Volume 12, Issue 5, May 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The article discusses the project of the Light Vehicle Rail in São Paulo, Brazil, which aims to integrate existing public transportation network models in a city with around 430 thousand inhabitants. Veículo Leve sobre Trilhos (VLT) Baixada Santista started its operations in April 2015, covering 11.1 km, connecting Barreiros’s terminal in São Vicente to the station Port of Santos. The population of the surrounding nine municipalities planned to transport 70,000 passengers daily, covering a 26.6 km extension. This single case presents the VLT Baixada Santista project and analyzes and discusses the modal transport integration and impact on this e public transportation system.

A Study on Essential of Effective Transportation System for Supply Chain Efficiency, Cost Reduction and Enhancing Customer Satisfaction []

This study will delve into the fundamental components of an effective transportation system that contribute to supply chain efficiency, cost reduction, and greater customer satisfaction. Transportation is critical for ensuring the smooth movement of commodities from suppliers to customers, influencing many elements of supply chain management (SCM). However, obtaining maximum transportation performance requires a thorough understanding of critical issues such as mode selection, route optimization, carrier selection, fleet management, IT integration and so on. This project will be utilizing a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative analysis with case studies, to identify critical success factors and best practices for effective transportation systems. Furthermore, the study will look into how transportation efficiency could reduce expenditures and improve customer satisfaction. By identifying the nexus between transportation effectiveness and supply chain results, this study hopes to give practical insights for firms and authorities looking to improve their transportation strategy and ultimately drive success across their supply chain operations.


This study determined the effectiveness of the Adolescent Job Aid Manual in managing health issues and concerns among adolescent students of Sorsogon State University. Specifically, it identified the health issues and concerns faced by the respondents and determined their profile according to sex, combined family income, academic level, and academic performance. It also evaluated the effectiveness of the ADJA manual in managing adolescents’ health issues and problems along General Health Concerns, Mental Health Concerns, Psychosocial Concerns, and Sexual and Reproductive Health Concerns. Further, it investigated if there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and the level of effectiveness in managing health issues and concerns among adolescent students of Sorsogon State University and if there is a significant difference between the rank order of the mean in the level of effectiveness of ADJA manual among the group of respondents. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the prime respondents of this study who came from junior, senior high school, and tertiary levels with ages 12 to 21 and who had been clientele of the Health Services Unit. This Descriptive Inferential Correlational study used a validated questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering data, this was adopted from the Adolescent Job Aid Manual proposed by the World Health Organization. The data gathered were validated by the responses of the participants in an unstructured interview administered by the researcher. This study revealed that most of the respondents are female, have a combined family income of 5,000.00 to 25,999.00, in the collegiate level, and have an average academic performance. It was also found that the ADJA manual is very effective in managing the health issues and concerns among adolescent students of Sorsogon State University along general health concerns, mental health concerns, psychosocial concerns, and sexual and reproductive health concerns. Further, the respondents’ combined family income and academic level are significantly associated with the level of effectiveness of the ADJA manual in managing their varied issues and concerns. Finally, it was divulged that there is no significant difference in the rank order of the mean in the level of effectiveness of the ADJA manual in managing adolescents’ health issues and concerns. The findings imply that adolescents’ health issues and concerns should be given urgent attention and intervention. This could be done through the use of the ADJA Manual which will maintain and reinforce trust and confidentiality when providing health care for adolescents. The use of the Adolescent Job Aid Manual was proposed to be institutionalized by putting up a Youth-Friendly Center at Sorsogon State University. The birth of youth-friendly health services with the use of the Adolescent Job Aid Manual, at Sorsogon State University, aims to reach adolescents and meet their needs in difficult and sensitive circumstances. Further, its objectives are not only to protect young people against dangers but also to help them build knowledge, skills, and confidence as they develop to their fullest potential. Keywords: Adolescent job aid manual, adolescence, general health concerns, mental health concerns, psychosocial concerns, and sexual and reproductive health concerns.


.ABSTRACT La présente recherche porte sur le marquage et les enseignes multilingues dans le paysage linguistique urbain marocain. Elle est basée sur des recherches empiriques menées en 2024 dans certains sites de la ville de Kénitra et de Tanger. Une attention particulière sera accor-dée aux différents idiomes utilisés dans les enseignes et les odonymes multilingues officielles et non officielles dans les deux villes concer-nées. Il sera démontré que le choix des langues dans les différents domaines est motivé par plusieurs facteurs : politiques, sociaux, cultu-rels et commerciaux. Mots clés Paysage linguistique, Territoire, Urbain, Ségrégation spatiale, Darija, Arabe, Français, Amazigh, Contact de langues Abstract This paper is about multilingual signs in moroccan urban landscape. It is based on empirical research conducted in 2024 in some dis-tricts of Kenitra and Tanger. Special attention is given to the choice of languages and multilingual signs used in the graphics in the official and nonofficial multilingual signs in the two cities.It will be demonstrated that the choice of language in the different domaines is motivat-ed by several factors : political, social, cultural and commercial. Keywords Linguistic landscape, territory, Urban, Spatial segregation, Darija, Arabic, French, Amazigh, Langage contact.

