rice farmers because the farmers are con-strained to sell to the market women due to the lack of greater access to market centers for better competitive prices. Thirdly, the study identified different agricultural and trade policies that could affect production, consumption and imported quantity of rice using a simulation model. A simply Armington based partial equilibrium model of Sierra Leone’s rice sub-sector is developed and the simulation results show that the total removal of current taxes on imported rice would lead to 8 and 6 percent decrease in aromatic and non-aromatic rice cultivation respectively. Imports of aromatic and non-aromatic rice would increase by 55 and 63 percent respectively. Overall rice consumption would increase by 21 percent. For a 20 percent increase in land cultivated, rice culti-vation will increase by 24 percent and consumption would increase by 9 percent. A 20 percent increase in rice productivity would lead to a 5 percent increase in rice cultivation and 12 percent increase in rice consumption. A 20 percent decrease in world rice prices would lead to a 5 percent decrease in cultivation and 14 percent increase in consumption. For a 20 percent increase in world rice prices, cultivation would increase by 4 percent and consumption will decrease by 9 percent. This research recommends that land expansion and trade liberalization in the short term should be promoted while improving rice farmers’ productivity in the short, medium to long term to boost cultivation levels. Also, for accelerated rice production, government policy should be geared towards encouraging large scale farmers to enter the rice sub-sector while government continues to improve the productivity of the smallholder rice farmers. Government should improve infrastructure especially roads to open up rice farming communities to mar-ket centers and reduce transactions costs and reduce the oligopolistic system operated by market women.
Evaluation and Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) on a Stand-Alone Power Based Solar Panel [PDF]
Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu, Sunny Orike, Sopakiriba M. WestThe work seeks to evaluate and implement the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MMPT) on a stand-alone power based solar panel. The entire system in this work has been modeled on MATLAB™ R2017a and Simulink™. It focuses on the development, evaluation and implementation of a circuit simulation model for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a solar power that involves using buck-boost power converter topology (buck-boost DC/DC converters). A simulation model to extract maximum obtainable solar power from a PV module and using the energy for a DC application was implemented. The simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted, and results presented. The inputs of the solar PV panel modeled in the study were temperature, solar irradiation, number of solar cells in series and number of rows of solar cells in parallel. The findings of the study revealed that the main hindrance for the penetration and reach of solar PV systems is in their low efficiency and high capital cost. Results from the modeling also show that using the Perturb & Observe MPPT technique increased the efficiency of the photovoltaic system by approximately 111% from an earlier output power of around 90Watts to an obtained output power of around 190Watts. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) significantly increases the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic system.
Reversi:Adapting intellegence in a traditonal board game. [PDF]
Ghalib Mundhir Al Mandhary,Syed Zakir Ali.This paper talks about a simple board game called reversi and the history of this game. Moreover, it provides a detail background of the game, an understanding of how this game is played and what are the rules that must be followed by the players. The paper will also include how artificial intelligence can be introduced in this game which makes it possible for the player to play against a machine who thinks and reacts fast by the help of some artificial intelligence concepts.
Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Concentrations in Drinking Water from Three Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. [PDF]
Peters, D.E., Emeodi, N. F., Chuku, L.C. Belonwu, D.CAbstract: Human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in drinking water from Umuechem (Etche Local Government Area-LGA), Bodo (Gokana LGA), and Obrikom (Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni LGA) communities in Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out. Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for evaluation of PAHs. Result revealed the presence of 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PAHs in all the water samples under investigation. The total PAHs concentrations in borehole water samples from the three communities were in the range of 5.42E-3-1.93E-2. Total PAHs concentrations of borehole water samples from Umuechem (1.93E-2), Bodo (1.38E-2), and Obrikom (5.42E3) exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) standard value of 0.0002mg/L for drinking water. Benzo(a)pyrene concentration (6.28E-4mg/L) in water sample from Umuechem exceeded USEPA maximum permissible limit, while that of Bodo (1.83E-4) and Obrikom (4.97E-6) were below the limit. High molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) were predominant in all the water samples when compared to low molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs). Chronic daily intakes (CDI) of PAHs through water consumption in all communities were below the reference dose (RFD). Toxic equivalents (TEQs) values of all the water samples were below the estimated screening value (SV) of 6.62E2. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) for both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk through non-dietary exposure were below 1. Estimated cumulative excess cancer risk (ECR) from dietary exposure to water from Umuechem and Bodo exceeded the cancer risk guideline value of 10-6. Therefore prolong consumption of borehole waters from Umuechem, and Bodo communities could pose potential PAHs human health risk to exposed subjects.
Analysis of Figurative Speeches in Wolaita Oral Discourses: With Particular Emphasis to Simile [PDF]
This study assessed some selected figurative speech that has progressive or pragmatic effect for the development of the Wolaita society and its overall socio-cultural implication. To this end around ten selected proverbs were collected from various sources such as an in-depth interview, focus group discussion ad observation. The figurative speeches were drawn from smile. The analysis was made in context based way in collaboration with elders of the society, key informants that have deep knowledge and experience of the language and language experts. In addition, observations were made by touring into various real social dealings so as to have real understandings about the use of the figurative speech in contextual way. It was concluded that figurative speech is helpful to convey various kinds of educative, encouraging massages in the conversation, and the existence of limited awareness regarding the meaning and use of figurative speech in communication by the young generation. Thus, it was recommended that government and nongovernment organizations should carryout various awareness creation activities in order to expand the wide use of figurative speeches in the society. Besides, deep studies should also be conducted on other type of figurative speech to widen the scope of knowledge in this relatively un researched language.
Keywords: figurative speech, oral discourse, simile indigenous wisdom
Investigating Strategies Used to Enhance Female Students Participation in Wolaitao Language Lesson in Gesuba High School [PDF]
Ayelech T/MariamThis study was conducted in Gesuba High School on grade 10 female students from section ‘A’ to ‘C’. Of the 121 female students, 60 students were randomly selected and two Wolaitao language teachers were included. One of the study’s major purposes was assessing factors that hinder female students’ class room participation in Wolaitao language lesson. In the study, data were gathered through questionnaire and observation. The data analysis was made by using quantitative and qualitative methods. The results revealed that female students in Gesuba High School are less participant in Wolaitao language lesson compared to those of male students. Based on the study results, it was recommended that teachers, the school administrators and stakeholders should work as hand and glove to solve the problem of female students such as encouraging them to participate in the classroom learning, creating conducive classroom situation to enhance their active participation.
Keywords: female students, active participation, Wolaitao language, classroom learning