Volume 10, Issue 12, December 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
      
Research: LA REFONDATION DE L’ETAT EN RD CONGO COMME PREALABLE D’UN NOUVEL ÈRE GEOPOLITIQUE EN AFRIQUE MEDIANE [PDF]
Jean-OMBAKI-WOTSHUThe balance of power refers to the distribution of capacities between two or more States or groups of States, and which tends towards a natural and stable balance in their relations. This process should encourage alternative strategies, such as collective security or cooperation through regional institutions. This is the idea of the African political of the DR Congo in the middle of Africa, based on regional co-security and co-responsibility in terms of defense and good neighborliness with neighboring countries. The ambitions of the DR Congo in Central Africa must reconcile the imperatives of peace, stability and security with a reorientation of the balance of power, resulting from geopolitical changes in the region. This is only possible through in-depth reflection on the new bases of the republic and the democracy of the Congolese state, which until now has remained a space with multiple crises.
FINANCEMENT DE L’ECONOMIE CONGOLAISE PAR LES BANQUES ET LES INSTITUTIONS DU SYSTEME DE FINANCEMENT DECENTRALISE:
Substitution, concurrence et/ou complémentarité ? [PDF]
Emmanuel MUKUNDI N. KAHUMBA et Crispin MALINGUMU SYOSYOLe présent article analyse les relations entre les banques commerciales et les Institutions du Système de Financement Décentralisé, en sigle ISFD dans le processus de financement des activités économiques en République démocratique du Congo. Il vérifie si les deux types d’institutions sont substituables, concurrents ou complémentaires sur le marché congolais du crédit. L’analyse faite sur les données disponibles portant sur la période de 2008 à 2020 avec l’estimateur de moindre carré ordinaire (MCO) permet de conclure que les banques et les ISFD fonctionnent conjointement en milieu urbain alors que les ISFD se substituent aux banques dans les zones rurales et excentrées du pays. L’action conjointe des deux firmes approximée par le produit du crédit bancaire et celui des ISFD influe fortement et de manière significative sur l’activité économique plutôt que l’offre de crédit prise individuellement. En effet, le crédit bancaire est mobilisé pour financer les opérations de court, moyen et parfois long terme alors que le microcrédit est sollicité pour les opérations de très court terme. En somme, l’étude révèle de manière tranchée qu’aussi bien le crédit bancaire que celui des ISFD sont utiles pour booster l’activité économique et se complètent en termes de volume et de maturité.
Total Quality Management Practices and Performance of Construction Projects in Rwanda [PDF]
Juliette Benegusenga,Prof. Madichie NnamdiThe research project entitled “Total Quality Management Practices and Performance of Construction Projects in Rwanda a case of BAXONS Ltd”. This research is conducted mainly to identify the effects of Total Quality Management practices on the performance of construction projects. The study focused on four practices, which are leadership, employees’ involvement, stakeholders’ management and continuous improvement. It also identified the challenges faced by BAXONS Ltd in their Construction Projects, show the relationship between TQM and construction project performance in Rwanda. The study adopted a mix of both qualitative and quantitative approaches and outsourced a questionnaire to all 56 staff of BAXONS Ltd. The study did not involve sampling due to small population fact. The results in terms of mean about the level of agreement on leadership, continuous improvement, employees’ involvement, and stakeholders management in construction project managed BAXONS Ltd were found in two categories of high and very high which prove the influence they have on the project performance. The study finds that an increase in employees’ involvement and stakeholders’ management variables led to higher project performance. The study also shows a slight negative relationship between leadership, continuous improvement variables and the project performance.
Furthermore, some of the main challenges that BAXONS Ltd faced during the project implementation included lack of clear policies, procurement issues and other management issues, which contributed to higher costs. The study recommends improving the TQM practices by ensuring better stakeholder involvement, top management commitment, education and training of engineers on TQM practices, effective customer-supplier relationships, and effective communication (internal and external). It also recommends conducting further research on the aspects of continuous improvement and leadership management as they are key to TQM and the research found a slight negative relationship with project performance in BAXONS Ltd.
