Volume 11, Issue 11, November 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Abstract: As a result of inadequate water supply at Adumakuma and Ntensere environs, individuals’ resort to various means of getting access to their own water supply by drilling of boreholes and sinking of wells in their homes for private use. This study aimed at examining the suitability of such wells water for consumption by evaluating their physio-chemical, bacteriological characteristics and heavy metals content such as Temperature, pH, Color, conductivity, Total suspended solids, Total dissolved solids, Turbidity, Nitrates, E. coli, Total coliform bacterial, cadmium, lead, zinc and copper. The obtained results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO 1993) drinking water standards to determine the suitability of groundwater. The results indicated that except pH and Nitrate, all the other parameters in the samples showed some level pollutants beyond the WHO limit. The overall results indicated that the water from the water sources located in the vicinity of solid waste dumping and quarry sites was unfit for drinking because the quality of water from these wells contained pollutants beyond the limit set by WHO.

Total Quality Management Practices Among Fast-Casual Restaurants In Baguio City []

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an essential management system for continued improvements that explains successful business operations in the restaurant sector. This study attempts to assess the views and opinions of the respondents on TQM practices focused on the service, food, and physical environment attributes associated with customer satisfaction, management operations, and company brand dimensions. These attributes and dimensions are a reflection of the dynamic processes in managing a food and beverage business venture. The study addresses the theoretical gap that defines the TQM practices among fast-casual restaurants in Baguio City. This paper uses a qualitative case study and data generation through interviews with seven (7). It was established that customer service theory and expectation confirmation theory are heavily influenced by the quality of service, food, and physical surroundings. These establishments' TQM practices must be improved in terms of service and food attributes, as well as the physical environment. This is to achieve the goal of continuous improvement on overall management operations and ensure customer satisfaction and revisit intention that impacts the business's bottom line and success.

How Leadership styles mediate succession planning practice and SME Sustainability []

The importance of succession planning in safeguarding the business’s well-being and continuity cannot be overstated. For SMEs to promote the sustainability of their enterprises and ensure business continuity there is the need to put the needed structures in place to adopt succession planning. The purpose of this article is to determine whether there is influence of succession planning on SME sustainability with leadership styles acting as a mediator. The population in the study is made up of 237 valid quantitative data analysed. The Sampling technique used was stratified random sampling method. The hypothesis developed and tested is the relationship between succession planning and SMEs sustainability as mediated by the presence of leadership style. The study recommended that SME owners and managers should proactively invest, engage and implement effective succession planning as it impact on sustainability of the organization. SMEs should periodically assess their culture and adjust leadership styles to ensure ongoing alignment since culture is not static, but it rather evolves.


This, this study examined the influence of of project leadership on the performance of ITSCI Project in Kicukiro district, Rwanda. For inferential statistics, the researcher used correlational analysis and regression analysis technique. The results indicated that there is a strong positive correlation between the independent and dependent variables at r=0. 901**, p-value=0.000<0.01). This implies that there is an influence of communication on the performance of ITSCI project. The results indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between the independent and dependent variables at r=0. 901**, p-value=0.000<0.01); there is a strong positive correlation between the independent and dependent variables at r=0. 924**, p-value=0.000<0.01). The study results indicated that R=.940 which is 94% and this means that there is a strong relationship between the three independent variables. They showed that R2= 0.883 representing 88.3% and showed that the adjusted R2=0.881. Results also showed that the model was significant at 0.000% level of significance which means that the data was valid for making study inferences as the significance level was below 0.05. An F-statistic 368.404 which was mentioned as the ratio of Mean Square Regression to the Mean Square Residual, showed that the model of the study was significant as evident by the significance level 0.000<0.05 demonstrating that changes in project communication, project team motivation and project change management have influence on the performance of ITSCI project. Summary of the findings in the research includes: the findings of the study revealed that project communication has significant influence on the performance of ITSCI project (β_01=0.282, p-value=0.000<0.05, t=3.670), project team motivation has significant influence on the performance of ITSCI project (β_02=0.252, p-value=0.001<0.05, t=3.419) and the project change management has significant influence on the project performance (β_03=0.451, p-value=0.000<0.05, t=5.353).


