Volume 12, Issue 6, June 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Impact of AI Application on the Stock Market: A Study Case of Oman’s Muscat Securities Exchange []

Abstract: The goal of artificial intelligence, as fast-expanding branch of computer science, is to create intelligent machines that function similarly to humans. These days, artificial intelligence (AI) permeates every aspect of human existence, impacting not only how people work and study but also how they make decisions. AI is being adopted by industries such as finance, engineering, agriculture, and autonomous driving; and just like other industries, the stock market has embraced AI, and as a result, AI has completely shifted the traditional financial practices in the stock market. Through the identification of the AI factors that influence its application on the stock market and the analysis of the AI decision-making process, this project seeks to provide recommendations for improving the performance of AI in the stock market. This research will employ both primary and secondary sources; and to acquire more insight into the AI factors influencing the stock market and the AI decision-making process, a survey will be distributed to traders, investors, and financial analysts who traded on the Muscat Securities Exchange. Additionally, interviews with some of the field's leading authorities will be conducted. This study aims to highlight the importance of using artificial intelligence (AI) in the stock market and offer some recommendations for enhancing AI's stock market performance. According to the research, AI has helped traders increase their profits and minimize their losses by using AI algorithms in decision making by the AI collecting, analysing, and evaluating data to provide a prediction on the future market conditions factors such as algorithmic trading can also be used to optimize profits. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, AI and stock market, Muscat Securities Exchange, stock market

Tuning Fear: Enhancing Virtual Reality Therapy with Music for Katsaridaphobia []

Phobias have been proven to be the catalyst of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stresses, and mental health disorders, illustrating the importance of further research required to maximize the effectiveness of phobia treatment. Previous researchers explored the different categories of therapy that serve as a medical treatment to help patients confront their fears, in addition, exposure therapy has been identified as the most effective form of medical treatment for phobias. Exposure therapy, a psychological treatment whose purpose is to advocate a positive emotional and physiological state. The diverse sorts of presentation treatments incorporate heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, vivo reality, virtual reality presentation treatment, and numerous more. Numerous restorative organizations joined HRV biofeedback and virtual reality exposure therapy to presentation treatment, in any case, no investigation has utilized music to make strides in the productivity of presentation treatment. The disclosure of these past ponders spurred my inquiry to examine the degree to which music impacts the adequacy of vivo reality introduction treatment to patients with katsaridaphobia, the fear of cockroaches. The technique apparatuses utilized to conduct the inquiry include Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ), expert-reviewed vivo reality exposure therapy, heart rate monitor (HRM), and a correlational content analysis of the influence of the different categories of music on the patients’ heart rate as displayed on the HRM.


This research paper aims to investigate the role of lean warehousing practices within an organization and its repercussions on the main organizational indicators, using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The quantitative survey, conducted among 150 warehouse workers and managers, revealed significant improvements in key performance indicators: It further estimated to achieve functional cost savings equivalent to 25% percent, order fulfillment accuracy of 15% higher and a processing time reduction of 20%. Additional semi-structured interviews offered explanations as to why such enhancements were obtained, revealing increased involvement of workers, cooperation with co-workers and communication to be important determinants. This work also discovered another emerging barrier of resistance to change at an early stage to handle which training measures were used in conjunction with the proof that quick wins are possible. The study points to the extensive value of lean packaging, indicating that a combination of lean systems with innovative WMS technology and organisational culture enables the achievement of long-term benefits and a corporation's competitive edge. Overall, this study gives an extensive statistical perspective of lean initiatives and; more importantly, it offers valuable hints on how the implementation issue can be effectively managed across numerous industries.