Trends of Pharmacy Related Researches during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review [PDF]
Erwin M. Faller,RPh,MSPharm,PhD,MMPS,FRIPharm, Jenefer A. Jose, Idine A. Orais, Ricca Mae S. Pontillas, Angela Nicole T. Trasona, Jefferson Chanco, RPhSeveral investigations were undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic, and a large number of articles about the pandemic and its impact on the pharmaceutical industry are now available. However, many questions remain unresolved, and new ones are arising. Thus, a systematic review was conducted with the goal of identifying trends in pharmaceutical-related research during the COVID-19 pandemic in Southeast Asia in terms of pharmaceutical products and services, pharmaceutical innovation, pharmaceutical regulatory system, and the pharmacy workforce. The study was also conducted in order to determine the impact of the identified trends in pharmaceutical research on the pharmacists’ roles. In order to select publications that correspond to the study’s question, inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. Any papers that did not meet the researchers’ data sources and inclusion criteria were excluded during the initial and final screening procedure. In reporting systematic reviews, the researchers followed and utilized PRISMA guidelines, which consist of a four-phase flow diagram, and the PRISMA 2020 statement, which consists of a 27-item checklist to improve the transparency of the review. Of several articles identified, only seven were able to provide the information needed to address the systematic review’s objectives after the database search. The identified researches focused on pharmaceutical products and services in their analysis of each article, such as the development of a home drug delivery service that was utilized to lower the prevalence of medication-related problems during the pandemic. Furthermore, pharmacy-value-added services that have improved pharmacy services, particularly in the preparation of patient medication, were discussed. In terms of pharmaceutical innovations, online telepharmacy was discussed to be beneficial in providing continuous, high-quality care, and consultation to patients throughout the COVID-19 pandemic by means of an online platform provided by the pharmacist. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices of community pharmacists during the pandemic are included in the regulatory system which aids in the development of protocols and safety measures to contain the virus. Community pharmacist services, continuous operation of drug retail outlets, and patient care support are all part of the pharmaceutical workforce. Despite the hazards of the COVID-19 pandemic, these obligations and functions have been regularly carried out, considerably aiding in the improvement of patient care and the preservation of high-quality public services. Evidently, trends in pharmacy-related researches during the COVID-19 pandemic are critical in improving patient health and the overall quality of healthcare systems, and this was made possible by the efforts of a medical team that included the pharmacist as a key player.
“Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome with Acupuncture Myth or Truth Show?” [PDF]
PhD Beata Niedzwiedzka, LL.D Karolina HarasimowiczThe research used credible sources hence illustrating its ability to elaborate the effectiveness of acupuncture. However, the quality of evidence for most of the sources was low to very low. Such aspects affect the credibility, reliability, and validity of the study. Despite the limitations, the study successfully elaborated on how acupuncture can reclaim menstrual periods and reduce LH and testosterone levels among women affected by PCOS.
The Interaction between Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Lebanon Applications of the Nonlinear and linear ARDL models [PDF]
Mahmoud HachemThis study investigates the interaction between fiscal and monetary policies in Lebanon over the period 2001 to 2019 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and the Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model introduced by Pesaran et al. (2001) and Shin et al. (2014) respectively in order to examine simultaneously the short- and long-run symmetric and possible asymmetric interactions between fiscal and monetary tools in Lebanon. The fiscal and monetary rules employed in this study are inspired from Leeper (1991, 2016 and 2018). Based on NARDL and ARDL fiscal and monetary reaction functions, Lebanese fiscal authority acts independently indicating a fiscal dominance. This situation obliged the BDL to neglect its main goal of maintaining price stability in order to support fiscal deficit by creating seigniorage revenue to balance the government accounts which in turns has led to an acceleration of inflation rates even in case of monetary contraction. The fiscal responsiveness to changes in public debt is extremely weak in Lebanon, and even is negative, and this is due to the high levels of public debt (174.3% of GDP in 2019). The empirical results indicate also that while the linear approach provides evidences of the interaction between the fiscal and monetary policies, the nonlinear approach provides more important evidences to determine in which direction this cooperation or conflict occurs between policy mix. Moreover, this paper provides new evidences of the absence of fiscal and monetary discipline rules followed by the fiscal and monetary authorities, which indicates that the policymakers in Lebanon were managing the financial and monetary policies without any specific plan or program and without any future vision or even a framework that allows these policies to be evaluated.
SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING USING AN IMPROVED MULTI-LEVEL INTRUSION DETECTION AND LOG MANAGEMENT SYSTEM [PDF]
Rimdans Victor ZwalmakCloud Computing is a new type of service which provides large scale computing resource to each customer. Cloud computing systems can be easily threatened by various cyber-attacks, because most of the cloud computing systems provide services to so many people who are not proven to be trustworthy. A common issue of intrusion detection and management of large loads of data affecting security and performance in a cloud computing system need attention of a strong balance between IDS security level and system performance. If the IDS provide stronger security service using more rules or patterns, then it needs much more computing resources in proportion to the strength of security. To resolve these kinds of issues, an improved multi-level ID’S and log management system is developed which will detect various type of attacks and provide suitable level of security by examining attackers data record observed in processes on the virtual machine and send sms and email to the administrator. A spiral research methodology is adopted throughout this research. The implementation shows that, cloud computing system can achieve both effectiveness of using the system resource and strength of the security service without trade-off between them. Tools used are PHP, Atom and MySql in developing the web applications.
