Volume 10, Issue 12, December 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]

Determinant of Import Performance: A case of Nepal []

Import is a crucial component of an open economy. The study is analyzed Using the (ARDL) technique to estimate the aggregate import demand of goods and services function for Nepal using annual data covering the period 1980 to 2021, this research examines the relationship between Nepal aggregate import and macroeconomic factors. Using the augmented dickey-Fuller test, variables were discovered to be stationary at I (0) and I (1). The results of the bound test indicate that the factors that influence Nepal's imports of goods and services are Import Value Index (IVI), Private Consumption (PC), and Population Growth (PG) are cointegrated. Only educational expenditure is the factor that doesn’t influence import performance of Nepal. The working age of Population growth, import value index and private consumption have appreciable effects on long run period in Nepal's total import of goods and services. Key words: Import of goods and services, Nepal, ARDL, Population Growth, Private Consumption

Effect of COVID-19 and Coping Strategies of Selected Small Business Enterprises in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria []

Statistics show that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have contributed positively to Nigeria's economy, but COVID-19 negatively affected the gains and survival of many SMEs. Many studies have been conducted on the magnitude of the effects. However, only some exist on the coping strategies devised and future business sustainability plans in response to COVID-19 and future business risks. A survey among 142 purposively selected SME owners in Osogbo, Osun State, shows loss of profit, capital, and lack of access to raw materials and customers as effects. Most SMEs could not withstand the risks of the COVID-19 lockdown and resist the vulnerabilities posed by COVID-19 to their operations because they lacked proactive survival strategies for resisting adversity. Only government palliative measures were the most vital responsive reactions to the adversity created by COVID-19. However, owners of small businesses needed help accessing palliatives and other support from the government. Based on findings, The Covid-19 challenges encouraged many SMEs to learn and adapt to digital technology and gave them an impetus for sustainable development. Although some businesses died utterly, it enabled many owners to think of alternatives and diversify their businesses for sustainability. The positive reactive response of owners of SMEs themselves is futuristic, showing that they can proactively resist the adversity of unwanted risks to their businesses if they properly mainstream the business sustainability plans mentioned.


Students with cognitive medical condition of disability like epilepsy or seizures are generally considered to have difficulties with their academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to find out whether epilepsy actually affects academic achievement of students in basic science subjects (Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry) among secondary school students with Epilepsy/Seizures in Niger State. The design of the study was an Expo-facto design. The study adopted a Purposive sample of 29 epileptic senior secondary two students 2020/21 academic session. The data used for the study was a primary source of data from the existing scores of promotional examination set by test and measurement unit of the Niger State Ministry of Education. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and t-test at 0.05 level of significant difference. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significance difference between students’ academic achievement in the three science subjects as influenced by acute and mild epilepsy. This is evident as findings on mathematics, physics and chemistry showed acute and mild epileptic students’ achievement on t-test as 8.29, 2.75, and 5.28, all greater than the critical value of 2.052, respectively. The study recommends that special attention should be given to epileptic students in terms of suitability of teaching methods, conducive learning environment and close monitoring to improve their achievements in academics.


Information Retrieval (IR) is a system concerned with the retrieval of documents from ( stream of) document data-bases, based on user information. IR carry out its operations by first preparing the collection of documents for re-trieval through an indexing process after which user (information) needs are captured by phrases which are them-selves indexed and used to rank the documents retrieved. It is functional also in the area of huge scientific litera-ture, in supporting complex software engineering processes such as code maintenance and bug management, and most importantly in automatic document summarization.The growth in electronically available documents makes it difficult to obtain the necessary information related to the needs of a user. Text summarization systems extract brief information from a given document. Summarization is a process where the most relevant features of a text are ex-tracted and compiled into a short abstract of the original document. This work therefore develop a query-based multi-document summarization system leveraging on combination of IR techniques, clustering and graph-based model. This reduces redundancies, summarizes multiple documents with related topics based on semantic (mean-ing of words) centered on a query input. This study is to provide accurate and useful summarization of the con-tents of multiple text documents using a user input. With automatic text summarization, this problem can be miti-gated, thereby acquiring more information leading to more effective decisions in less time. Besides, summarization can also benefit other NLP (Natural Language Processing) tasks. So, summarization focuses on getting the main meaning of a document.