This study provides a comprehensive historical and political analysis of the evolution of local government in Kenya from pre-colonial times to the present day. Kenya's local government has faced various challenges throughout its journey, including the impact of colonialism, changes in the post- independence era and current devolution exercises. The current system in Kenya has been shaped by significant institutional and policy frameworks imposed by the British administration during the colonial era. Post-independence reforms aimed to achieve greater autonomy and local governance but have met with varying degrees of success and difficulty in achieving their objectives. Local governance and politics in Kenya are intertwined, with the former exerting a significant influence on the political climate at both local and national levels. This study examines the potential for future reform of local government in Kenya. It analyses the actors involved and the challenges they face. It aims to provide a thorough understanding of the historical and political factors associated with local administration in Kenya and, through case study analysis and in-depth research, to highlight its importance in the socio-political development of the state. Keywords: Kenyan Local Administration, Pre-Colonial era, Post-Independence reforms, Decentralisation, Devolution system.

Air-Regulated Dual Stove for Domestic Cooking: Design and Development. []

The paucity and often unaffordability of clean energy for cooking in Nigeria has not only led to dwindling eco-nomic fortunes of citizens but has significantly impacted negatively on the standard of living of many house-holds. With rising prices of electricity and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), the average Nigerian household is left with no option than to seek for reliable alternative to these two major sources of clean energy for domestic cooking. This informs the need for the design and development of an effective alternative in the form of a dual stove. In this work, the design and development of an efficient air-regulated dual (charcoal and wood) stove is presented as an alternative for rural and semi-urban households. The design was implemented using empirical correlation and solid works software. The development of the designed dual stove was carried out using stand-ard workshop tools and machines such as center lathe machine, power drilling machine, rolling machine, bending machine, arch welding machine, cutting and grinding machine, steel and stainless steel electrodes. Design result show reactor/stove barrel external and internal diameters of 260mm and 264mm respectively, reactor height of 293mm, cook top diameter of 230mm, wood charging slot diameter of 85mm, grate diameter of 259mm, and top cover diameter of 262mm. The development of the air-regulated dual stove culminated into a prototype with unique features such as external ignition and quenching mechanism, sleeve for regulation of feed air, efficient and compact combustion chamber and dual cabins for charging charcoal and fuel wood.

The effect of mulch tillage with various types of crop residues on the Bumba Technical Secondary School garden's soil quality; tomato growth and yield and their contribution to the school's feeding budget []

A field experiment was conducted at the Bumba Technical Secondary School garden in Rutsiro District to study the effect of mulch tillage with various types of crop residues on the Bumba Technical Secondary School garden's soil quality; tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, L) growth and yield and their contribution to the school's feeding budget. Six treatments in the study included crop residues of peas, wheat, soybeans, maize, common beans, and no-mulch as control. Growth parameters (Number of leaves and plant Height), yield parameters (number of fruits and fruit weight), and soil quality parameters (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, soil organic matter, Cation exchange capacity, and PH) were determined in all treatments. Results revealed that mulch tillage did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the growth, yield, and soil parameters except Potassium however with inconsistency. The maximum height (198.7cm), number of leaves (30.94) at 90days after transplanting, number of fruit (14.67) and fruit weight (63.45 t.ha-1) were obtained with soybean crop residues while the maximum values of N (2.6g/Kg), SOM(61.0%) and CEC(88.3mmol+/Kg) were obtained with wheat crop residues, P(14.7g/Kg) and PH(5.5) with soybean crop residues and K(15.5g/Kg) with maize crop residues. On the other hand the minimum height (170.7cm) with peas, the number of leaves (27.78) with wheat at 90 DAT. The number of fruit (9.25) and fruit weight (39.03t.ha-1) were obtained with peas crop residues. The minimum values of N (1.7g/Kg) were obtained with soybean and common bean, P (4.5g/Kg) with control, K (12.4g/Kg) with peas; SOM (46.1%).), pH (5.2) and CEC (49.3 mmol+/Kg) with common bean. The price of the yield of tomatoes was used to assess the contribution of the school garden to the school feeding budget. The total yield obtained from the school garden of 72 m2 was 403 kg. At RWF1200 per kilogram on the current local market price, the total tomato crop contribution to the school budget was RWF483600. The minimum level of nitrogen in plots treated with soybean crop residues might be linked to the quick decomposition and mineralization of organic matter which encouraged nitrogen uptake by tomatoes and later resulted in better growth and yield. Therefore, soybean crop residues were found to be more effective in improving tomato growth, yield, and soil quality. Keywords: Mulch tillage, school garden, soil fertility, tomato growth and yield, school feeding, and crop residues.


