Volume 11, Issue 10, October 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Relationship Between Internal Audit and Management of Public Funds in Marsabit County, Kenya []

The prudent management of public funds is a critical pillar of effective governance and sustainable development. Marsabit County, grapples with unique challenges in managing its public funds. The Auditor General’s report on operations of the Marsabit County Executive for the year 2021/2022 also revealed that projects worth Kshs 118 million were initiated but had stalled due to lack of feasibility study on their viability. This clearly indicates there are issues with public fund management therefore the study sought to assess the relationship between internal audit and management of public funds in Marsabit County. The study was informed on the concept of the agency theory and stewardship theory. The study employed an explanatory research design. The target population was 54 employees in the county government of Marsabit drawn from the department of accounts and finance. Since the study population was small census technique was conducted. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data desirable for the study. A pilot study was conducted in Baringo County where five questionnaires were distributed to the finance officers. Content validity was ensured with the help of the research supervisors. The reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha test. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. After data analysis, results were presented in form of tables. From the findings the study concluded that there is positive and statistically significant relationship between internal audit and management of public funds in Marsabit County, Kenya. From the findings of the study recommended that the county governments should implement robust systems and processes that promote checks and balances in financial transactions.


La surveillance de l’eenvironnement économique de l’entreprise est une question de vie ou la mort de nos jour, la recherché de l’information pertinnte consititue pour toute entité à but lucratif ou non lucrative l’épine dorsal pour celle-ci, c’est pour cette raison que les entreprises cherchent à se doter des outils leur permettant de connaitre ce qui se dit sur eux par leurs clients, leurs fournisseur ou leurs concurrents. Ce papier cherche à expliquer comment et pourquoi la mise en place d’une dynamique de veille stratégique au sein d’une entreprise, et en ce qui nous concerne nous avons choisi la Rawbank, qui est une banque se trouvant en republique democratique du Congo; qui a été parmis les primières banques à penser mettre en son sein une dynamique de veille stratégique.

A review of hemodynamic changes in pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection presenting for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia []

The COVID-19 pandemic posed extraordinary challenges for obstetric anesthesia practitioners worldwide. COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, presented as a highly contagious disease with severe respiratory implications, particularly for vulnerable populations like pregnant women. Anesthesia management for pregnant COVID-19 patients necessitated a careful balance between ensuring optimal maternal care and minimizing viral transmission risks. This narrative review explores critical aspects of obstetric anesthesia during the pandemic, with a focus on the use of spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections in COVID-19-positive parturients. Spinal anesthesia emerged as the preferred choice due to its capacity to maintain hemodynamic stability, minimize respiratory complications, and reduce aerosol-generating procedures. However, concerns surrounding maternal hypotension and the potential for viremic blood transmission into the epidural space were addressed through strategies like vasopressor administration and meticulous fluid management. The review also emphasizes the importance of individualized care, optimal infection control measures, and alternative pain management strategies in postoperative care. Insights from this study inform future healthcare crises and underscore the need for adaptive healthcare systems that prioritize patient safety, even in the face of unprecedented challenges.

Effects of psychological risk factors on transfer intentions of Internally displaced government workers during the socio-political crisis in the anglophone regions of Cameroon []

KeyWords: Psychological risk factors, Transfer intentions, socio-political crisis, internally displaced, government workers, Turnover intentions, Anglophone Regions. ABSTRACTPsychological risk factors constitute a great source of risk in organizations especially during wars and conflicts. Adjustment schemas of employees are usually focused on risk mitigation strategies and transfer intentions to safer work stations is often a pre-disposition of those in distress. These risk factors lead to behavioural change in order to adapt to the prevailing organizational climate. This paper is designed to assess the effects of psycho-logical risk factors on the transfer intentions of Internally Displaced Government workers during the armed con-flict in the Anglophone regions of Cameroon. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The target population of the study is made up of internally displaced government workers resident in non-crisis areas of the francophone regions. A sample of 313 internally displaced government workers was obtained through a stratified random sampling and snow-ball sampling techniques. Results showed a positive correlation between psychological risk factors and transfer intentions. The study concludes with recommendations to the different stakeholders in the conflict in order to end the conflict and maintain the human resources intact. This paper may help the society by curbing the wave of psychological risk factors caused by conflicts in order to cre-ate a more conducive working environment that will spare workers from nursing transfer intention. Hence, it is very imperative for the government and the separatist fighters to work out strategies for peace to return and for government workers to stay and work in their regions.