Friction Inhibitive Behaviour of Tert-Butylhydroquinone Enhanced Palm Oil for Lubrication in Sliding Applications []

Numerous lubricants have been developed, and numerous approaches to improved and long-term lubricant performance have been discovered. In recent years, the addition of foreign substances in nano quantities to enhance the properties of base oils for specific applications has also received increased attention. Even though these methods have produced amazing results, there are still growing concerns about the mineral oils' non-biodegradability and the environmental safety of their additives. As a result, research into vegetable oils and their derivatives, like palm oil and other seed oils, as alternatives to reduce the negative effects of improper disposal and eventual habitat degradation has grown. Using a Tribometer and palm oil containing 150 ppm and 300 ppm of Tert-Butyl-Hydroquinone (TBHQ) for comparison with the tribological behavior of mineral oil (SAE40) at temperatures ranging from 40°C to 100°C. The coefficients of friction between 0.1 and 0.12 for palm with 150 ppm to 300 ppm respectively of TBHQ were found to be strongly comparable to those of SAE40 mineral oil at those temperature loads.


Our goal is to identify factors that influence the foreign exchange rate volatility of Kenya's publicly traded commercial banks in Kenya. Specifically, the study evaluated the extent to which inflation rate, government debt, economic recession, and speculation influence the foreign exchange rate volatility of listed commercial banks in Kenya. Theoretically, the study adopted Purchasing Power Parity, the Monetary Model, and the International Fisher Effect Theory to guide the understanding and interpretation of the relevant objectives for the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design to inclusively consider all the parameters in the study. The target population was one hundred and the sample size was ninety-three employees of the listed commercial banks in Kenya obtained by application of Krejcie and Morgan. The questionnaire formed the main instrument of data collection which contained structured questions made in the form of Likert-type scale, ranging from one to five. Primary data was used. Data was analyzed statistically using SPSS (V. 20) software. Mean, variance, and standard deviation were calculated to conduct descriptive analysis. We employed inferential methods like correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. For the purpose of testing the hypothesis of the presence or absence of a multicollinearity problem, a correlation study was performed using the Liner Regression Model. Correlation results indicated a positive relationship between inflation rate, government debt, and foreign exchange; a negative relationship between economic recession, monetary speculations, and foreign exchange. All null hypotheses were rejected at a 95% confidence level. Conclusion, recommendations, and further studies were suggested


Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effect of credit risk management on performance of financial institutions; a case of AB Bank Rwanda. The research was based on certain goals. The study’s first objective was to determine the relationship between client appraisal and performance of AB Bank Rwanda; to determine the effect of credit risk controls on the performance of AB Bank Rwanda; to assess the effect of loan supervision on the performance of AB Rwanda; and to analyse the effect of credit collection and recovery policy. To accomplish the aforementioned objectives, a mix of surveys, interviews, document reviews, and other reports were used. Questionnaires were provided to a set of 71 respondents, and all 71 questionnaires were properly filled out and returned for analysis. In addition, the director of Credit delivery were interviewed, Universal sampling was used. Since the population size, which comprises employees of credit delivery and recovery, finance and internal audit departments at the AB Bank Rwanda headquarters, was insufficient to cover the whole population. Using SPSS descriptive statistics, the influence of internal audit on the project performance of financial institutions in Rwanda were examined. Using correlation analysis and regression analysis, the link between the research variables were determined.


One of the efforts made by the current government in increasing development is through entrepreneurship. Social entre-preneurship as one of the branches takes an important role in realizing these economic development efforts. Social entre-preneurship that is oriented towards social life will have more impact if it is driven by the community, in this case po-syandu cadres. Therefore , it is necessary to increase knowledge of entrepreneurial interest in Posyandu cadres through training. This research uses a quasi-experimental approach with theresearch essay used is "One Groups Pretest-Posttest Design. The sample is a cadre appointed to participate in the training of 20 Posyandu cadres. Data analysis using the Wil-coxon test. The results of this study show that there are significant differences in knowledge variables before and after Po-syandu cadres attend training (p = 0.000). There are significant differences in the variables of interest in entrepreneurship before and after posyandu cadres attend training (p = 0.000) After attending this training, cadres should be accompanied intensively to maintain the enthusiasm and consistency of cadres in running a business in the future. Posyandu cadres must also be retrained to improve their technical skills in running a joint business.