This paper set out to assess the influence of the professionalization of courses in higher education on graduate employability in Cameroon. Lack of marketable skills and work experience were observed as obstacles to finding wage-paying jobs and growing individual career employability. A focus on employability education in higher education (HE) with a marked orientation towards the acquisition of marketable skills through a more market-friendly curriculum could become the safest routes to escape the graduate unemployment trap and help in the development of individual career employability. The hypothesis is that the professionalization of courses has a significant influence higher education on graduate employability in Cameroon. The Human Capital Theory (1964, 1993, 3rded, 2005) is also used. The population consisted of 532 first-degree graduate job seekers from a cross-section of Cameroonian universities registered with the National Employment Fund, Yaoundé branch, of which 143 gained their first employment through the Graduate Employment Programmed (PED). Data was collected using a questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS. The hypothesis was at the alpha level of 0.05 and the level of significance was 0.000. Spearman rank correlation analysis was carried out. The results have a resilient recommendation.


As a guide for making good decisions, strategic implementation practice has been found to be a useful tool for improving an organization's performance. In the face of significant obstacles posed by fierce industry competition, MP Shah, Aga Khan, and Avenue Hospitals are competing with other health sector players for market share. Many private hospitals have underperformed as a result of the widespread assumption that strategy issues are intended to apply to them. This study investigated strategy implementation practices and competitive advantage of private hospitals in Nairobi City County. The study sought to determine how leadership style affect competitive advantage. Contingency Theory was used in the study. The results showed that there is a positive and statistically significant effect of Leadership Styles has significant and direct effect on Competitive Advantage. The discoveries show that executing the public authority guidelines decidedly influences upper hand in chosen clinics in Nairobi.


World-wide it is estimated that A third of the population lacks access to clean, contemporary fuels and cooking technologies. This study's primary goal is to assess how clean cooking affects environmental protection using the Eco Green Solutions project in Kigali, Rwanda's Nyarugenge district as a case study. This study was undertaken with three distinct goals, including to assess the utilization of biogas on environmental protection, to assess the role of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on environment protection and to examine the contribution of Biomass on environmental protection with a case of Eco Green Solutions. The target population and sample size for this descriptive study were the 136 project staff members and beneficiaries. A mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative data was used to collect the data through the use of an interviewing guide and a questionnaire. Tables have been used to display the results, and the pilot study's value for assessing the validity and for the impact of Clean Cooking Practices on the use of biogas on environmental protection in Nyarugenge District, 42.7% strongly agreed and 51.0% agreed that Carbon Dioxide enhances environmental protection in Nyarugenge district at r=0.875. Further, the clean cooking project on role of LPG on environmental protection in Nyarugenge district, 49% of respondents and 47.9% strongly agreed and agreed respectively that water waste treatment increase environmental protection while there is strong positive correlation between role of LPG on environmental protection at r=0.804. At the end, pellets accelerate environmental protection in Nyarugenge district, 53.1% strongly agreed and 37.5% agreed that biomass contribute on environmental protection in Nyarugenge district facilitates beneficiaries to get biomass with strong positive correlation between contribution of biomass and environmental protection at r = 0.840.