In Search of Series to Calculate the Number Pi and its Most Exact Value and With the Largest Number of Decimal Places. []

This article is a Quantitative analysis of the various possible ways of calculating the number , based on the deduction of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and his 1686 formula through the generation of a Fortran program, an algorithm that creates the possibilities of calculation, as Leibniz defined and others, such as Riemann Zeta functions , and several starting possibilities, finally what remains is the analysis of numbers that are congruent to certain calculations of the conditions of the number , a relevant fact that promotes the search for a study of number and various ramifications of calculations in conjectures, lemmas, axioms and mathematical theorems, as well as its use in Physics and other sciences used to describe nature. Furthermore, it is shown that calculations and manipulation possibilities that took years, decades and centuries have their outcome in Fortran or Matlab programming in hours or minutes. The paper is just a little more extensive, for the Fortran Maclaurin program in the Appendix, mandatory.


ABSTRACT Separation of water from oil before transportation or refining is very essential for economic and operational reasons. Several methods in use have suffered from drawbacks such as high costs of production and environmental concerns. The need to develop a cost effective and efficient demulsifier in treating crude oil emulsions without compromising quality and environmental safety is a major concern to the oil industry worldwide. Hence, this study aims at developing and formulating cheap and environmentally safe demulsifier from locally sourced raw materials. Experimental investigation was carried out to ascertain its effectiveness in breaking crude oil emulsion. Materials used included locally made liquid soap, starch, camphor, alum, castor oil, and distilled water. Two different demulsifier formulations were made and tested on a crude oil emulsion sample from a Niger Delta field and subjected to a temperature of 60°F. The result of the treatment was a successful separation of oil and water using formulated demulsifier. The separated water volume by the local demulsifier (CONK1) was 31ml, showing the effectiveness of locally formulated demulsifier and better water separation capability than the commercially available imported demulsifier known. Keywords: Local materials, Coalescence, Demulsifier, Emulsion, Flocculation, Niger Delta.

Optimum Comparison and Validation of Commercially Available Demulsifier and Locally Formulated Demulsifier for Crude Oil Emulsion Separation []

ABSTRACT The need to develop a cost effective and efficient demulsifier in treating crude oil emulsions without compromising quality and environmental safety is a major concern to the oil industry worldwide. The production of crude oil along with water has been a primary problem in the petroleum industry. In this work, an emulsion breaking chemical (LFD) was formulated from locally sourced materials and experimentally compared with an imported commercially available demulsifier (sulphuric acid) to determine its effectiveness in crude emulsion resolution. Materials used are Castor oil, locally made liquid soap, Camphor, Alum, Cassava Starch and distilled water. It was tested on a crude oil emulsion sample from the Niger Delta field at a temperature of 85of, under the same experimental condition with the imported commercially available demulsifier (sulphuric acid) as the control. The percentage volume of water separated by the locally formulated demulsifier (LFD) was 93.33% while the separated percentage volume of water by commercially available demulsifier (sulphuric acid) was 69.33%. This clearly showed that the locally formulated demulsifier had a better performance in terms of emulsion resolution than the commercially available imported demulsifier (sulphuric acid).

Plant extraction as a new demulsifier formulation for water-in-oil emulsion demulsification. []

Abstract Separation of water from oil before transportation or refining is very essential for economic and operational reasons. Several methods in use have suffered from drawbacks such as high costs of production and environmental concerns. The need to develop a cost effective and efficient demulsifier in treating crude oil emulsions without compromising quality and environmental safety is a major concern to the oil industry worldwide. Hence, this study aims at developing and formulating cheap and environmentally safe demulsifier from plant extracts. Single plant screening of two groups of plant samples; A, B, C (Calotropis procera: dry and fresh extract and Citrus limonum: fresh extract) and D, E, F (Jathropha curcas: dry and fresh extract and Thevetia ferifolia: fresh extract) using bottle test and centrifuge methods was conducted at 700C for 300 seconds. The effect of modifier (ether, ethylacetate, ethylene glycol, ethanol and buthanol) was determined using the same methods. The optimum concentrations in g/ml for combination of oil and water-soluble demulsifier was determined using prediction profiler plot. Model formulation was based on 23 full factorial (custom) experimental design for the two groups and the final product was compared with commercial demulsifier; product code W054 in emulsion treatments. Results show that single plant screening shows that A, B and C are oil-soluble and D, E and F are water-soluble. From the modifier screening, ether (60% vol) has the highest volume of water separation while butanol (64% vol) has the highest oil separation. The optimum concentrations for oil and water-soluble demulsifier obtained from the prediction profiler plot was (A=3.1, B=1.95 and C=2.1) and (D=1.5, E=01.0 and F=3.65) respectively. The combination of oil and water-soluble demulsifiers for optimum emulsion resolution was based on the combination of B, C, D, E and F using the predicted concentrations. Keywords: plant, new, extraction, demulsifer, development


