Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication



MATHEMATICAL MODEL ON DNA MUTATION AND TUMOR FORMATION []


Several abnormal growths which endanger life, springs up at different times in different regions of the human system. This work studies causes of Tumour formation due to DNA mutation. System of differential equations which describes the various contributors to DNA mutation that causes tumour formation is modeled. These equations were solved and the various impacts of these factors were demonstrated using graphs drawn using MATLAB software. It was shown in the analysis that reduction in these factors can reduce DNA Mutation and thus tumour formations.


ANALYSIS OF MOVING OBJECTS IN VIDEOS []


Video processing is a technique of processing individual frames or images. This process involves acquisition, manipulation, transmission, analysis and compression. This paper focuses on video analysis; it includes motion segmentation and motion tracking. Tracking objects in a video containing extremely crowded scenes is a challenging due to the motion and appearance variability produced by large number of people within the scene. The individual pedestrians collectively form a crowd that exhibits a spatially and temporally structured pattern within the scene. The video is divided into sub volumes. The local spatio-temporal motion of the sub volume is extracted. Hidden Markovian model is used to train on the spatio-temporal motion pattern. From the model the spatio-temporal motion pattern that describes how the object moves in a video is obtained. The extracted information is used as the priori for tracking.


REGIONAL INEQUALITIES AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE DYNAMICS IN SAUDI HEALTHCARE PROVISION []


This study investigates spatial pattern of healthcare provision across public and private sectors, and the extent to which expanded public and/or private sector participation in healthcare provision has translated into a more equitable distribution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. The Gini coefficient technique and associated Lorenz curve were adopted as the main index for assessing the nature and extent of health inequality between public and private healthcare provision in Saudi Arabia. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was also used to determine whether the private sector responds more strongly to the level of need for healthcare services than the public healthcare sector. The results show that overall, private healthcare tends to be distributed more equitably than public healthcare. Primary healthcare centers in the public sector and polyclinics in the private sector by large have the most spatially inequitable distributions in the country compared with other healthcare facilities. The study also revealed that the need for healthcare services is the most important factor to the public and private healthcare providers compared to all other factors such as location, market, profits, etc. The ongoing privatization process of the Saudi healthcare system is a successful strategy and needs to be encouraged and maintained in the long run. Saudi healthcare-policymakers, however, need to focus more on the privatization of primary healthcare than of general hospitals. Policymakers in the Saudi healthcare system need to focus more on the private healthcare sector and simultaneously create a broader perspective on how the public and private healthcare sectors can work together to address the long-term challenges of affordability, quality, and availability of healthcare for Saudi citizens.


A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING LINEAR INTEGRAL EQUATIONS []


Integral equations find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient modified Adomian Decomposition methodology in solving linear integral equations is presented. To check the numerical method, it is applied to solve different test problems with known exact solutions and the numerical solutions obtained confirm the validity of the numerical method and suggest that it is an interesting and viable alternative to existing numerical methods for solving the problem under consideration. It also converges to the exact solution.


ON THE SIMPLICITY OF PERMUTATION GROUPS []


The aim of this research is to carry out investigation on the simplicity status of the Sylow subgroups of permutation groups. The standard program called Group Algorithms and Programming (GAP) is used to enhance and validate our result.


IMPACTS OF SENSOR SPATIAL RESOLUTION ON REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION []


There has been a significant upsurge in the development of satellite platforms with enormous number of sensors in recent years. Several remotely sensed data with spatial resolutions extending from 0.5 to 25,000m are accessible for diverse applications. This advancements result in novel and substantial modifications as well as challenges in the methodology of remotely sensed data analysis, integration, and the efficient spatial modelling of these data. This paper critically reviews the impacts of sensor spatial resolution on remote sensing image classification. First and foremost, an introductory background was presented. Second, spatial resolution was characterized in terms of four classes including low, medium, high, and very high resolutions. Third, basic perception on sensor spatial resolution was discussed. The fourth session dealt with sensor spatial resolution and mixed pixel challenge. And the fifth session elaborated the suitability of specific spatial resolution for image classification. Finally, it was revealed that, even though, higher spatial resolution remotely sensed data may deliver improved data, it may not always be desired due to intricate nature of interpretation, data volume and data acquisition costs. And despite the increasing propensity for more satellites with improved spatial characteristics and to develop applications for the same, the lower spatial resolution satellites remain invaluable.