The Role of Computers in Management Information Systems []

ABSTRACT The aim of this work is to figure out the role of computers in management information systems. Cognitive studies have observed and confirmed the importance of understanding the cognition of users and information systems (IS) professionals. These works agree that organizational cognition is far too critical to be ignored as it can impact IS outcomes. expounds on the potential of this technique to IS researchers by considering the variety of ways. To quickly understand the varieties of this work and how computers are been used in management information systems. A management information system (MIS) is a computer system consisting of hardware and software that serves as the backbone of an or organization's operations. An MIS gathers data from multiple online systems, analyzes the information, and reports data to aid in management decision-making. Computers are also the benchmark of management and data analysis to provide accurate emphasis on the design, development, management, and use of information with insight and innovation, support decision-making, and create value for individuals, organizations, communities, and societies. A Management Information System is a formal computer-assisted organizational function designed to provide managers with information to help their decision-making. The management information system helps the managers to make planning and control decisions. MIS is a system to support the decision-making function in the organization. From the analysis of findings, the following were found out. The role computers play in management information systems is significant and not negligible though it cannot be compared to the human brain. The cost of acquiring the computer is very high but the result is very encouraging. Smaller organizations that have the intention to get their business computerized could go ahead to do so. The introduction of the computer even with its numerous advantages still leads to a reduction of manpower The initial reaction of the workers during the introduction of the computers is always negative for fear of losing their jobs through their reactions will change for the better in the future and they are given adequate assurance and job security

Effect of Ethnocentrism on Consumers’ Intention to buy domestically produced Value-Added Seafood products: An empirical study in the Sultanate of Oman. []

Omanis’ Consumer Ethnocentrism towards Value-Added Seafood products manufactured in Oman and the effect of that on their intention to purchase value- added seafood of Oman-origin products were studied. This study was carried out in six governorates of Oman from eleven provinces based on the density of the Omani population in these governorates and their distance from the capital, Muscat. They were distributed among coastal areas that do not have a high density of fish landing and others from the interior governorates, a sample of 420 Omani consumers were presented in the study. Relationship between certain demographic characteristics, ethnocentrism and the intention to buy the domestic value-added seafood products of the Omanis Consumers was analyzed. Demographic variables did not have any significant effect on Intention of the Omanis to purchase the value-add seafood products. Consumer ethnocentrism had an effect on the Intention of the Omanis set. Ethnocentrism tendencies of the Omanis consumers are positively related to their intention to purchase value-added seafood products produced domestically. A significant relationship between consumer ethnocentrism of the Omanis and their intention to purchase value-added seafood products produced domestically was observed. There was indication of a positive statistically significant relationship between the two variables. Regionalism indication of ethnocentrism for the Omani set among the deferent Governorate’s included in this empirical study was pointed higher Consumer Ethnocentrism and there are regional differences regarding the Omanis set. CETSCALE utilized to measure the level of the Omanis consumer ethnocentrism for the total possible score with the 17-itms using a 7-points Likert-type scale presented that, the mean scale values ranges between17 and 119 (with mean = or > 68). Generally, there was indication of higher mean values of the Omanis consumers’ level of ethnocentrism. This study was the first of its kind in Oman that mainly contributed to the fisheries sector marketing efforts; by contributes to the understanding of the effects of consumer ethnocentrism on the consumer initiation, and to the academic literature in the area of consumer evaluations of locally produced value-added seafood products. Keywords: Consumer Ethnocentrism, Likert-type scale, Value-Added Seafood products.


ABSTRACT: This study examines the impact of environmental education on farmers' knowledge and attitudes towards sustainable farming practices in Nigeria. A sample of 200 farmers was selected from four local government areas in the country, and a pre-test/post-test design was used to assess changes in knowledge and attitudes after participating in an environmental education program. Results showed that the program had a significant positive impact on farmers' knowledge and attitudes towards sustainable farming practices. The study suggests that environmental education can play a crucial role in promoting sustainable agriculture practices and recommends that more resources be allocated towards such initiatives. Introduction: Agriculture is a vital sector in Nigeria's economy, providing employment and income for millions of people. However, agriculture is also one of the main contributors to environmental degradation, including soil erosion, deforestation, and water pollution. The negative impact of unsustainable farming practices on the environment and the economy has led to a growing interest in promoting sustainable agriculture practices in Nigeria.