A large number of older buildings are constructed of stone/brick masonry in Nepal without considering earthquake resistance design. Thus, many masonry buildings were significantly impacted by the Gurkha earthquake 2015. During earthquakes, different failure patterns emerge in masonry buildings. Elements like opening sizes and Wall lengths seem to influence failure, but their exact relationships aren't clear. This study aims to unrevealed the roles and connections of these components in lessening masonry building responses. This study is focused in compre-hensively examining the seismic response of these constructions and explore strategies for reinforcement. This study involved the utilization of 12 distinct models. These models featured wall thicknesses of 40 cm (with lengths of 4.2 m, 5 m, and 7.2 m) and a wall thickness of 20 cm with a length of 4.2 m. Furthermore, the models encompassed variations in the presence of openings, specifically 0%, 11.57%, and 23.15%. The pushover analysis was performed all the models using SeismoStruct 2023. The study concludes that buildings with fewer openings perform better, showing higher base shear and less deformation. As damage increases, less open structures approach near collapse with significant deformation. Short walls collapse due to high base shear, while longer walls excel in base shear up to the yield point, attributed to their flexibil-ity causing increased deformation until damage limitation. Overall, shorter walls outperform longer ones from significant damage to collapse, displaying greater deformation upon Collapse.


This paper examines film as an effective medium for transformation in Nigeria. Film, in the world generally and in Nigeria specifically is one of the strongest means of disseminating information to the populace. Over the years the film industry in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous turnaround in form of patronage. Presently, the Nigerian film industry is the second largest in the world. It can unarguably cause a change in the affairs of the nation. This change was seen in both the positive and negative light. The study contends that its establishment has helped greatly in development of the nation, and has served as a medium of entertainment, education, perpetuation of culture, employment and communication as well as a source of information for research purposes. It also highlights various critics that praised the ability of Nollywood industry in the past, and expresses concern on the reverse focus on the negative themes and its negative impact on youth behavior and the image of Nigeria. The recommends that Nigerian films censors commission should scrutinize films before they are sent out for viewing by the larger audience, film makers should make movies that will portray Nigeria as a good place to be not as a den of criminals and that parents should pay attention to the kind of movies their children watch so as to prevent them from being involved in any social vices and ending up in jail as well.

ÉVALUATION DE CONDITIONS DU PERSONNEL EN MILIEU HOSPITALIER. (Cas de cliniques sncc du 01 Janvier au 01 Juin 2023) []

La productivité est conditionnée dans la plupart de cas dans toute entreprise par les conditions de travail dans lequel l’agent évolue, ainsi nous avons mené une recherche remontant sur le sujet « Évaluation de conditions de travail en milieu hospitalier cas de cliniques SNCC, ainsi nous avons mené une étude descriptive transversale prospective qui s’est déroulée pendant une période allant du 20/janvier au 20 juin 2023 soit 6mois, le questionnaire préétabli et l’interview ont été nos techniques de collecte de données. Apres investigations nous sommes arrivé aux résultats selon lesquels, 86.67% des agents sont informés sur l’existence des risques professionnel, 46.67% disent que leur condition de travail sont mauvaises, 60% de nos enquêtés disent que les mécanismes de prévention de risques au sein de la structure sont efficace et 40% pensent que ces mécanismes sont moins efficaces, 60% disent qu’ils ne sont pas motivés par leurs conditions de travail, et 40% affirment être motivés par leurs conditions de travail. En ce qui concerne les conditions de travail sur les risques professionnel nous disons que, ces dernières restent d’une grande influence sur la santé des employés car 33,33% des agents affirment avoir déjà été victime d’un accident du travail dans leurs carrières et 20% sont victime d’une maladie professionnelle, 33.33% des agents affirment être stressés au travail dont 100% de ce stress sont dû au manque des matériels et la pression hiérarchique, 80% sont dû à une faible rémunération et 40% pour une surcharge au travail. 64,29% disent les mécanismes de prévention des risques professionnels sont efficaces, par contre 35,71% disent que ces mécanismes de préventions ne sont pas efficaces.


