Volume 12, Issue 5, May 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Case Report: Weil's disease with Hepatitis B []

Severe leptospirosis (Weil's disease) is often associated with hepato-renal syndrome. The kidneys are one of the organs most commonly affected by Leptospira infection. Detecting co-infection of hepatitis B in patients with leptospirosis poses a diagnostic challenge. Treatment generally involves supportive care and antibiotic administration. Early initiation of hemodialysis has been linked to better outcomes in leptospirosis-related acute kidney failure.1 We report a case of a 32-year-old man presenting with respiratory symptoms, renal dysfunction, and a pattern of cholestatic liver disturbance diagnosed with Weil's disease. The patient showed remarkable improvement after appropriate treatment within two weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing leptospirosis and its various symptoms.


ABSTRACT A database is collection of interrelated data that is well organized, typically stored electronically so that it can be easily accessed, modified and managed. There are different types of Databases e.g. Relational. Object-oriented, NoSQL databases, Graph databases etc. The choice of database depends on nature of data, volume of data and how it is intended to be used e.g., Relational databases are the best to handle structured data whereas NoSQL databases are best suited for handling large amount of unstructured-semi-structured data. A database is usually controlled by an application software called database management system (DBMS). DBMS serves as an interface between the database and its end users or programs, allowing users to retrieve, update, and manage how the information is organized and optimized. A DBMS also facilitates oversight and control of databases, enabling a variety of administrative operations such as performance monitoring, tuning, and backup and recovery. Some examples of popular database software or DBMSs include MySQL, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, FileMaker Pro, Oracle Database and MongoDB. As per Statista1, as of September 2023, the most popular relational database management system (RDBMS) in the world was Oracle, with a ranking score of 1240.88. Oracle was also the most popular DBMS overall. MySQL and Microsoft SQL server rounded out the top three. One of the parameter to measure performance of a database is response time for the queries that are submitted by the user either directly using SQL or through GUI based front-end applications. Indexing is one of the techniques using to improve query response time. Finally, the paper presents a comparative study of the Performance of MySQL and Microsoft SQL server based on test cases that will include different cases to compare the response time performance of indexes in both these databases.

Using technical analysis of physical environments in the electrolysis of hydrogen from off-grid photovoltaic cells []

The electrolysis of water using solar energy to produce hydrogen has become a viable strategy for decarbonizing the global energy economy. However, this area is more expensive than conventional hydrogen production for fossil fuels, and it is necessary to identify effective ways to reduce these costs. Here we describe the Monte Carlo approach, which allows us to study a wide range of initial assumptions to identify the main cost factors, goals and local conditions necessary for competitive independent specialized hydrogen electrolysis in photovoltaic installations. We determine the level of hydrogen costs, taking into account historical weather data for specific sites, to model our photovoltaic system and optimize its size compared to an electrolyzer. This analysis and its methods demonstrate the possibility of environmentally friendly hydrogen production using autonomous photovoltaic systems, demonstrate the benefits of remote systems in areas with high solar energy consumption, and provide cost and performance targets for electrolysis technologies


This study sought to investigate how various motivating factors influence employee performance at Rwanda Revenue Authority. Specifically, the objectives of the study were; to establish the impact of compensation on employee performance and to determine the impact of promotion opportunities on employee performance at Rwanda Revenue Authority. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The research targeted 124 Rwanda Revenue Authority staff since most employees are directly or indirectly involved in decision making and controls. The study basically targeted top and middle level management members because they were the custodians of human resource department. This study therefore used purposive sampling techniques in selecting interviewees with an option of replacing those who do not wish to respond. A sample of 94 respondents was targeted to participate in this study. The study was carried out by use of questionnaires which were administered to the respondents. Findings from the study revealed that a significant association exists between employee motivation and employee performance. The correlation existing between employee performance and all the independent variables; compensation and promotion, opportunities was strong and positive and negative for some (0.602 and -0.510 respectively) significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level. The study recommended that Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA) need to develop and implement a payment policy to attract sufficient and suitable employees, come up with a clear promotion and career advancement policy, develop an organizational structure to communicate to employees on different levels of authority and enhance employee recognition with a financial reward.