This study investigates audit committee attributes and financial statement quality in Nigeria. The broad objective of this study is to examine the effect of audit committee size on financial statement quality of listed non-financial firms in Nigeria and also to evaluate the effect of audit committee diligence on financial statement quality of listed non-financial firms in Nigeria. The secondary source of data collection was adopted in the study where the purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample size of eleven (11) non-financial firms listed in the Nigerian Exchange Group. Ordinary Least Square regression method was used to analyze the variables in this study using STATA and the findings revealed that audit committee diligence has significant effect on financial statement quality of listed non-financial firms in Nigeria and that audit committee independence has significant effect on financial statement quality of listed non-financial firms in Nigeria. The study recommends among others that the size of audit committee should be streamlined to portray the vision and standard of the firm and that regular meetings should be scheduled to checkmate the financial activities of the firm and the auditors at large. Keywords: Audit Committee, Audit Committee, Size, Audit Committee Diligence, Audit Committee Independence, Financial Statement Quality

Assessment of sawdust activated carbon in the treatment of aquaculture effluent []

This study is aimed at the assessment of sawdust activated carbon in the treatment of aquaculture effluent with various objectives which includes the determination of the SAC properties, effluent parameters, effect of operating conditions and application of relevant adsorption isotherms. The sawdust was first precarbonized at 500 C, then impregnated with potassium carbonate (activating agent) and activated at 450 C in a furnace. The surface morphology of the sawdust activated carbon (SAC) was determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) which showed a very porous media. It was further characterized using BET surface area at 77K, and the resulting surface area was 831.83 2/g. The acquaculture effluent (AE) was found to be very polluted compared to the NESREA discharge standard, in COD, TSS, BOD, NITRATES and lead(II) ion. An optimization studies was done using batch treatment process at varying dosage, time and initial concentrations, and the optimum treatment dosage and time were found to be 2g/l at 60minutes which gave an overall 83.33% reduction of COD, 90.80% reduction of BOD, 73.24% removal of nitrate( 3), 93.23% removal 0f TSS, and 99.35% removal of lead (Pb) ions. According to the 2 values, the kinetic studies showed that the adsorptionprocess was a pseudo second order reaction with a 2 value of 0.99. After the assessment, it was found that among other uses of sawdust, it is also a good precursor for the production of activated carbon, which is has been found in this study to be a good treatment media for the treatment of the polluted aquaculture effluent prior to its disposal into the environment.


La réforme qui a consisté à remplacer l’impôt sur le chiffre d’affaires (ICA), qui est un impôt en cascade, par la taxe sur la valeur ajoutée (TVA), étant donné sa neutralité et sa déductibilité, semble marcher plus ou moins bien dans bon nombre de secteurs d’activité économique. Mais s’agissant du secteur minier, ce nouvel impôt se présente comme un piège dans le système fiscal congolais, aussi bien contre les FMN exploitantes que contre le trésor public. En effet, les FMN sont tenus de la payer à l’importation pour permettre à leurs intrants d’entrer au pays, mais comme ils exportent les produits miniers à l’état brut, sans les transformer sur place, ils ont droit au remboursement d’une partie de la TVA versée qui constitue d’office un crédit à la TVA en termes de trop perçu. Quand cela ne peut être libéré au bout d’un an, deux ans ou trois ans, ça devient une dette qui s’accumule et ça donne du fil à retordre au gouvernement de la RDC pour le remboursement, tout en remettant en cause sa crédibilité, en l’exposant même au chantage de la part de ces FMN. Ce problème, qui frappe le secteur le plus contributeur à la croissance de la RDC, est un coup dur qui vient s’ajouter à de nombreux autres écueils de la TVA en RDC à savoir : le non-respect du principe d’équité, la défaillance de l’administration fiscale, la non-digitalisation du système fiscal et le problème du seuil d’assujettissement.