In developing countries like Nigeria, addressing the significant challenges associated with solid waste management is a daunting task. Therefore, this research paper proposed a modified ResNet50 model for the classification of solid waste, employing the transfer learning approach. The MATLAB platform was employed to modify and train the model on the TrashNet dataset, which comprises six solid waste categories. The TrashNet dataset was randomly divided into a training set (75%) and a validation set (25%) to facilitate the proposed model’s training and evaluation. The proposed model underwent training for three different durations: 7, 15, and 30 epochs, respectively. The performance of the model was assessed using evaluation metrics, including accuracy, confusion matrix, precision, and recall. The results of this study revealed that the modified ResNet50 model achieved commendable accuracy levels of 93.65%, 98.09%, and 94.60% for the 7, 15, and 30 epochs, respectively. Notably, at the 15-epoch mark, the proposed model maintained the highest accuracy when compared to other pre-trained models, like AlexNet, GoogleNet, MobileNetV2, and ResNet-50. Additionally, for each waste category, the model, particularly after 15 epochs, demonstrated remarkable accuracy values ranging from 0.957 to 0.99984, coupled with precision values spanning from 0.9531 to 1.0000. Furthermore, the recall and F1-score metrics yielded high values, underscoring the model's effectiveness in correctly predicting a significant proportion of the samples. Overall, this modified ResNet-50 model exhibits considerable promise for applications in waste management, including waste sorting and recycling, IoT-based waste management systems, and waste classification through mobile applications.

A Comparative Study on Earnings Management of Selected Private Commercial Bank []

Abstract: Purpose: The goal of the study is to evaluate how effectively the sample private commercial banks manage their earnings. Methodology: For the period of 2012–2021, data on earnings management were gathered from different publications that the sample banks had published, and they were examined using both parametric and non-parametric techniques (Efficiency Analysis and ANOVA analysis). Findings – Inefficient deployment of profits and resources is the main cause of cost inefficiency. An inappropriate choice of inputs suggests resource waste that results in inefficiency. It shows that the high number of provisions for loans and advances lowers earning efficiency of the sample banks. Changes in some of the variables due to changes in the level of fixed inputs have a direct impact on the earnings management of the selected private commercial banks which depend on changes in capacity utilization. Inefficiency is also brought on by the extension of non-performing loans and non-interest expenditure, which were not allocated in accordance with deposit collection. We found that non-interest income was insufficiently financed and that burden was high. Limitations – The analysis only considers sample private commercial banks and runs only from 2012 to 2021. Only a few selected variables are used in the comparison calculations. Robustness: According to the literature analysis, net profit margin, return on assets, and provision for loan loss are all closely related to earnings management and these were proven by the findings. Proclamation– According to the author's best judgment, this may be the first study to evaluate the positions of sample banks about earnings management using DEA and SFA while taking the variables that are directly connected to profits into account.

The Role of Mission Statement in Strategic Management: A Case of Service Industries in Choma District of Southern Province, Zambia. []

The mission statement is an important organizational tool that forms the foundation for all other organizational objectives and strategies. Furthermore, it helps a firm present itself favorably to the public, as well as identify and respond to various stakeholders. Mission statements vary in length, content, format and specificity. Most practitioners and academicians in strategic management suggest that an effectively written mission statement exhibits nine characteristics or mission statement components. Since a mission statement is often the most visible and public part of the strategic management process, it is important that it includes most, if not all, of these essential components. Hence, the purpose of this research was to establish the role of organizational mission statement in strategic management process of service industries so as to ensure they are managed better to result in improved and competitive entities in Choma district. This research was premised on the descriptive qualitative method of analysis. The use of qualitative method allowed the researchers to measure variables and the effects of one variable on another in a precise way particularly when the causal relationships between variables are complex. The study sampled entrepreneurs in the service sector based in Choma district. Data was obtained from the respondents by means of questionnaires. Frequency tables, graphs, figures and pie-charts were used to analyze the research data. Data was also analyzed by the use of softwares; Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 26) and Microsoft Excel (version 16). The findings indicated that strategic management is considered an integral part of strategic management in most organizations. A clear correlation was established between the existence of the clearly stated written mission statements and the organizational performance.