Abstract An investigation was carried out to determine the thermo-, osmo- and pH–tolerances of yeasts isolated from palm wines collected from various locations in Ihiala town in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State. For the determination of thermo-tolerance, the isolates were inoculated separately into yeast extract, dihydrogen phosphate, sucrose (YEPS) medium and incubated at various temperatures. Osmo- and pH-tolerances were determined using the same medium and various sucrose concentrations and pH values respectively. All the yeast strains, showed very good level of growth at 350C, with S. cerevisiae OP1 recording the best result. At temperature higher than 400C the growth of all the selected yeasts decreased. All the yeasts isolated tolerated 10%w/v of sucrose concentrations. The yeasts did not tolerate 40% of the sucrose concentration, except Saccharomyces cerevisiae OP1 and S. cerevisiae OP2. None of the yeast isolates tolerated 50% w/v of sucrose concentration. Maximum yeast growth was recorded by S.cerevisiae at 15% w/v sucrose concentration. None of the yeast isolates grew below pH 4 and above pH 7. The growth of S.chevalieri OP4, S.rosei OP5 and S.chevalieri RP2 was observed to start at pH 5, while no growth was observed at pH 7 and 8 for S.rosei OP5, S.pastorianus RP1 and S.rosei RP5. Maximum yeast growth was recorded by S.cerevisiae OP1 at pH 6. It is concluded in this study that some of the yeasts isolated from the palm wines displayed thermo-, osmo- and pH–tolerances.


This study aims to determine and analyze the influence of the quality of human resources, work professionalism, and organizational commitment on the performance of employees of the Secretariat of the South Konawe Regional People's Legislative Assembly. The data analysis method used is the quantitative method using multiple linear regression analysis, and the test tools used are the F test and t test. The samples taken in this study amounted to 34 people. Testing research instruments using validity and reliability tests. The research results found the quality of human resources, work professionalism, and organizational commitment simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on performance. The quality of human resources partially has a positive and significant effect on performance. Work professionalism partially has a positive and significant effect on performance. Organizational commitment partially has a positive and significant effect on performance.


This study aims to determine the development of the financial performance of banking companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, especially State-Owned Commercial Banks (BUMN) for six years, namely 2016-2021 using quantitative descriptive analysis. Data collection techniques in this study used documentation and literature study methods. Researchers used data analysis techniques, namely the liquidity ratio which was measured using the Minimum Statutory Reserves ratio and the Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), the solvency ratio which was measured using the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) and Primary Ratio (PR), and the profitability ratio which was measured using Return On Assets (ROA) and Operational Income Operating Costs (BOPO). Based on the ratio analysis that has been carried out, namely the liquidity ratio, solvency ratio, and profitability ratios. Where is the liquidity ratio for the performance of the four banks, namely Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk, Bank BRI (Persero) Tbk, Bank BNI (Persero) Tbk, and Bank BTN (Persero) Tbk. The results of the study found that the company's performance, measured by the liquidity ratio, was in the healthy category. Company performance is measured through solvency ratios in the healthy category. while company performance is measured through profitability ratios in the healthy category.


This research was conducted to know, test, and analyze (1) the effect of transformational leadership style on employee performance, (2) the effect of work motivation on employee performance, (3) the effect of work discipline on employee performance in Bank Indonesia Representative Office employees in Southeast Sulawesi Province. The design of this study uses an explanatory approach. The population of this study is permanent employees at Bank Indonesia Representative Offices in Southeast Sulawesi Province, totaling 38 people. The research sample was taken by census method. Data collection uses a questionnaire and the data analysis tool uses Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of this study indicate that (1) the transformational leadership style has a positive and significant effect on employee performance, meaning that the better the leader applies the transformational leadership style, the better the level of performance produced by the employees. (2) Work motivation has a positive and insignificant effect on performance, meaning that work motivation is always present within employees, but the effect has no meaning or significance on employee performance. In addition, work motivation does not have a significant effect on employee performance when achievement, recognition, responsibility, progress, and the work itself have become commonplace for employees and have become a concern for the Representative Office of Bank Indonesia, Southeast Sulawesi Province.