This present study explored the effects of rewards management system on employee performance. A case study of international training and motivation Africa Limited, Rwanda.The researcher targeted ITM Africa Ltd employees. Case study design was adopted for the study that also targeted 20 employees of ITM Africa Ltd company. The census technique was used due to the small study population. The data was collected using pretested questionnaires. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics aided by Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 21. The findings revealed that most employees were not content with their pay and also there was uncertainty on whether the current monetary rewards in the firm led to improved employee performance. Second, employee enjoyed communication, teamwork and even collaboration done with the top management of ITMA Ltd company. Lastly, the study findings also revealed that recognition strategies as currently practiced in the firm were having a considerable outcome on employee performance. The study recommends that management should adopt performance-based pay, by compensating employees based on their productivity and job performance which is expected to motivate employees more and to align their behaviour towards improving performance and output.

An Assessment of the Role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Green Technology in the Develoment of Smart and Sustainable Cities []

Artificial intelligence (AI) and Green technology are new, powerful concepts with a wide range of capabilities, which are currently being embroiled by most cities nowadays. The increased popularity of AI and Green technology for smart and sustainable cities is rather limited compared to other sectors. Moreover, despite AI and green Technology being slowly implemented and applied in most cities, there are currently limited review studies investigating the challenges and opportunities that come with adopting AI and Green technology for smart and sustainable cities. This study aims to reduce this gap by identifying the adoption challenges of AI and green Technology, the opportunities offered, and the challenges encountered for smart and sustainable cities. To achieve the aim, an existing theoretical literature review, through which a comprehensive office survey was conducted in scientific references, reports, studies, research, etc. The scientific journals reviewed included the Role of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Green Technology, and smart and Sustainable cities. The results of the literature review reveal that (a) the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Green Technology in developing environmentally sustainable green towns can be viable, (b) AI is rapidly becoming a critical smart city element that helps achieve necessary efficiencies and automation to deliver urban infrastructures, services, amenities, and urban densification; (b) the major opportunity in adopting AI and Green technology is the reduction of waste and recycling of building construction waste materials, using ecological low-energy and affordable building materials, houses be healthy, durable, safe, and secure, and (d) the biggest challenge in adopting AI and Green Technology for smart and sustainable cities is that machine learning AI needs a lot of data, and data processing and data storage use energy, which impacts the environment and climate change, which is widely regarded as one of the biggest and most threatening global challenges facing humanity—if not the worst. The study’s findings inform a range of stakeholders in the sustainability field concerning the opportunities and challenges of AI and Green Technology adaptability and help increase the knowledge of AI and Green Technology practices.


This study examined the impact of over-schooling on the job commitment of teachers in secondary schools within Edo Central Senatorial District. It was guided by three research questions, and one hypothesis was formulated and tested. The research employed an expo-facto research design and drew a sample of 200 public secondary school teachers from the total population of 397, utilizing stratified sampling techniques. Data were collected using a structured instrument, "Impact of Over-Schooling on Job Commitment of Teachers with Higher Degrees (IOSJCT)." The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The study concluded that despite insufficient motivation and the allure of white-collar jobs, teachers with higher degrees in secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District exhibit a high level of commitment to their teaching profession. It also highlighted the causes of over-schooling, such as the oversupply of graduates in comparison to job opportunities. As recommendations, the study suggests the need to motivate teachers with higher degrees and provide them with incentives to enhance their commitment to their roles. Policymakers at the government, school authorities, and parent-teacher associations should recognize and support these teachers. Furthermore, there should be formal policies in place to acknowledge the value of higher degrees at the secondary school level.