How Organizational Culture, Moderate the Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises []

FELICIA AGBODZA MAY 2024 ABSTRACT It is imperative that SMEs establish the necessary frameworks to implement succession planning in order to support the sustainability of their businesses and guarantee business continuity. The goal was to ascertain whether succession planning had an impact on the sustainability of SMEs by utilizing organizational culture as a moderating factor and leadership styles as a mediating factor. The study used a quantitative approach in an explanatory research format to investigate the causal analysis of succession planning in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. Structured equation modelling was used to analyze 207 valid quantitative data that made up the study's sample population. Stratified random sampling was the method used for sampling. The research presented an empirical framework for investigating the theoretical relationship delineated in existing literature. The application of hypothesis served to validate this. The final results showed that the relationship between leadership style and small- and medium-sized enterprise sustainability can be moderated by organizational culture. According to the study, organizational culture has a significant impact on the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs should regularly evaluate their culture and modify their leadership approaches to guarantee continued alignment because culture is dynamic and it evolves.


Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, learning processes towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. It is difficult to find one candidate who has both skills and attitude. One candidate who has the right skills and the right attitude is a rare gem. This article conceptualizes two integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling different research perspectives. In this work, we examine the influence of skill and attitude on individual performance in the profession of various employee laborer staff. The nature of attitude and the characteristics of research attitude are the most notions discussed in this work. The reviewed articles were first downloaded, screened, form the google search engines such as google scholar, research gate, likened, academia, springier, Scopus, then the scanned articles were analyzed using thematic analysis. Finally, recommendations were made.


The prominent challenge faced by enterprises and investors in the parlance of IoT is the issue of security of the data in transit of the IoT device. Curated data from IoT right from the sensor source of data to its destination have been known to face serious vulnerability that poses challenges to IoT manufacturers. Unwell-secured IoT devices and applications mark IoT as a potential goal of cyberattacks. Manufacturers and vendors of IoT strive yearly and invest capital to market IoT products to users by providing a framework and domain that builds the confidence of the users of the system that the data exchange between IoT devices is secure and safe. Due to people�s dependency on the internet for social and online transactions, the phenomenon of IoT security can never be overemphasized. This project aims to find an improved security algorithm mechanism to fit modern-day IoT data protection. The methodology adopted in this project is an improved Cryptography algorithm where a dynamic secret key is shared among sending and receiving IoT devices. The data on transit in the form of ciphertext is encoded and decoded between devices using a shared secret key that can be altered dynamically. A prototype in the form of a device was designed to simulate live IoT devices communicating with each other in this research project. To solve the problem of connection and disconnection of the devices in the form of short-circuiting, the publish and subscribe messaging scheme of Microsoft Messaging Queue (MSMQ) was utilized. In this case, a sending device can continue to send encrypted messages to a listening device even if a listening device is not connected yet. C# as a sophisticated programming language was used to implement the end-to-end system algorithm design using Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated development environment. The result of the finding was that the simulated devices were able to send a secure data sample in the form of plaintext to each other even in a connected and disconnected state in a safe mode. This research project is recommended to be used to secure ATM Card transaction data in a financial institution and sensitive sensor data that transmits its data via a public cloud computing environment for data analytics and machine learning sciences

Dosimetric study of Image Guided Brachytherapy for cervix carcinoma treatment at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) Using an Ionization Chamber []

Purpose: In 2D brachytherapy treatment, the lack of spatial information and low visualization of the extent of tumour, applicators in 3D and Organs at Risk (OAR) volumes results in suboptimal application technique planning and insufficient dose coverage to large tumours, which is a limitation at KATH. Materials and Method: A water phantom was constructed for measurement of air kerma strength and dose distribution the brachytherapy sources using an ion chamber. Both 2D and 3D imaging modalities, X-ray and CT, were used and compared, including treatment planning procedures of 2D LDR and 3D IGBT. Results: SK (air kerma strength) for the three sources labelled V1, U3 and V5 at 2cm from the applicators were 6.839 x 10-12 Gycm2h-1, 2.043 x 10-11 Gycm2h-1 and 4.336 x 10-11 Gycm2h-1 respectively and the dose distribution measured at 2 cm from the fletcher applicators’ left, top, and right directions over a 300-second period were 5.052 x 10-5 Gy, 2.471 x 10-5 Gy, and 6.133 x 10-5 Gy. Discussion: Image Guided Brachytherapy is observed to high conformal dose coverage at point A or a 2cm distance from the applicators verifying the Manchester point A protocol. Conclusion: Planning in 3D is observed to be more optimized as doses to tumour volumes and OAR volumes are all accounted for, unlike in 2D planning where dose calculation is rather point-based.