This study aims to formulate employee competency development strategies in the new normal era at BPSDM Southeast Sulawesi Province. This type of research is mixed, namely descriptive qualitative and quantitative with a case study design. Data analysis using the SWOT analysis technique. The informants of this study consist of structural and functional officials related to the preparation of employee competency development programs. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, documentation studies, observations, and focus group discussions. The validity of the data was tested using triangulation techniques in terms of sources, techniques, and time. The results of the study show that the organizational strength map of BPSDM Southeast Sulawesi Province to develop employee competence in the new normal era is in quadrant III so the strategy that needs to be carried out is a stabilization or rationalization strategy, namely a strategy to overcome weaknesses to seize opportunities optimally by developing an organizational culture as a learning organization through sharing knowledge of colleagues, increasing coordination and synergy between elements at each stage of activity, and providing facilities to support the learning process and production of online-based learning materials and media.

Diligence in Accomplishing Assignments and Activities in the LMS in the Contexts of Grade 9 Students in Economics: Basis for an Action Plan towards Students’ Efficacy []

Pandemic compelled schools to provide delivery of learning in a more flexible manner and Holy Trinity Academy were among the schools provided this through fully online learning and home-based learning modalities. Despite the flexibility it provided, some students still failed to submit their assignments and activities in the LMS. Because of this alarming situation, the researcher was motivated to conduct this action research. This was conducted during the school year 2021-2022. Twenty-three students were purposively selected and descriptive phenomenology was used. Responses of the student were derived using a questionnaire sent to them through the google form. Open-minded reading was used to derive meanings and themes. Based on the findings, distractions, lack of time, and stress were the factors identified by the students affecting their diligence which are classified under environmental conditions, time, and emotional conditions. Furthermore, they believed that promptness, initiative in answering and submitting the activities, a positive mindset, and proper management of time are helpful in their diligence. Finally, they recommended lessening the activities in the modules, providing enough reminders, giving clear instructions, expanding the date of submission, and giving enough motivation to enhance their diligence. It is hereby recommended that parents should ensure a conducive environment at home. Parents and teachers should ensure that students are not exposed to stressful situations. Teachers should follow up on students' conditions. The activities in the modules are in the right amount and the schedule of submission is set in a reasonable time. Students must apply proper time management, initiative, and conscientious observance of the reminders. Lastly, an action plan for students’ efficacy was created.

Project management practices and project performance in national union of disabilities'Organisation of Rwanda []

The success of projects largely depends on the way it is managed and controlled. The challenges met during the execution of project management practices has been during project planning, exceeding the set budget and going beyond its set schedule and poor quality. This study sought to determine the role of project management practices on the performance of disability people organizations projects within NUDOR. The study also sought to find out the effect of communication, project planning, stakeholder involvement, monitoring and evaluation on the performance of disability people organizations projects. The study was anchored on classical Theory and constraint theory, stakeholder theory, realistic evaluation theory and goal setting theory. Methodology used is census or survey methods where the population was made of executive managers, project managers and project team where there were 48 from 16 organizations of people with disability, where all 48 were participated. Data were collected using both primary and secondary data. There are different research that found there is a relationship between project management practices and project performance.


The primary objective of the study was to identify key internal control mechanisms that can enhance operational efficiency and effectiveness of driving schools in Harare, Zimbabwe. The study was mixed methods which was chiefly quantitative. 140 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to registered driving schools in Harare CBD, out of which 76 were completed and returned, data was analyzed using SPSS. Simple random sampling was used to determine the sample size of 140 from a population of 218 registered driving schools. Six face-to-face interviews with owner/managers were also conducted. Results of the study show that guidelines on as-set use, organizational chart, payments’ authorizations, verifications by owner/manager, bank reconciliations, accounts receivables and payables reconciliations, budget preparation, variance analysis, analysis of reports by owner/ manager, procedures to reprimand employees and control environment should be effected in order for driving schools to enhance their operational efficiency and effectiveness. The study recommends that driving school operators should ensure there is segregation of duties over the cash cycle, payments should be authorized and there has to be back up of data, these mechanisms were found to have positive correlation to operational efficiency and effectiveness, however many driving schools do not apply them in their operations. It is suggested that future researchers test the applicability and desirability of these identified internal control mechanisms on registered driving schools in Zimbabwe or elsewhere.