Analyzing the Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria: An In-depth examination []

This paper provided a comprehensive overview of the complex and multifaceted issue of ethnic conflict in Nigeria, delving into its conceptual explanations and the underlying factors that have perpetuated these conflicts. It explored the historical legacy of colonialism, socio-political dynamics, economic disparities, cultural dimensions, and weak governance as key factors contributing to ethnic tensions. The implications of ethnic conflict, including loss of life, displacement, economic disruption, political instability, and security risks, are discussed. The abstract also emphasizes the need for a holistic approach to address these root causes, involving inclusive governance, resource management, intercultural dialogue, and institutional strengthening. Ultimately, this analysis highlighted the urgent imperative of addressing ethnic conflict in Nigeria to pave the way for a more peaceful and prosperous future for the nation.

The influence of socioeconomic inequality on maternal and child health outcomes in Nigeria: A critical analysis []

This critical analysis explored the profound influence of socioeconomic inequality on maternal and child health outcomes in Nigeria, a nation grappling with significant healthcare disparities. The socioeconomic disparities, encompassing income inequality, limited access to education, employment challenges, and disparities in healthcare access, have far-reaching consequences on the well-being of mothers and children. Notably, wealthier individuals have easier access to quality healthcare services, while low-income families face formidable barriers. These disparities contribute to alarmingly high maternal and child mortality rates in Nigeria. Maternal mortality rates in Nigeria, among the highest globally, disproportionately affect low-income women. The scarcity of skilled birth attendants, inadequate antenatal care, and the lack of emergency obstetric care exacerbate the risks faced by these women. Furthermore, the absence of education and awareness perpetuates the maternal mortality crisis. Child mortality rates are also closely linked to socioeconomic status, with children from low-income families at greater risk of malnutrition, waterborne diseases, and limited access to healthcare. Education emerges as a powerful tool in addressing these disparities, empowering women with knowledge and awareness to make informed decisions about maternal and child health. Recommendations included investments in healthcare infrastructure, the deployment of skilled birth attendants, nutrition programs for low-income families, support for girls' education, and the expansion of rural healthcare initiatives to bridge healthcare disparities. Addressing socioeconomic inequality in maternal and child health is crucial for Nigeria's progress and the well-being of its population.


DRC’s experience with the financial reform process shows a widening growth in the non-performing assets which has been a hindrance to the development of financial sector thus negatively contributing towards the growth of the Congolese economy. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the evolution of nonperforming loans in BCDC; to examine the evolution of the profit of BCDC and to analyse causal relationship between nonperforming loans and the profit of BCDC. This study involved 14 employees of the financial department, 38 cashiers, 27 employees of credit department and 4 employees of the management department obtained using the universal sampling method. The findings on the evolution of nonperforming loans in BCDC revealed that in 2018, BCDC recorded 48,499,425,000 Fc of nonperforming loans. This amount decreased by 2.6% in 2019 and became 47,259,812,000 Fc. However, the amount of nonperforming loans recorded an increase of 39.1% in 2020 as it became 65,741,908,000 Fc. The findings on the causal relationship between nonperforming loans and the profit of BCDC showed that the value of R2 for the model is 0.097. This means that 9.7% of the variation in the financial performance of BCDC can be explained from the NPLs. This indicates that the regression between the two variables (NPLs and ROA) is too low. Therefore, the researcher rejected the alternative hypothesis and conclude that the model is not statistically significant, meaning that there is no significant relationship between nonperforming loans and the profit of BCDC from 2018 to 2020, which confirms the null hypothesis. It recommends BCDC to improve its processes of screening credit customers and monitoring of credit risk. This is an important indicator because it had serious problem with non-performing loans in the past which led to collapse of many banks in DRC. Key words: Quality Assets, Financial Performance, Commercial Bank

Synthesis, characterization (FTIR) and antibacterial test of 3-(2-Nitroethyl)indole []

This study investigated the synthesis of 3- (2-Nitroethyl)indole with indole as the starting material. This reaction involved the formylation of the indole ring at position three using the Vilsmeier- Haacks reagent and then followed by coupling of the formylated indole ring with Nitromethane (proton donor) in the presence of sodium ethoxide which acted as the base. Characterization was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The final synthesized compound was screened against four bacteria namely; Klebsiella pneumoiae, Staphyloccus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis.