Based on the experiment carried out in this research and the results obtained from the research, the research did justice to the key points in this research. The three key points that need to be stressed are sustainability, mid-temperature, and food safety. In this research 20 glaze sample was formulated using computer glaze software (“GlazeMaster”). While using the glaze software, three component was consider in the glaze formulation; Alumina silica ratio, Level of alkaline and Percentage of flux in the glaze recipe. 15 glaze recipes were first formulated and fired, at temperature range of 1080⁰ⅽ, 1110⁰ⅽ, and 1140⁰ⅽ. After the firing only glaze sample 10 which compose of (Ball clay 15, Borosilicate 50, Feldspar 11, Whiting 20 and Zinc Oxide 10) gave a glossy surface at temperature of 1080⁰ⅽ while sample 13, 5, 6,14,7,12,9 and 8, gave a matte surface at temperature of 1140⁰ⅽ. Glaze sample 11, 15,4,3,2 and 1 did not melt between the temperature ranges of 1080⁰ⅽ to 1140⁰ⅽ. Another 5 glaze sample was formulated after the result gotten from the first 15 glaze recipe was not satisfactory. The new 5 glaze recipe was named N1, N2, N3, N4 and N5. The glaze was first fired to 1110⁰ⅽ, after the first glaze firing glaze sample N1. N2, N3, N4 and N5 all gave matte surface. The second glaze firing was taken to 1140⁰ⅽ, after the glaze firing glaze sample N1, N2 and N3 gave a glossy surface while glaze sample N4 and N5 gave clear matte. After all the glaze firing glaze sample 1, N1, N2, and N3 gave the best result between temperature range of 1080⁰ⅽ and 1140⁰ⅽ. All the glaze sample craze on clay body, of ratio of Ball clay to Kaolin, ratio 1:1, while the glaze sample did not craze on clay body, of ratio of Ball clay to Kaolin, ratio 2:1 and 3:1.

Raman Spectroscopy Insights: Patterning and Coating Current Impact on Graphitic Thin Film Quality []

In this study, we employ Raman spectroscopy to investigate the structural properties of graphitic thin films fabricated on fused silica substrates. The fabrication process involves nickel catalysis at varying coating currents and two distinct patterning sequences: pre-patterning (lithography before annealing) and postpatterning (lithography after annealing). We analyze the intensity ratios ID /IG and IG /I2D, which serve as indicators of defect density and the number of layers in the graphitic samples. Our findings reveal that both the patterning sequence and the coating current significantly influence these properties. A comparative analysis of pre-patterned and post-patterned samples coated at 100mA, 150mA, and 350mA provides deeper insights into the interplay between the fabrication process and the resulting material properties. This research contributes to the optimization of patterning techniques, potentially enhancing the performance of graphitic materials in various technological applications. The results underscore the importance of meticulous process control in harnessing the full potential of graphitic materials.