A hydram pump is a pump whose energy or driving force comes from pressure or impact of water. The use of hydram pumps is not limited to providing water for household needs, but can also be used for agriculture, animal husbandry and land fisheries. The aim of this research is to improve the performance of the hydram pump. This research was carried out by varying the input discharge enter-ing the hydram pump. The hydram pump used has an input diameter of 3.81 cm, an output diameter of 1.27 cm and a compressor tube diameter of 7.62 cm with a compressor tube height of 60 cm. The input discharge variations used are 3 lt/s, 3.5 lt/s, 4 lt/s, 4.5 lt/s and 5 lt/s. In this research, a waterfall height of 3 m and an output height of 10 m were used. The results of the research show that for every 0.5 lt/s increase in input discharge, the output discharge experiences an average increase of 35.2%, while D'Aubuission effi-ciency experiences an average increase of 18.8%, as well as the maximum head experiences an average increase of 19%. . The output discharge, D'Aubuission efficiency and maximum head of the hydraulic pump increase along with increasing input discharge.

The Effects of Using Mobile Telephone Communication to Provide Maternal Health Provision on Antenatal Care Attendance Among Expectant Mothers in Kyotera and Rakai Districts, Uganda. []

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 targets to improve the health and wellbeing of all people across the globe with the integration of information and communication technologies in the delivery of health services. The 2014 National ICT policy of Uganda encourages the adoption of ICTs to improve and extend healthcare and health information systems to remote and underserved areas and vulnerable populations. Despite the estimated 69% mobile telephone subscription among women across Uganda[1], the use of the handy mobile telephone ICT options among expectant mothers in the acquisition of maternal health services remains wanting. The districts of Kyotera and Rakai have an adult mobile telephone subscription of 55.4%[2]. However, the subscribers largely use the telephones for business and sexual relationship[3]. The poor usage of mobile telephone communication in the acquisition of vital maternal health information results into the poor ANC attendance and utilization of services among expectant mothers in the districts of Kyotera and Rakai estimated at a mere 30% below the national ANC utilization target of 47.5% [4]. This article thus, describes an investigation into the effectiveness of providing maternal health information and reminders for scheduled ANC visits using mobile telephones on the antenatal care attendance among expectant mothers in the districts of Rakai and Kyotera in Uganda. Methodology: A total of 28 health facilities were randomly sampled and allocated into the intervention and control arms at a ratio of 1:1. Overall, 2143 expectant mothers receiving antenatal care from the 28 health facilities were enrolled through systematic sampling. Mothers in the intervention arm received mobile telephone voice and text messages reminders for scheduled ANC visits while expectant mothers in the control group did not get any reminders for scheduled ANC visit and maternal health information through the mobile telephone communication platform. Expectant mothers in both groups provided baseline data and end of term data that was collected after an intervention period of 12months. Results: Provision of maternal health information and reminders for scheduled ANC visits to expectant mother using mobile telephones caused statistically signification differences in ANC attendance during pregnancy with a recorded OR=1.72 and p<0.005. In the intervention group, 75.3% of the expectant mothers attained the 8 ANC visits recommended by the MoH compared to the mere 34.2% recorded in the control group. Conclusion: Using mobile telephone communication to avail maternal health information and reminders for scheduled ANC visit is an effective method of enhancing ANC attendance and utilization of services among expectant mothers. Keywords: Mobile Telecommunication, AnteNatal Care; Utilization, Maternal Mortality, Uganda. Abbreviations: ANC-Ante Natal Care, SDG-Sustainable Development Goals,AHSPR-Annual Health Sector Performance Report, GSMA- Global System for Mobile Communications Association, ICT- Information and Communication Technology