Analysis of Ecological and Social Relationships as the Basis for Sustainability of Giant Clams (Tridacnidae) Conservation in the Thousand Islands National Park, DKI Jakarta []

This research was conducted to determine the community structure of giant clams in the Thousand Islands National Park in the core zone and protection zone including giant clam abundance, giant clam uniformity and clam dominance, and analyze the social behavior of the community towards giant clams in the core and protection zones. Data collection on clam habitat conditions was carried out at 5 locations namely Corn Island, The Netherlands, Kayu Angin Bira, Nyamplung and West Penajliran. Data retrieval using the belt transect method with modified underwater visual census (UVC). Assesment of habitat conditions refers to the parameters of salinity, brightnesss, acidity and temperature. The results showed that the waters of the core and protection zones at the 5 locations contained 2 types of clams, namely Tridacna squamosa and Tridacna crocea. Overall, the observation sites have low diversity, abundance and uniformity values. The dominance of Tridacna crocea has a high value and that of Tridacna squamosa has a low dominance value. Social behavior data collection in TNKpS was carries out by in-depth interview method with snowball sampling technique in TNKpS community. The results of the analysis of the social behavior of the TNKpS community show that Tridacna squamosa is still being hunted for its meat for consumption, especially on Eid holidays. The recommendation given to the Area manager is the establishment of a clam conservation area that is more focused on the core zone and protection based on the community structure of the clam.


A research was undertaken between June and September 2023 in Bali metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria, aiming to explore the bacterial species harboured by cockroaches. This investigation involved the isolation and identification of microorganisms from the outer surfaces and digestive systems of cockroaches captured from various households across the study area. Of the 100 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) captured, 64 were found to be contaminated with bacteria, resulting in an overall prevalence rate of 56%. Notably, cockroaches captured from toilets exhibited a higher contamination prevalence (64.86%) compared to those from kitchens (58.06%), bedrooms (50.00%), and parlors (33.33%). Moreover, bacterial contamination was more pronounced in the alimentary canals (54.69%) than on the external body surfaces (45.31%), although no statistically significant difference in contamination was observed between the body surfaces (p>0.05). The identified bacterial species included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus, with E. coli being the predominant isolate (25%) on both external and internal body surfaces of cockroaches, followed by Klebsiella sp. (23.44%), while Staphylococcus aureus exhibited the lowest occurrence (7.81%). Furthermore, cockroaches captured from toilets had a higher mean bacterial load (51.7 x104 cfu/ml) compared to those from kitchens (39.3 x104 cfu/ml), parlors (22.1 x104 cfu/ml), and bedrooms (19.9 x104 cfu/ml). These findings underscore the role of cockroaches as carriers of bacterial pathogens, emphasizing the necessity for control measures to mitigate cockroach-related infections. Keywords: Bacteria, Bali metropolis, Cockroaches, Contamination, Pathogens.


Error management and accuracy assessment are fundamental aspects of surveying, crucial for ensuring the reliability and precision of measurements essential for various applications. This paper explores the significance of error management and accuracy assessment in the context of surveying instruments. It delves into the theoretical foundations of errors in surveying, examines precision and accuracy concepts, and discusses strategies for minimizing errors and enhancing measurement accuracy. The paper also addresses error propagation in survey networks and adjustment methods for refining surveying measurements. Real-world case studies highlight the importance of accuracy assessment in surveying projects, construction site monitoring, and environmental monitoring. Hands-on practical exercises and technology integration in accuracy assessment are also discussed. Overall, this paper underscores the critical role of error management and accuracy assessment in ensuring the reliability and credibility of spatial data crucial for informed decision-making and effective project execution. Error management, Accuracy assessment, Surveying practice, Topographic maps, Quality assurance

CYBER SECURITY CHALLENGES IN A SMART AND DIGITAL ECONOMY: A preliminary research overview of the emerging threats to data stored in information systems. []

IT security incidents have evolved over the past few decades from isolated information system attacks to deliberate, focused and complex cyber dangers at even national, institutional or individual level. Digital technology's interconnectedness has many advantages, but it also creates a number of new risks that have broad ramifications. Even though the phrases are sometimes used synonymously, information security and cyber security are not the same. The transition from information security to cyber security was covered in this study, primarily as a paradigm shift in the defense against persistent threats. While it was sufficient to undertake basic defense against "common" attacks in the information security era, organizations now need to develop clever, creative, and effective controls to identify and stop sophisticated and emerging cyber-attacks. Cyber security initiatives should now involve the entire organization, including participation from all staff members, rather than just IT departments or designated persons. Cyber security should be strategically connected with corporate strategy, just as digital technologies are. We have carried out preliminary research on the level of maturity of security measures in Nigerian large firms that are associated with vital or significant national infrastructure. We concluded that while basic protection works well, there is still space for improvement when it comes to implementing more sophisticated controls and pursuing a shared goal of comprehensive cyber security governance.