Title: DNA Data Storage System: A Paradigm Shift in Data Storage []

Abstract: In an era marked by an exponential surge in digital information, the conventional means of data storage, epitomized by USB drives, face growing challenges. This research paper embarks on an exploration of DNA storage systems, an innovative and promising alternative to contemporary storage solutions. DNA, the quintessential molecule of life, possesses a remarkable capacity to encode and retain data. This paper delves into the underlying principles of DNA storage, shedding light on its molecular components and the encoding mechanisms that enable the preservation of digital information. Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the paper first contextualizes DNA storage within the broader landscape of data storage technologies, elucidating the limitations of traditional mediums and underscoring the need for novel approaches. It subsequently elucidates the structure and properties of DNA molecules, explaining how they can be harnessed to store vast amounts of data. Real-world examples of successful DNA storage projects exemplify its immense potential. Drawing parallels with conventional USB storage, the paper provides a comparative analysis, scrutinizing aspects like capacity, durability, data retention, and energy efficiency. Moreover, the challenges and limitations associated with DNA storage are elucidated, offering insights into ongoing research efforts to surmount these obstacles. This paper also ventures into the future, exploring the potential implementations of DNA storage beyond data archiving, ranging from healthcare to data centers. Ethical considerations, including privacy and security, are addressed, along with an evaluation of the environmental impact of DNA synthesis and storage. In conclusion, this research paper aspires to catalyze discussions and research efforts aimed at harnessing the unparalleled capabilities of DNA storage systems. In the pursuit of more efficient, sustainable, and secure data storage solutions, DNA emerges as a beacon of promise, offering a paradigm shift that may redefine the digital landscape

Rape Trajectory and the Manipulation of Religion in the Nigeria Society []

Rape is a global social problem that cuts across ages, genders, races, ethnicities and religions. Notwithstanding its devastating effects on the health of the victim and society, its prevalence has continued to increase daily regardless of the location of the act whether sacred or secular place. The prevalence of rape shows that before the age of 18, one out of every four females are victims of rape while a ratio of ten was evident in male victims. Rape has also been happening in religious organizations, most especially among religious leaders and practitioners that hide under the religious pretense to perpetrate the act, and later shift the blame onto the devil to generate sympathy along religious lines. Though punishment for rape ranges from fines to imprisonment terms, the penalties have not reduced the crime of rape. Using descriptive analysis, the paper will examine rape under Nigerian law, types, cases and reasons for the religious cycle in Nigeria. Also, the paper examined religious manipulation in the cases of rape, social support and rehabilitation system. It was concluded that some religious organisation aid and abet rape by not opening up to security agencies on cases of rape brought to them. It therefore recommends that the scourge of rape can only reduce when religious bodies encourage victims to speak up.

Factors Associated With Safe Motherhood Practices Among Adolescents In Rwamagana District, Rwanda. A Mixed Method Cross Sectional Study []

Abstract Introduction: Safe motherhood practice refers to the fact of all women be given the needed care to be safe and healthy during their pregnancy and childbirth, it is the amongst health priorities in Rwanda and the rate of adolescent mothers aged 15-19 is lower in resorting to safe motherhood practices compared to the existing rates of mothers aged 15-49 taken together. This study was done in order to determine level of safe motherhood practices among adolescent mothers in Rwamagana District and to determine demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods: Cross-sectional design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches was used to collect data from a target population of adolescents who are gathered in cooperatives have given birth in all health centers of Rwamagana District. The sample size was calculated using the Yamane Formula and the calculation gave 245 as the number of individuals of the sample. To collect data from respondents, the researcher used the questionnaires and five focused groups. Obtained data were firstly edited, coded and presented in tables and figures. Their analysis and interpretation were done using a descriptive statistic, bivariate (Chi-square test with α=0.05) and multiple logistic regression (95% CI and AOR) were carried out to measure the relationship between variables and the strength of association respectively and statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS v22.0) and Atlas TI version 7was used. Results: The findings revealed that 29.4% of the respondents were considered as having a high level of safe motherhood practices while 70.6% were considered as having a low level of safe motherhood practices. Bivariate analysis showed that living with her parents presented a positive relationship with safe motherhood practices with 58.9%, X2=30.528, p<0.001; Also, using less than one hour to go to the nearest health center, having done the secondary education and having access to social media presented a positive relationship with safe motherhood practices with different odds. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the same results as using less than one hour to go to health center was five times more likely associated with safe motherhood practices with AOR 5.545 95% CI (11.360-2.707), p<=0.001 and having access to social media were four times more likely associated to safe motherhood practice, AOR 4.522 95% CI (8.356-2.447), p<=0.001. Conclusion: Therefore, government should put in place programs that help adolescent mothers to study about reproductive health and right and the assistance in resuming schooling and the emphasis on family planning activities among adolescent mothers as it was found that 29.4% have low level of safe motherhood practice is caused by lack of information in adolescents. Key words: Adolescent, safe motherhood