The study aimed to determine the level of community participation on the implementation of ecological solid waste management in the City of Cotabato and Kidapawan in terms of Solid Waste Management; Materials and utilities; Penalties; Seminars and Programs; and Incentives. In this study, the researcher was used the descriptive-survey design to describe the community participation on the implementation of ecological solid waste management in the City of Cotabato and Kidapawan using the adoptive and modified survey questionnaire. In summary, based on the research findings of the study on the community participation in the implementation of ecological solid waste management in the City of Cotabato and Kidapawan both cities were moderately participated as overall results of the mean rating in all components of waste management. This has impacted on the natural environment in the study area. The lack of Public waste bins and proper waste collection processes have affected the waste disposal practices. Moreover, the inactive of the City Environment and Natural Resources Officers have impacted negatively on the imposition of regulation of which penalties is not enforced. The lack of knowledge, awareness and cooperation among the barangay officials and the community as a whole has added to that. Therefore, it can be recommended It is important that the solid waste management should be developed and strengthened. Waste storage and disposal areas are the dominant means of managing waste. Waste separation from the household level, proper storage, more efficient waste collection systems, and sustainable recovery and disposal practices are recommended to be observed strictly the study area. Enhance the reduction of waste generated by households and business places by the waste reuse, recycling and composting processes to manage this challenge. The barangays should integrate this in their sustainable framework. Adequate consideration should be given to monitoring processes. Public education on proper solid waste management needs to be introduced in order to improve the knowledge of the community about the importance of solid waste management for sound environmental development in the area. The community should provide comprehensive plan on waste disposal by involving different stakeholder I the community. The primary purpose on community based in leading waste disposal problem is to apply the sense of ownership where individual could fully participate, there is also needs to involve the traditional leaders because their group perceives to be respected. Keywords: Community Participation, Ecological Waste Management, Comparative Study, Cotabato & Kidapawan City


ABSTRACT Soybeans are a commodity that is very much needed for the agricultural industry in Indonesia because soybeans are important raw materials for industries such as the tempeh, tofu, soy milk and other food industries. The objectives of this research are: 1) to describe in detail the performance of soybean seed farming, 2) to examine the influence of each input (seed, labor and use of fertilizer) on soybean production both partially and simultaneously, and 3) to determine the efficiency of using production inputs soybean seeds. This research method uses explanatory descriptive. The research was carried out over a period of 3 months, starting from October to December 2023. The research locations were in 6 sub-districts in Serang Regency with respondents from department heads, agricultural instructors, experts and farmers spread across 6 sub-districts in the Serang Regency area. The analytical tool in this research uses a modified Cobb – Douglas production function model. The results of the research show that the general age of farmers is 45-54 years (37%), the general education level is elementary school (53%), farming experience is 1-3 years (69%), and the number of family dependents is 1-3 people (78%). %). The partial use of urea fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, phosmit organic fertilizer, labor and land area does not have a significant effect on soybean production in Serang Regency, however, based on the results of simultaneous analysis of input factors (production factors for urea fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, phosmite organic fertilizer , labor, and land area) have a significant effect on soybean production in Serang Regency. The efficiency of using inputs for the production of urea, soybean seeds and land is classified as inefficient, while the use of production inputs for NPK, Phosmite and labor is classified as inefficient.

L’expérience apprenant jeune adulte natif numérique, un facteur clé dans la mutation de nos schémas de l’innovation andragogique : Recherche-action dans le contexte des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles au Maroc []

ABSTRACT: In this article, we aim to rethink the andragogical dynamics following the emergence of a new potential power associated with the ownership of a mobile device. We draw on our action-research, coinciding with "the turning point of mobile technology", carried out in the context of Prep classes for higher education in Morocco, with an audience of Gen-Z digital native young adults. Through the lens of an innovative pedagogical approach called " Mobile Stimulism", we aim to re-launch a critical transdisciplinary holistic reflection on the challenge of successfully negotiating the shift in the adult learning experience, which is subject to profound changes, driven in particular by the rise of digital technology. We therefore recognize the adult learner experience as a key factor in the metamorphosis of our schemas of andragogical dynamics. In line with the post-COVID-19 education policy promoted by UNESCO, we focus on hybrid teaching-learning practices, and define "the plastic class" in relation to a new "formal mobile presential modality", as induced in the aforementioned context, and as metamorphosed by "the ubiquity of mobile technology". Our perspective is part of a logic that relativizes, through a discontinuous and shifting feature, our perception of the formal and hybrid aspects of formal institutional training, particularly of adults. KEYWORDS – Plastic class, Hybrid teaching, Discontinuous hybridity, Formal mobile face-to-face modality, Mobile Stimulism.