Agriculture constitutes an integral part of the economies of all African countries, as it contributes towards the achievement of major priorities in the continent which include among others the eradication of poverty and hunger, boosting intra-Africa trade and investments and sustainable resource and environmental management. Rwanda’s agriculture like many other African countries, is largely dependent on smallholder farmers. The PHHS project, which lasted for four years, collaborated with private agriculture enterprises and processors to lower post- harvest losses through investment in postharvest infrastructure and process improvement, including crop conditioning, storage and processing. This research sought to assess the effect of project planning on success of post-harvest handling and storage project in Gatsibo District. The study adopted both descriptive and correlational research designs. Questionnaires were issued to 315 respondents. This study stemmed on Agency Theory, Theory of Change and Stakeholder Engagement Theory. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The findings revealed that there is positive and significant effect of project deliverables on project success of PHHS in Gatsibo District, (β = 0.410; p-value < 5%), hence the first hypothesis was rejected. The study findings indicated that there is positive and insignificant effect of project scope on project success of PHHS in Gatsibo District (β = 0.206; p-value > 5%), hence the second hypothesis was accepted. Thirdly, it was discovered that there is positive and significant effect of project resources on project success of PHHS in Gatsibo District (β = 0.425; p-value < 5%), hence the third hypothesis was rejected. Finally, it was shown that there is positive and significant effect of project communication on project success of PHHS in Gatsibo District (β = 0.558; p-value < 5%). The study recommended that; public funded projects should not end at the life cycle of the project but should be sustained to ensure a long-term impact on the beneficiaries. Strong sustainable structures should be established for all the four components of the PHHS project in Gatsibo district which are storage facilities, market linkages, technology transfer strategy and Policies. Also, local leaders, that is Executive leaders, should be part of similar projects since these are same people that will always be in the communities even after the closure of the projects.

ESQUISSE SUR L’EVOLUTION DE LA MACROECONOMIE : Etapes, Acquis majeurs et Enjeux en perspective []

La Macroéconomie a évolué, avec différentes étapes suivant la prédominance d’un courant par rapport à un autre (classique, keynésien et néoclassique ou monétariste). Là, c’est sur le front de l’application des décisions de politiques économiques. Mais sur le front de la théorie de la Croissance, la macroéconomie a connu également un développement en trois grandes phases : les Classiques, avant Solow, ont développé des modèles dits pessimistes (une croissance mirage, suspendue le fil du rasoir), suivi des Néoclassiques dominés par la théorie de la croissance de Solow (modèle optimiste mais incomplet, inachevé) et enfin les Nouveaux théoriciens de la croissance (avec le modèle de croissance endogène). L’on note qu’il y a aujourd’hui un certain compromis ou une convergence des vues sur des questions qui ont divisé jadis. Le cadre commun d’analyse des problèmes macroéconomiques devient le modèle d’offre agrégée et de demande agrégée, s’appliquant aussi bien pour les fluctuations de court terme que sur celles de long terme. Il s’est avéré nécessaire d’expliquer les déterminants d’une croissance économique durable à partir des théories endogènes et exogènes des cycles et fluctuations conjoncturelles en insistant sur le mécanisme d’impulsion- propagation y relatif. Il a été conclu que la macroéconomie moderne doit désormais se construire sur base des ingrédients de la microéconomie qui en constituent le fondement.


Le secteur minier s’illustre toujours comme le secteur le plus porteur de croissance en RDC. Cette politique commerciale de l’époque coloniale n’a fait que continuer jusqu’à l’ère actuelle. Curieusement, cela se ferait avec moins de vigueur et d’intelligence aujourd’hui. En effet, jadis, ce secteur avait permis au pays de se hisser au rang des pays émergents tels que la RSA, alors qu’au jour d’aujourd’hui, il peine à couvrir les besoins essentiels de la population. Parmi les raisons de cette débâcle, on peut retenir la recrudescence de la fraude qui couvre pratiquement toute la chaine de l’exploitation des minerais et c’est tout le monde qui s’y livre, même les agents des services commis au contrôle et à la répression de la fraude minière. C’est ainsi que la RDC arrive à perdre des centaines de milliards de dollars chaque année à cause de la fraude minière. Il est donc plus qu’une urgence pour la RDC de se doter des moyens techniques et humains suffisants pour pouvoir valoriser les sous-produits contenus dans le majeur lors de l’exportation des produits miniers de manière à réduire les effets de la fraude minière à ce stade. Dans cette réflexion, nous montrerons ce que la RDC perd à cause de la non-valorisation des sous-produits lors des exportations des produits par les FMN opérant en RDC. Nous nous servirons des deux échantillons seulement vendus par TENKE FUNGURUME à savoir : la cathode du cuivre et l’hydroxyde de cobalt.