This research investigated cross listing of public companies and financial performance at Rwanda Stock Exchange with special reference to three cross listed companies or banks namely Bank of Kigali, Kenya Commercial Bank and Equity Bank Rwanda Limited within the period 2016-2021. The study is important to the scholars, researchers, policy makers and practitioners of Rwanda Stock Exchange along with cases study companies. The study was a survey design conducted through mixed methods. The population of the study was comprised of five (5) public companies that cross listed their shares on Rwanda Stock Exchange whereby three (3) companies with 32 respondents participated in the study and were selected using purposive method. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect primary data whereas secondary data collected from NBR reports along with financial reports of case study companies. Numerical data collected from the field were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 while qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis and ratio analysis for financial reports. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, inferential statistics for making predictions about population, and correlation and regression analysis for exploring relationship between variables. The research findings revealed that Bank of Kigali had a ROE of 19.01% that is better figure compared to the 14.4% for average banking sector in Rwanda while Kenya Commercial Bank and Equity Bank Limited had a lower ROE as 8.64% and 7.7% respectively which is unfavorable compared to the average banking sector of 14.0%. Share prices has generated overall mean of 3.635 which is fairly strong, however on Rwanda Stock Exchange, foreign public companies do not trade well compared to local one’s. Overall, market capitalization has scored a mean of 3.149 that is relatively strong, however it was found that there is no added beneficial impact of being listed on Rwanda Stock Exchange due to the stock market that is relatively inactive because many equities investors want to keep their shares. Based on the research findings, the study concluded that there is a significant effect of cross listing on financial performance of cross listed companies. Regulators of listed companies were recommended to reform the rules and regulations and proper assessment to ensure the company wishes to be listed is financially sound while listed companies need to always disclose all the relevant financial information to investors. Keywords: Cross listing of public companies, financial performance and Rwanda Stock Exchange.


Libraries and the internet have been pivotal in disseminating information since the dawn of knowledge acquisition. Both traditional and digital resources are utilized to combat digital information overload, with "General and Scholarly Electronic Databases" offering easy access and online subscriptions to credible published materials. These databases have become increasingly popular among undergraduate researchers, particularly in academic institutions. However, online research can lead to information overload, as many websites provide unreliable and biased information. Merriam-Webster defines a website as a collection of hyperlinks created by individuals, companies, governments, and institutions. The reliability of these websites varies, with some being authoritative and others prone to misinformation and hoaxes. Databases and search engines differ significantly in terms of coverage and retrieval quality. Databases are searchable online platforms housing resources like journals, articles, e-books, and data sets. They offer comprehensive searching capabilities and, with the help of librarians, employ techniques like controlled vocabulary to enhance precision and recall. This allows users to find relevant sources more efficiently. Despite their advantages, databases also present challenges, such as increased reliance on technology, changing study habits, and a lack of awareness about available resources. Users often depend more on online resources than traditional library visits, leading to a shift in study practices. Moreover, the internet may not always meet users' needs, causing dissatisfaction. Enhancing public awareness of library resources and services is crucial. In summary, electronic databases offer convenience, efficient searching, and user-friendly navigation, benefiting everyone when used properly and with guidance. Key Words: Academic Research, Bestlink College of The Philippines, Database Proficiency, Database Usage, Digital Resources, Educational Technology, General Electronic Databases, Information Access, Online Databases


The "Quiz Events Efficient Tabulation Solution" aims to revolutionize the management and scoring of quiz events by providing a streamlined, automated system for tabulating results. Traditional methods of managing quiz events often involve manual processes that are time-consuming, prone to errors, and inefficient. This solution addresses these challenges by introducing an automated tabulation system that ensures accuracy, speed, and ease of use. By leveraging advanced technologies, the system significantly reduces the administrative burden associated with quiz events, allowing organizers to focus more on the quality and content of the quizzes. This solution encompasses a comprehensive suite of features designed to enhance the overall experience of quiz event management. Key functionalities include real-time score tracking, automated result calculation, and instant result dissemination. The system allows for seamless integration with various input methods, such as digital answer sheets and online submissions, ensuring flexibility and adaptability to different quiz formats. Additionally, the solution supports various event types, from small-scale school quizzes to large-scale competitive events, demonstrating its scalability and versatility. One of the standout features of the Quiz Events Efficient Tabulation Solution is its user-friendly interface, which is designed to be intuitive and accessible for users with varying levels of technical expertise. Organizers can easily set up quiz events, input questions, and manage participants through a centralized dashboard. Participants benefit from a smooth and engaging experience, with clear instructions and immediate feedback on their performance. This not only enhances user satisfaction but also promotes a fair and transparent competitive environment. In terms of security and reliability, the system incorporates robust measures to ensure data integrity and prevent unauthorized access. Secure data storage and encryption techniques are employed to safeguard participant information and quiz results. Additionally, the system undergoes regular updates and maintenance to address any potential vulnerabilities and to keep up with technological advancements. Overall, the Quiz Events Efficient Tabulation Solution represents a significant advancement in the management of quiz events, providing a reliable, efficient, and user-friendly tool that meets the needs of both organizers and participants. Key Words: Aemilianum College Inc., Automated Tabulation, Efficient Quiz Management, Efficient Tabulation, Event Tabulation System, Quiz Events, Quiz Management Solution, Quiz Score Tabulation, Real-Time Tabulation, Scoring System for Events, Tabulation Solution