UAV Route Survey Planning and Quality Control for Height Measurement []

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile tools for route surveying across industries. This document explores their significance, methodologies, challenges, and best practices. It covers UAV technology, applications, advantages over traditional methods, and flight planning considerations using GIS data. Factors like altitude, speed, and camera settings are discussed, along with height measurement techniques such as photogrammetry and LiDAR. Challenges in obtaining accurate height data and quality control measures are addressed. Case studies and best practices from successful projects are highlighted, emphasizing regulatory compliance and safety protocols. This document offers a comprehensive guide for optimizing UAV route surveying workflows and achieving effective data collection and analysis.


Cervical cancer remains a significant public health concern, particularly in developing regions such as Oyo State, Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the perception and awareness of women about cervical cancer in Oyo State, identify socio-cultural and economic barriers, and provide recommendations for intervention strategies. A quantitative methodology was employed, utilizing semi-structured questionnaires administered to 960 women aged 20 to 60, healthcare professionals, and community leaders. Findings revealed a concerning lack of awareness, with only 38% of respondents indicating awareness of cervical cancer. Disparities in awareness were observed across different regions and demographic groups, highlighting the need for targeted educational campaigns. Factors such as low levels of education, limited access to healthcare facilities, and cultural beliefs contribute to this disparity. Additionally, a chi-square analysis demonstrated significant associations between awareness levels and factors such as education level, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Enhancing access to screening services through mobile units and outreach programs is crucial, particularly in rural and underserved areas. Additionally, fostering multidisciplinary collaboration among stakeholders, including government agencies, healthcare providers, and non-governmental organizations, is essential for implementing sustainable solutions. Addressing these challenges through comprehensive interventions can contribute to reducing the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Oyo State.


There are numerous approaches to teaching process. Thinking about the goals of the lesson you're about to teach is a fundamental skill for a teacher, and it influences the decisions you make as the lesson progresses. A lesson plan is a written outline of what skills students are going to learn in a lesson, how the educator intends to teach it and how they will measure students' understanding of the content at the end of a lesson This work emphasizes the importance of effective class design in promoting student engagement and achievement. It provides step-by-step guidance, practical strategies, and valuable insights to support educators in creating impactful and engaging lessons. It highlights the significance of lesson planning and its direct correlation with student outcomes. It explores the essential components of a lesson plan, including clear learning objectives, aligned curriculum standards, effective instructional strategies, and comprehensive assessment methods. It also covers various aspects of lesson planning, such as understanding student needs and interests, adapting to diverse learners, incorporating technology and multimedia resources, designing engaging learning experiences, and fostering critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Effectivity and Sustainability of Waste Management in Kalumsing, San Emilio, Ilocos Sur []

This study aimed to measure the effectivity and sustainability of waste management in Kalumsing San Emilio Ilocos Sur and its effect to the sanitation of the community, life, and natural resources. It sought to know the factors that affect the waste management of the baran-gay. The significance of this study lies in its ability to inform and provide understanding to individuals of waste management and its effect on the community. It provides deeper understanding of solid waste management and its benefits to the community. The Local Government Unit of San Emilio, Ilocos Sur initiated a meeting to identify and address solid waste management issues, from updating Solid Waste Man-agement (SWM) plan to strengthening the implementation of waste segregation policy. It is one of the strategies of the local government unit to address the problem of waste management. Barangay Kalumsing joined the launching of Nationwide Community-Based Clean-up Drive on September 16, 2023. This activity aims to maintain and provide a healthy and safe environment and prevent the spread of diseas-es through proper solid waste management. This study aims to measure the effectivity and sustainability of waste management in Ka-lumsing, San Emilio, Ilocos Sur and its effect to the sanitation of the community, life, and natural resources. It sought to know the factor that affects the waste management of the barangay. The waste management in Barangay Kalumsing is moderately effective and moder-ately sustained, meaning there are still strategies or actions of the barangay that needs to be improved such as: the waste segregation, the collection of garbage per household, and the dumping of waste far from the community.


This study looks into how crucial yam farming is to reducing poverty in the Wukari local government district. It is only cost-effective to produce yam using the current antiquated, conventional methods, which need a minimal initial outlay, in areas where the standard of life among the labor population is poor. A lot more work needs to be done in the areas of improving traditional cultural techniques, choosing and breeding better varieties, and other agricultural changes, particularly through scale mechanization and modern technology, if yam production is to remain viable in the face of shifting socioeconomic conditions. Yam continues to be one of the most important cash crops and the most eaten food crop in West African nations, particularly in Nigeria and Ghana (Babaleye, 2003). Using primary data obtained through questionnaires, the study used a quasi-experimental approach that included field and sample surveys in Taraba State's Wukari Local Government Area. The Cochran formula was used to get a sample size that was sufficient for the investigation. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency counts, tables, charts, percentages, and averages, were utilized to analyze the data in order to examine the respondents' socioeconomic traits. The importance of the correlation between small and medium-sized of yam farming and the economic growth of the Wukari environment was examined using the chi-squared (X2) method. The face and content validity methodologies were used to establish validity. The results showed that in Wukari LGA, yam growing has a significant role in reducing poverty and creating jobs. Additionally, it was determined that the obstacles Wukari LGA yam farmers confront hinder their ability to advance as yam growers. The study concludes by outlining potential solutions for overcoming the difficulties it identified.