DNA MUTATION AND TUMOR FORMATION II: ANALYSIS OF FORMULATED MODEL []


We modeled the mathematical equations describing the formation of tumour due to DNA mutation. In the modeled equations, the effects of environmental factors, DNA replication defect, Viruses and error in DNA repairs were included as the major causes of DNA mutation. These modeled equations were analysed and we saw that once these factors are allowed in our system, the DNA will always be unstable. This means that there are suppressor genes that inactivate the function of the TSG's. Hence, the tumour growth enhancing factors are there in the system and so we cannot rule out the possibility of tumour formation in our body.


INVESTIGATION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT PRONE AREAS RELATED TO EXISTING ROAD CONDITION AND DRIVERíS BEHAVIOR ALONG MENAGESHA- AMBO ROAD SECTION []


Traffic accidents worldwide is increasing due to a pragmatic vehicle ownership, acquisition, which necessitates daily activities. The primary objective of this research work was to identify the most hazardous location and provide countermeasures that will minimize the traffic accident at the designated sites. The scope of the study was limited to Ambo-Ginchi- Addis Ababa road, a total length of study road section of 87kms. The traffic accident data collected from each Wededa Police station covering the period of 2012-2015. It was analyzed using a Priority value formula for EjereWereda and Holota town, and accident frequency for Ambo wereda, Dendiwereda and Welmeraweredato rank the traffic accident areas. Based on the results of the analysis, thirteen locations of the road stretch were found to be accident prone areas. Out of these sites, three of them are in Ambo Wereda, two in Ejerewereda, one in Welmerawereda, and seven in Holota town. The time when most of the accidents occurred from 3:00PM-6: 00 PM. The primary causes of the accidents were over speeding, driving without attention and some unknown reasons. Also, it showed that the drivers' age group who caused most of the accidents composed of 25-34 years old. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that there was the significant increase in the number of crashes in the afternoon. Young drivers are believed to cause more accidents than the older once due to aggressiveness. To minimize the occurrence of accidents along the study road section, it is recommended that provision of speed limit sign boards and warning signs at the strategic locations where traffic accident areas are identified to forewarn the overspeeding drivers. It is also recommended that the road agency should have to undertake to widen the lane width of the road, provision of sufficient climbing lane, installation of roadside Delineator, conduct roadside improvements, and repaint faded pavement markings.


CHANGES IN SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING FOLLOWING BARIATRIC SURGERY FOR MORBID OBESITY []


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the patient received bariatric surgery. We aimed to study the impact of surgical related weight loss on the patterns of OSA and daily activity. Overweight adult patients undergoing bariatric surgery in National Cheng-Kung University Hospital were recruited. Preoperatively, all these subjects received overnight polysomnography, 7-day activity evaluation (actigraphy) and complete questionnaires regarding daytime sleepiness, snoring severity. After 6-month follow-up, these assessments were repeated for each patient. A total of 22/43 (48.8%) patients completed the whole assessments in the preoperative and postoperative periods. The preoperative mean body mass index (BMI) , mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), lowest O2 saturation, average of daytime wake efficiency . After 6-month follow up, the reduction of BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, AHI and lowest O2 saturation all were obvious (p< 0.05). But the daytime wake efficiency was improved limitedly.AHI showed significantly improvement in the period of 6-month. Bariatric surgery could be considered an effective therapy for OSA in the severely obese patient. But surgery is less like to improve daily activity.


BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN GOVERNMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KOGI WEST SENATORIAL DISTRICT, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA []


The main purpose of this study was to find out the Barriers To Effective Teaching and Learning of Building Construction in Government Science and Technical Colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District. These are also to hurl in probable solutions to problems that are under studied in this research work. The instrument used in this research work was the structured questionnaires. The target population for this study are all the five hundred principal, eight-hundred Teachers and one-thousand targeted students of the school they are teaching building construction in Government Science Technical Colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District of Kogi State. The sample size of principal was narrowed down to twelve. (1) One in each school: and that of Teachers was 4 in each school, making the total of 48; while students were narrowed down to one-hundred and ninety (190): However, Random Sampling technique was used to facilitate unbiased section and final results. Statement of the problem emanated as a result of backward and retro progressive statement about happenings in teaching and learning building construction which implies that the course is meant for dropout or push out, Olaitan (1984).Amongst other, the study specifically intends to find out whether there is enough provision for qualified teachers in the secondary and technical colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District. Also, three research questions were raised. There were two hypotheses formulated and significant of the study was for students, Ministry of Education, Stake -holders and so on. The scope of the study include all Government Science /Technical Colleges (GSTC) in Kogi State. Further, some of the findings were non provision of adequate teachers is barrier to effective teaching and learning of building construction in (GSTC) Kogi West Senatorial District of Kogi State and so on. Howbeit, the following recommendations were suggested: Correlation between students' achievement and teachers' qualification, a research work should be carried out in the area of instructional materials. Intensive study should be carried out in the area of curriculum investigation, planning and implementation.


MONITORING ILORIN URBAN CHANGES AND DEVELOPMENT WITH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS []


This paper focused on detecting and analyzing urban land use change of Ilorin and its environs of Kwara State in Nigeria, using Remote Sensing (RS) approach. In this study three Landsat imageries were acquired to form two epochs. Analysis of land use/ Land cover for these three years was carried out. The analysis covers 1996, 2010 and 2016. Five distinct classifications were carried out to be able to analyse new development in the study area. Global Mapper was used for displaying and subsequent processing and enhancement of the image. It was also used for carving out of the study area from the whole of Kwara State imagery using both the administrative and local government maps. The study was able to analyse development more especially in the area of infrastructural development in the study area and its likely effects on planning practice in the study area.


EMF AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PARAMETER DECISION []


Electromotive force generates electromagnetic radiation. It is therefore necessary to study the mathematical equations related to electromotive force. This paper focuses on electromagnetic radiation generated due to electromotive force . Depending upon the mathematical equations governing emf, certain parameters affecting electromagnetic radiation are decided based on Taguchi Analysis. Taguchi analysis is carried out for only those factors which affect and cause more electromagnetic radiation. Accordingly after carrying out Taguchi analysis , a condition is finalized so that it causes least electromagnetic iation. This condition is optimum condition which can be applied in any situation . It can also take care of human health as more electromagnetic radiation is harmful to human health.


EFFECTS OF HAND HYGIENE PRACTICES ON HANDBORNE BACTERIA INFECTIONS []


In order to understand the prevalence spread of Handborne bacteria among University of Jos Students, there is every need to examine the effects of hand washing hygiene practices and spread of handborne bacterial infections. Twenty samples (ten from Microbiology students and ten from Non-Microbiology students) were obtained from hands of the students and analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC), Total Coliform Count (TCC) and Staphylococcus aureus Count (SC) respectively. The isolates were identified using Standard Bacteriological Methods. Structured Questionnaires were administered to access the students' knowledge and compliance to hand hygiene practices. The results of the lab analyses showed that many of the students had very high bacterial flora in their hands especially the Non-Microbiology students. Also, the right hands of the students have more bacteria growth than the left hand of the students. The hypothesis of the study was validated using Pearson Chi-Square Statistics which showed that there is significant relationship between Handwashing hygiene practices and spread of Handborne bacterial infection among the students at the 5% level of significance.


ASSESSMENT OF RAIN WATER HARVEST POTENTIAL IN SOKOTO BASIN, NIGERIA FOR IMPROVED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT []


The Sokoto basin is part of north-western Nigeria; an area characterised by semi-arid condition largely due to high rainfall variability leading to frequent drought occurrence and water scarcity in the region. Rainwater harvesting can serve as an effective coping strategy in addressing the water deficit experienced by the people during the long dry season. This paper aimed to assess the rainwater harvest potential of Sokoto basin using variable landscape approach to improve water resource management. Simulations were run for 6 sequential rainfall years (2000-2005) to determine the distribution of rainfall input into output of runoff, actual evapotranspiration and groundwater outflow. The runoff and some groundwater outflow are considered as potential components for harvest and storage to be used after rainy season. The high potential areas for harvest were identified and classified using GIS and remote sensing techniques. The paper recommends a unified rational approach to water resources planning and development and suggests that small household water reservoirs and community earth dams should be built to capture excess runoff from rooftops and high runoff contributing landscapes for use during the dry season.