Drawn from closed and open-ended questionnaires answered by students, lecturers and auxillary staffs of the University of Bamenda, North West Region of Cameroon, this study indicates that disinformation influences individuals’ decision not to take the COVID-19 vaccines at The University of Bamenda. This decision is also influenced by other factors such as the lack of trust in the country’s Ministry of Public Health and the feeling of fear of the unknown.

The Quality of Home Care of an Older Adult: A Multidimensional Framework []

This paper describes the case of an older Bahraini man, and the impact of his caregivers on his physical and psychosocial health, grieve and death. The aim of the study is to understand the predictors of quality of life amongst older adults and suggest targets for interventions, it also provides health professionals a case reference for understanding the complexity and the impact of caregiving and dying of older adults in the comfort zone of their home.To guide the description of the quality of care, a balanced and synchronized multidimensional perspective model was adopted and modified from Roper Logan Tierney Model Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLs). The relevant care dimensions included mobilization, eating and drinking, elimination, sleeping, personal cleaning and hygiene, safe environment, managing loss and grief, and ultimately dying at home. The outcome ascertains that healthy aging and dignified death can be achieved provided that the caregivers understand the physical and psychosocial challenges inherent in the aging process, cooperate and adopt a family centered care model, and provide quality and timely intervention.


Noise pollution is considered to be any unwanted or distressing sound that causes the health issues and affects the well-beings of humans and other organisms. Exposure to loud noise can also cause health hazards. The evolution of noise control and sound quality are briefly discussed. Series of research work has been done seeking to provide insights both theoretical and empirical into the problems that are related to the halls and auditoriums of conference centers, however, most of these researches seem to agree that the issue of acoustics is one of the most commonly observed challenge. Therefore the motivating factor behind this work is the desire to contribute to the improvement of acoustics in a large building such as that of a conference center. Conference center are spaces of communication and due to their size and form they often suffer from flutter echoes and room resonances. To ensure that meetings take place successfully without any itch, there is the need to have a facility that will be adequate and functional. It is therefore of paramount importance that the acoustic factors be considered and methods to mitigate the noise be implemented where necessary. To achieve success in the study, qualitative research method research as well as case studies were adopted, literatures were reviewed, and physical site observations were also made. Results from the finding revealed that the use of parallel walls in the auditorium is a major cause of echo as it causes sound waves to easily bounce back and forth over the entire room which later creates an unwanted noise and echoes that could spoil the overall sound production, the shape of the building, the size of the auditorium and materials in the room, all together play vital roles in how sound was being produced, distributed and absorbed. To solve this problem, the use of a completely squared shape should avoided for the main auditorium, the use of absorptive materials on the floor, some part of the wall and ceiling were deployed to reduce echo and reverberations.