This study explores the roles and perceptions of student council leaders in guiding student organizations. It highlights the balance leaders must maintain between daily responsibilities and a dedication to service, inclusivity, integrity, and transparency, aligning with transformational leadership theory. The challenges faced by these leaders, such as decision-making complexities and time constraints, underscore the need for strategies like open communication and effective time management. The findings also emphasize the importance of proactive solutions for navigating conflicts and promoting cohesion within student organizations. Leaders employ strategies such as mediation, collaboration, and adaptable leadership approaches to foster unity and resolve conflicts. These methods align with research on leadership styles and their impact on group dynamics, emphasizing diverse strategies for promoting engagement and inclusivity. The study proposes strategic approaches to enhance the effectiveness of student council leaders, drawing on insights from young leaders and previous research. These strategies aim to strengthen leadership capabilities, foster inclusivity, and achieve organizational goals, contributing to a vibrant and inclusive campus community. Recommendations include prioritizing student service, streamlining operations, and implementing diverse leadership strategies to navigate challenges and promote cohesion. Overall, the study highlights the essential role of student council leaders in shaping college communities, enhancing student engagement, and fostering an inclusive organizational culture. By employing proactive and inclusive leadership, student council leaders can effectively contribute to a dynamic and unified campus environment. Key Words: Aemilianum College Inc., Campus Community, Leadership Experiences, Leadership Strategies, Student Council Leaders, Student Engagement, Student Organizations


The study presents the development and implementation of a "Campus Activities Management System with SMS Reminders," aimed at streamlining the organization and communication of campus events. This system addresses the complexities involved in managing various student activities, ensuring that both organizers and participants are well-informed and engaged. By integrating SMS reminders, the system enhances the efficiency of event notifications, ensuring timely and effective communication across the campus community. The primary objective is to create a user-friendly platform that simplifies event management and boosts participation through reliable reminder services. The system leverages a robust database to manage event details, schedules, and participant information. Organizers can easily create, update, and delete events, while students can browse and register for activities of interest. The SMS reminder feature is designed to send automated messages to registered participants, reducing the risk of missed events and enhancing overall attendance rates. This feature is particularly beneficial in a campus environment where students often juggle multiple commitments and may overlook important dates and deadlines. A key component of this study involves evaluating the effectiveness of SMS reminders in improving event attendance and participant satisfaction. Surveys and usage data were collected from a sample of students and event organizers to assess the system's impact. Preliminary results indicate a significant increase in attendance rates and positive feedback regarding the convenience of SMS notifications. The system's intuitive interface and reliable messaging service have been highlighted as major strengths by users. The "Campus Activities Management System with SMS Reminders" demonstrates a successful integration of event management and communication technologies within a university setting. By addressing the challenges of event organization and participant engagement, the system provides a comprehensive solution that enhances the overall campus experience. Future developments may include additional features such as mobile app integration and advanced analytics to further improve user engagement and event planning processes. The positive reception and measurable benefits of the system underscore its potential for broader application in other educational institutions. Key Words: Aemilianum College Inc., Campus Activities Management, Campus Communication, Campus Events, Educational Technology, Event Management System, SMS Reminders