Keywords - Intrusion Detection Systems, Log Management System, Host-Based IDS, Network-Based IDS, Software as a Service (SAAS), Platform as a Service (PAAS), Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS)
THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A CASE STUDY OF DECATHLON GHANA [PDF]
AYIVOR CHARLESTraining has become essential in today's evolving and competitive economies, such as Ghana's. The human capital of a company sets it apart from a good one. Excellent human resource devel- opment and training benefits organizations both now and in the future. An overview of the litera- ture on the effects of training and development on worker productivity is provided by this study. Employees often become absolutes as a result of organizational, technological, and social dynam- ics, thus it is crucial to adapt to ongoing skill and knowledge development. As a result, firms must effectively manage training and development programs if they want to maximize their return on investment. Training and development help to create human capital. Consequently, training and development are critical to a company's employee productivity.
Exploring Biology Teachers’ Development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Genetics Using Park’s Pentagon Model [PDF]
Adamu Haruna Ibrahim, Shehu Danladi Zayum,, Jibrin Adamu GagdiAbstract: The research work focused on exploring the Development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) for teaching Genetics in Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers Using Park’s Pentagon Model in Plateau Central Zone. The research has two objectives and two research questions that guide the research, the design for the study is qualitative case study where two biology teachers participated. The sample of the study is the two biology teachers purposively selected from the population of 74. The instrument used was pre-lesson interview, post-interview and a class room observation (non-participant-observer) was used. The instrument was subjected to content and face validations. Method for data collection followed a simple stages, stage one is pre-lessons interview, two post-lessons interview and finally through documents analysis. The procedure for data analysis was through the semi pre-interview conducted, classroom observations recorded, post interview, information obtained from the field in-depth analysis of PCK. Finding shows that, there is an overall increase in the development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to an appreciable level. Based on the findings, the researcher recommend that, educational course work, seminar, workshop and professional training should be made compulsory for teachers, teaching genetics in senior secondary schools in Plateau central zones.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLUPENTIXOL DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE FOR AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM [PDF]
TUMMALA PRUTHVI RAJIn the present work, five simple, sensitive and specific methods (Zero, First, Second order derivative Spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and HPTLC) have been developed for the quantitative estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
PART A: UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
METHOD A: ZERO ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, accurate and precise Zero order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with distilled water. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water. Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 229 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The regression equation was found to be Y = 0.0612 C + 0.0046. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.128 (mcg / ml) and 0.390 (mcg / ml), respectively. Recovery of
Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 98.63 – 99.87 %.
METHOD B: FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise First order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with distilled water. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water. Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 222 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9996. The regression equation was found to be Y = 0.0158 C - 0.0015. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.12 (mcg / ml) and 0.37 (mcg / ml), respectively. The % RSD values were less than 2. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 99.21 - 100.87 %.
METHOD C: SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise Second order derivative Spectroscopy method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stock solution was prepared by weighing 100 mg of Standard Flupentixol dihydrochloride in 100 ml volumetric flask with methanol. The final stock solution was made to produce 100 mcg / ml with distilled water.
Further dilutions were prepared as per procedure. The drug solution showed the maximum absorbance at 214 nm. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-15 mcg / ml. The Correlation coefficient was 0.9998. The regression equation
was found to be Y = 0.0036 C + 0.0001. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.36 (mcg / ml) and 1.11 (mcg / ml), respectively. The % RSD values were less than 2. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the
range of 99.18 – 99.87 %.
PART B: HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. A Phenomenex -
Gemini C -18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing Methanol: Water (65: 35, v / v) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and effluents were monitored at 229 nm. Chromatogram showed the main peak at a retention time of 4.28 min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. The linearity was found to be in the range of 10 to 50 mcg / ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be 0.11 (mcg / ml) and 0.34 (mcg / ml), respectively. Recovery of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was found to be in the range of 98.95 - 99.88 %.
PART C: HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
A simple, specific, accurate and precise high performance thin layer chromatography method has been developed for determination of Flupentixol dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method uses aluminium plates coated with silica gel 60 F254 as stationary phase and toluene: glacial Acetic Acid (7: 3, v / v) as
mobile phase. Densitometric evaluation of the separated bands was performed at 229 nm. The RF value of Flupentixol dihydrochloride was 0.21 ± 0.02. The validated
calibration range was 300-1500 ng per spot (r2 = 0.9993). The limit of detection was 6.24 ng / spot and Limit of quantitation was 18.92 ng / spot. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and ruggedness.
Flupentixol dihydrochloride, Method validation, Zero order derivative Spectroscopy, First order derivative Spectroscopy, Second order derivative Spectroscopy, RP-HPLC, HPTLC and ICH guidelines.
QUADRATIC INEQUALITY- NEW METHOD OF SOLUTION [PDF]
DR. HONACIA SCERENOPlease do not hesitate to contact me if you have need further worked examples to proof that the methodis valid.