The study sought to determine the perception of parental involvement in teaching and learning activities on students’ academic performance. A case of Huye district, in Tumba sector, the selected school were Ecole Regina Pacis, G.S.Cyarwa, G.S Ste RITA MUSANGE. The population size was 70. The data were collected by using questionnaires, interview guided, observation and documentation. Data were processed and analyzed using software called SPSS. Descriptive statics such as frequencies and percentage were used to describe data. The study has shown that there is significant and positive relationship between parental involvement and student academic performance. The provision of learning facilities, encouragement, rewarding, setting guidelines and discipline control improve students ‘academic performance. The study revealed again that parent –teacher face to face conversation impacts positively student academic performance. Moreover, the study indicated that using communication notebook and phones are the best desirable modes of communication between parent and teacher and impacts positively as students problems are identified and handled timely, this was reported by a percentage of 73.3%. However, the study confirmed that parent’ an involvement in school functions and budget allocation has positive effect on students academic performance as discipline is enhanced, and absenteeism reduced and this was ranked by a percentage of 57.1%, . In addition to this collaboration with the school and community member has significant impact on student academic performance and school development. Keywords: Parents involvement, teaching and learning, students’ academic performance.


Indonesia is one of the largest coal producing countries in the world, as well as being the number 7 country as a user of coal energy as the main source of energy. It is recorded that Indonesia's coal production target in 2022 is 663 million tons, with an export target of 497.3 million tons and domestic use (DMO) of 165.7 million tons. PT XYZ as one of the companies engaged in the coal industry business is one of the companies with the largest production capacity in Indonesia. In 2022 PT XYZ total coal produc-tion target is 33 million tons. One of the sites with the largest total coal production of PT XYZ is the Lati Mine Operation site with a total coal production target in 2022 of 8.5 million tons. Of course, to continue to be able to increase its production capacity, it is necessary to make improvements in the existing business processes. This must still be adjusted to the actual conditions of the field and the company's vision and mission, so that the implementation of the project carried out goes hand in hand with the company's goals. The PQRT pit LMO site as one of the largest pits in the PT XYZ area in the process of achieving production to support the production achievements of PT XYZ has several challenges in the coming years. Some things that can be an obstacle to the mining process carried out include the ratio of blending materials in the disposal area, based on the results of reserving in 2022 the total soft material that needs to be handled is 33 million BCM with hard blasting material for blending only 80 million BCM, then the existing blending ratio is only 2.44 or a shortage of 1.11 from plan 3.55. Then another problem faced is related to the distance hauling overburden which is getting farther and farther towards the west area due to the development of the south towards pit and the delay in completing the western disposal (compliance disposal) so that it has an impact on existing operational costs. Based on the review of actual distance 2022, the existing distance fig-ure is 3,039 compositely (for a total fleet of 35), while the plan for 4 fleets that will run and enter the western disposal area is 4,760 KM from the 2022 plan of 3,380 KM. To overcome several obstacles and to achieve production targets in 2023 and beyond, a more detailed analysis is carried out related to what business improvement can be done through project management process review, business value realization to AHP analysis to determine the project to be executed and become the top priority. Based on the results of the analysis carried out, it was found that the most suitable project is the Channel Dump project. The project is a new improvement in the disposal area by applying technology for the surveillance process, dumping in the highwall area using channels and the use of steel hoppers as a sliding pad (channel) foundation. With the implementation of the Channel Dump project and after an analysis related to the impact and benefits on K3 and operational aspects, results were obtained related to increasing the blending ratio from 2.44 to 3.4, reducing distance compositely by 25 meters (for a total fleet running of 35 units), increasing sequence accuracy from 88.9% to 91.2%, and increasing compliance dis-posal from 70% to 76%. Based on the results of the financial analysis study, the potential of the Channel Dump project to produce an NPV value of < 0 is 0%, with an NPV value of Rp. 2,429,003,770.83, PI 1.37, PBP 1.17 and IRR 38.15%.