This research was investigated the effect of strategic project implementation and performance of project in Rwanda, a case of Water for All projects. This research achieved the following objectives; to establish the relationship between strategic implementation plan and performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district; to determine the relationship between monitoring strategy and performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district; to analyze the relationship between communication strategy and performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district and to assess the relationship between competitive strategy and performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district. The research also was compare two variables which are independents and dependents variables. This study was designed as a case study of Water for All projects in Rulindo district using the survey method; a case study is described as analysis of the strategic project implementation and performance of project in Rwanda, assuming that the researcher acquired knowledge regarding the subject under review from in-depth exploration of a single case. It is a qualitative analysis that involves careful observation of situation. All the respondents from the population of Water for All projects in Rulindo district to respond to research questionnaires. The researcher used questionnaires to collect data, As far as this study was concerned, the population was comprised of employees of Water for All projects in Rulindo district in different departments targeting 151 employees. To describe target population of a study as the point of focus from which a generalization was made regarding the research findings. Thus a sample size of 151 employees as respondents. Research used primary and secondary data to get all information needed in this study, the quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics after running the data collected through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results of regression analysis for the effects of strategic implementation plan and performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district. The results indicate that strategic implementation plan have positive and significant effect on performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district (β1= 0.376, t= 3.514, p = 0.002<0.05; β2= 0.243, t=2.382, p =0.023<0.05; β3= 0.267, t= 0.317, p = 0.003<0.05; β4= 0.29, t= 4.83, p = 0.29<0.05), respectively. This shows that 1 per cent increase in strategic implementation plan will lead to 0.376, 0.243, 0.267 and 0.29 percent increase on performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district. Based on the findings above the model one (1) is represented as follows: performance of Water for All projects in Rulindo district = 1.771+ .376X1 + .243X2 + 0.267X3+ 0.29X4 Thus, all hypothesis are below 0.05, it means that our hypothesis are rejected. Strategic project implementation bodies is an fundamental instrument for arranging and estimating which positions the organization to meet requests and changes which might come up within the course of releasing its administrations. This think about uncovers that, Rulindo district as a open institution contains a clear vital arrange which is verbalized to all of its workers at different levels and divisions inside the area. It uncovers that, the unequivocally understanding of components of different measurements of key administration hones demonstrate the viability and productivity of such arranging embraced by representatives and thus influences its execution of Water for All projects. Based on the analysis discussed, the following recommendations are made so as to help the Water for All projects to enhance its operations. All factors of various dimensions of strategic plans and performance indictors should be put into the right perspective, so as to help the general workforce of the district to understand the main objectives and the strategic management practices in place to achieve objectives for fiscal years. This will enlighten the employees of the district to gear towards delivering services to enhance the general strategy and to raise its performance. . Keywords: strategic project implementation and performance of project in Rwanda.

Geospatial Analysis for Suitable Landfill Site Selection. A case of the City of Kigali. []

The most widely used technique for managing urban solid waste is sanitary landfilling. The landfill is a highly demanded public resource; it contributes significantly to enhancing the quality of life for residents and safeguarding urban ecology by preventing the negative effects of solid waste on the environment and people. Rwanda has poor and unstable systems for managing waste from its source to its final disposal (landfill), especially in the City of Kigali, which still experiences open landfills with inappropriate site management. This study applied the GIS-based suitability technique (MCDA) in landfill site selection in the City of Kigali, Rwanda. The research study used different methods using GIS-based MCDA in spatial data processing and analysis, Microsoft Excel for qualitative and quantitate data from a purposively sampled community for social consultation. These research findings noticed the importance of the application of Multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), a GIS technique suitability analysis in landfill site selection as urged by the primary researcher and confirmed by the results from the target population, where 95% of sampled respondents agreed that GIS is useful for spatial analysis, especially suitability study. Most of the requirements for landfill site selection are distance to Residential Areas/built-up, Wetlands, Rivers, Lakes, Roads, Soil Permeability, and Slope. This research found that Residential Areas, Wetland, and Slope are the most sensitive criteria to consider for landfill site selection. The result of the GIS-based landfill site suitability map produced using the Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) for the City of Kigali showed that some most suitable site landfill selection is indicated by (green colour in the map). It is clear to conclude that the GIS-based landfill site suitability map for the City of Kigali is more important, not only the policy-making but also the future researchers. Key Words: Geographic Information System (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Landfill, Suitability, City of Kigali