The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of responsibility assignment matrix and performance of Rwanda education assistance project in Rwanda with the particular goals: to determine the effect of segregation of duties on performance of Rwanda Education Assistance Project; to identify the effect of accountability of employees on performance of Rwanda Education Assistance Project and to evaluate the effect of monitoring responsibility practices on performance of Rwanda Education Assistance Project. The study after defense will be kept in the library and it could be served as reference by scholars of Mount Kenya University and other universities in carrying out their research. As scientific interest, the result findings of this research will be used by other researchers who have to carry out the related research topics. A theory of change helps identify solutions to effectively address the root causes of problems that impede progress and guides decisions about which approach to take, taking into account the UN's relative strengths, effectiveness, feasibility and uncertainty as part of any change process gender. A theory of change also helps identify underlying assumptions and risks, which are critical to understanding and reviewing the entire process to ensure that the approach is helping to achieve the desired change. The analyst utilized surveys to gather information, as distant as this study is concerned; the population was comprised of people, staff management and partners of Rwanda Education Assistance Project on 171 people. In this way, sample sizes of 171 individuals were considered to answer formulated questions. Universal sampling, as all population was questioned. The sample was made by the people of Rwanda Education Assistance Project as respondents who involved in interaction with researcher. Research adopts the questionnaire for collecting primary data and documentation review to collect secondary data. Pilot study was performed to ensure the validity and reliability of data collection instrument. The data was analyzed trough Statistical Package for Social Sciences to percentage, mean and standard deviation. The findings indicated that for the first statement that stated that “Rwanda Education Assistance Project, shared goals in teamwork" “the respondents agreed with a mean of 5.33 and standard deviation of 6.703 with the statement and this indicated that the respondents strongly agreed with the statement as indicated by the strong mean and heterogeneity of answers as indicated by the standard deviation where the respondents had different opinions of the statement”. On the basis of the findings of the study and in line with the study objectives, the researcher made the following conclusions. Responsibility assignment matrix in the performance of education projects, objective setting and budgeting, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation is very crucial for success of educational projects. This is due to fact that it increases ownership and hence sustainability of such projects. Levels of involvement of stakeholders: The results from the study revealed that more than 90 % of the local stakeholders are involved in the Rwanda Education Assistance Project through needs assessment, objective setting and budgeting, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation. The researcher there recommends that Rwanda Education Assistance Project and other entrenched projects should emphasize local stakeholder involvement at all levels of the project in order to increase ownership for project successful.

Some mechanical properties of tawain ( hexalobus crispiflorus ) seed []

The efficient design of agricultural machinery and procedures is critical for food production. Understanding the engineering properties of these materials is vital for engineers and other professionals. The mechanical properties of Tawain (Hexalobus Crispiflorus) seeds are being studied to aid in the design of harvesting, processing, transportation, and storage systems. The axial coefficient of static friction for galvanized steel, plywood, and glass surfaces, as well as compression strength and displacement at fracture at a moisture content of 22% wet basis, are all evaluated in the study. The coefficient of static friction for Tawain seeds on galvanized steel, plywood, and glass surfaces was found to be 0.321, 0.329, and 0.134, respectively. On the transverse axis, the highest applied force and maximum displacement at the cracking of Tawain seeds were 0.42KN, 0.45KN, 0.43KN, 17.04mm, 16.96mm, and 16.67mm, respectively. The maximum applied force and maximum displacement at cracking on the longitudinal axis were 0.34KN, 0.37KN, 0.34KN, 17.75mm, 16.35mm, and 15.24mm, respectively. The data generated from this study can be invaluable for designing systems for handling and processing Tawain seeds, contributing to the efficiency and quality of agricultural processing equipment.


Après avoir longtemps effleuré l’idée de décentralisation, la République démocratique du Congo a franchi le pas : la constitution qui a créé en 2006 la IIIème République instaure un système institutionnel ou les régions se voient attribuer un rôle pivot dans l’administration du territoire. La décentralisation devient un principe constitutionnel et les articles relatifs aux régions et à leur champ de compétence traduisent un régionalisme volontariste. Mais pour comprendre cette décentralisation, il importe d’aller au-delà du texte et de la replacer dans son contexte de court et long termes. Elle devient alors plus ambiguë, voire change complètement de sens au point qu’on peut se demander si cette décentralisation n’est pas, en réalité, une recentralisation. De ce fait, bien que les compétences des provinces forment un inventaire hétéroclite et qu’elles disposent de l’autonomie budgétaire, leurs pouvoirs effectifs actuels, ainsi que ceux des autres entités territoriales décentralisées apparaissent dans la pratique comme une antithèse de ce qui est sur le papier. A rebours de la décentralisation, les collectivités décentralisées congolaises sont entrain de jouir de non pas plus mais moins de pouvoirs à l’aune de l’écart entre droit et réalité.