A Literature Review on Ethics and Sustainable Development: Approaches for Qatar []

Sustainable development and business ethics are two concepts that seem to parallel one another. Without the proper business ethics in place, it appears as though it is highly unlikely that any business organization can practice effective sustainable development. There are many concepts and elements that form the overall sustainable development practices that are occurring around the world (Enderle, 2014, p. 725). This paper’s overall aim is to discuss and analyze the many different elements of business ethics and sustainable development and how the approaches that are being used in the country of Qatar and in other regions around the globe. Further, the various themes will be discussed through the review of the literature and any gaps in the research will be identified and discussed for purposes of recommending possible explanations. Some of the themes that are present within the literature are corporate social responsibility (CSR), how Qatar is doing in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, leveraging sustainable human resource practices, how the institutional, cultural environment, and distinct ethical traditions of specific developing countries manifest in the ethical conduct and/or CSR policies and practices, and the overall ethical philosophies and ethical decision-making practices occurring and how they relate to Qatar’s and other regions’ sustainable development.

Industry 4.0: Hype or Hike []

Industry 4.0 has been a hotly debated topic for the industrial business leaders. Though some companies have been enjoying the benefits of Industry 4.0 still there are a lot of space in adapting Industry 4.0. This research has been designed to identify the challenges and barriers for adapting Industry 4.0 in Pharmaceutical and construction business. For this research SLR (Systematic Literature Review) methodology has been used and 78 articles scanned for the SLR. There are several challenges and barriers have been identified. The conclusion has been provided with the several practical implications of this research in future.


This study aims to find the relationship between customer demographics and their purchase pattern of domestic refrigerators in Coimbatore. Components like refrigerator type, brand, capacity, time of purchase, customers mode of finance and their preferred shop of purchase of refrigerator were considered for the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 470 individuals. According to the findings of the study, there was a significant relationship exist between a customer's preferred shop and their age, educational qualification, income, family size, and opinion on replacing the same brand of refrigerator. The study also found that there was a significant relationship exist between a customer's preferred mode of financing and their marital status, employment type, income, refrigerator type, and refrigerator capacity.


Language learning is no longer a matter of sitting in a class with a pen in hand aiming at making notes about new vocabulary, new rules and new ways of how to become a native-like speaker. In this day and age, the abiding classical role of the teacher -being the unique source of language input- has collapsed under a heavy pressure of a giant native like environment that has been erected by a ubiquitous M-tech surrounding students. Nowadays, language students or students of other subjects are capable of reaching what was beyond the reach of their predecessors. The ubiquitous nature of M-tech, that surrounds the language learner with all the different types of input, has created a symbiotic environment where the learner interacts with the language in its natural context. In this regard, the present Applied Linguistic investigation analyzed the role of comprehensive input, which students’ ecosystem provides, in enhancing students’ speaking skills regardless of the amount of input they are exposed to in the classroom. This study assessed 40 undergraduate students who belong to the English studies department at the School of Arts and Humanities, Moulay Ismail University. The investigation adopted a mixed method research design in assessing students’ speaking using two separate tasks to reveal the discrepancy between the ecosystem impact and the classroom role in providing comprehensible input. The results disclosed that the natural comprehensible input is at an advantage.

Exploring the Impact Eco-Tourism among the Ethnic Groups: A Qualitative Study in the Chittagong Hill Tracts []

This study aims to explore the condition of ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts on the business of eco-tourism affects the lifestyle of the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). This study tried to find the scenario through a qualitative study with 50 respondents in Bandarban Sadar Upazila of CHT. The rise of ecotourism coincides with the meeting the requirements of current tourists and host regions, we must also conserve and enhance chances for the future. It is the case envisioned as leading to the management of all natural resources in such a way that economic, social, and environmental objectives are met. Among the districts of CHT, Bandarban Sadar has faced the most of tourism development and this study shows how the tourism is affecting their life. Ecotourism is promoted throughout the country. But the study shows that the true sense of eco-tourism is not being applied in the area. The ethnic people of CHT are not getting the true benefit of the development. This paper aims to explore whether the ethnic people are getting the true benefit of this development and getting social justice or not.