Flood is a water related natural hazard that affects a wide range of human activities. This researched work was aimed to produce flood hazard and risk map that indicate areas of very high and low risk in Owerri Zone comprising nine local government areas of Imo State. Flood hazard mapping and risk assessment of Owerri Zone, Imo State was investigated using flood causative factors (rainfall intensity, slope, flow accumulation, variation in elevation and landuse). Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used as tools in analyzing flood causative factors.GIS spatial analyses and weighting involving integration of remote sensing and weighted linear combination (WLC) method of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) were employed in assessing interaction and contributions to flooding by the causative factors contributing to flood hazard. Flood hazard and risk maps were produced and classified into various hazard levels. Flood hazard map result showed that high hazardous areas occurred on the southern part of the study areaoccupying about 58.6% of total area while low hazardous potential areas were found on the extreme northern part of the study area at 15.5% of total study area. Similarly, flood risk map result showed major dominance of extreme risk of high flood hazard in major towns in Owerri Municipal, Owerri West, Mbaitolu and Owerri North LGAs. Low risked areas were on towns covering AhiazuMbaise, Ezinihite Mbaise, Ngor Okpala and Aboh Mbaise LGAs. It is recommended that Government should integrate flood causative factors in urban planning while ensuring proper channelization of runoff from residential, commercial and public areas to safe and stable discharge points normally on any nearby river or stream. Keyword: Flood, Hazard, Risk, Flood Causative Factors, weighted linear combination, WLC


In todays digital age, computer literacy skills are essential, for both academic and professional settings. However, students have different demographic profiles, backgrounds of using a computer, exposure, and interest. Hence, a study focused on the Computer Literacy Skills of Laguna University Bachelor of Science in Accounting Information Systems (BSAIS): A Groundwork for Improving Computer Literacy, is conducted. Specifically, this study tackled to determine the profile of the respondents concerning age, gender, year level, frequency of using a computer, and frequent apps/sites being visited. Correspondingly, it assesses the computer literacy of Bachelor of Science in Accounting Information System students at Laguna University, in terms of Microsoft Office Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Presentation in succeeding to provide a groundwork for improving computer literacy. A quantitative descriptive research design was utilized in this study to determine the relationship between the respondents demographic profile and computer literacy skills in terms of, Microsoft Office Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Presentation. The data is gathered in numerical format, and analyzed in a quantitative way using statistical tools. One hundred sixty-one (161) respondents, were chosen randomly to accomplish the questionnaires. Data showed that the majority of the respondents are female (73%), and are BSAIS Students, ranging from age 21 to 25 years old (59.01%) Figures also depicted that the respondents are Computer Literate in terms of Microsoft Office Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Presentation. Based on the findings of the study, it is therefore concluded that there is no significant relationship between the demographic profile and computer literacy skills of the respondents. Hence, a Proposed Action Plan for Improving Computer Literacy is devised and presented to the Department of Accounting Information System of Laguna University, Santa Cruz, Laguna.

Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Drinking Water in Wudil LGA, Kano State, Nigeria []

Concern over the exposure of drinking water to contaminants, specifically trace elements and their ability to cause adverse effects on human health after a prolonged period of exposure resulted to this study. The study is aimed at assessing the concentration of some elements in tap water, well water, boreholes, pond water and sachet water consumed in Wudil Local Government Kano State. Drinking water samples were collected in clean polyethylene plastic containers from different sampling sites in Wudil LGA. The samples were analyzed for cadmium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and lead. These metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method. The result obtained showed that there was no cadmium obtained. While Lead was within the range of (1.77–44.059μg/L) with maximum concentration value of 44.059μg/l in pond water. Iron was only detected in tap water with a concentration of (3.636) μg/l. Magnesium (3.402 –6.974) μg/l with maximum concentration value of 6.974μg/l in borehole water, Manganese (0.052–0.226)μg/l with maximum concentration value of 0.226μg/l in tap water. The results obtained for (Cd,Fe, Mn, Pb and Mg) were below the WHO/SON permissible limits.