The Virtual Campus Walkthrough App for Aemilianum College Inc. aims to revolutionize the way prospective students, current students, faculty, and visitors interact with the college campus. This innovative application leverages advanced virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies to provide an immersive and interactive experience of the college's physical environment. The primary goal is to enhance user engagement by offering a detailed and realistic virtual tour of the campus. This digital initiative aligns with the college's commitment to embracing technological advancements to improve educational and operational experiences. The development of the Virtual Campus Walkthrough App was driven by the need to offer a solution that addresses the challenges posed by geographical limitations and the ongoing global health crises. By providing a virtual alternative to traditional campus tours, Aemilianum College Inc. ensures that potential students from various locations can explore the campus without the need for physical presence. This not only broadens the reach of the college's marketing efforts but also supports inclusivity and accessibility for all interested parties. The app incorporates detailed 3D modeling and high-definition panoramic views, creating an engaging and realistic representation of the campus environment. Key features of the app include interactive maps, guided tours, and information hotspots that provide users with detailed descriptions and multimedia content related to specific locations on campus. Users can navigate through different sections of the campus at their own pace, accessing information about academic programs, student services, and campus life. The app also includes a feedback mechanism that allows users to share their experiences and suggestions, ensuring continuous improvement and user satisfaction. This interactive approach not only enhances user experience but also aids in making informed decisions about enrollment and campus engagement. The Virtual Campus Walkthrough App for Aemilianum College Inc. represents a significant advancement in how educational institutions can leverage technology to enhance user experience and engagement. By offering a comprehensive and immersive virtual tour of the campus, the app addresses key challenges related to accessibility and inclusivity, while also supporting the college's marketing and operational objectives. The project's success highlights the importance of integrating cutting-edge technologies in educational settings and sets a precedent for future initiatives aimed at improving campus experiences through digital solutions. Key Words: 3D Modeling, Aemilianum College Inc., Augmented Reality (AR), Campus Tour, Immersive Experience, Interactive Maps, Virtual Reality (VR)


Rapid detection of crop diseases and pests is essential for sustainable agriculture, increasing yields, reducing management costs and protecting farmers. Because foliar pests and diseases are similar in appearance and the image backgrounds are faint, it is still difficult to distinguish them. To solve this problem, we propose a deep learning strategy, PlantGuardNet (PGNet), based on PENet and BFNet networks. PGNet consists of three steps: accurate detection and classification of crop leaf anomalies using PNet and RNet protocols, deep keypoint extraction using PENet and BFNet components, and image annotation to identify the truth of contaminated areas. Extensive testing by PGNet produced excellent results with a recovery rate of 99.83% and an average accuracy of 99.64%. In particular, PGNet performed adequately with lighting changes and visual noise. It is an invaluable tool in crop disease management because it is versatile in identifying both diseased and healthy leaves in a variety of crops. In the future, functions such as GFE, LFE and IFE will be integrated to study leaf characteristics such as color, shape and condition. Remotely sensed images are also used to enhance identification. This integration expands the boundaries of plant protection and disease management by facilitating more accurate diagnosis and classification of agricultural diseases. Keywords: Deep learning, Crop disease detection, PGNet, Efficient algorithms, High precision.

Impact de l'adoption et l'utilisation de la monnaie mobile sur le bien-être des ménages. Cas des ménages de la ville de Mbandaka en République Démocratique du Congo []

La présente étude porte sur adoption et impact de l’utilisation du mobile money sur le bien-être des ménages : étude du cas des ménages de la ville de Mbandaka, Province de l’Equateur, République Démocratique du Congo. Il est question ici de comprendre comment l’adoption et l’utilisation du mobile money influence l’inclusion financière, la mobilité et la facilité des transactions entre particuliers de différentes entités et doc le bien-être.Ainsi, L’objectif de cette recherche est double. Il s’agit, d’une part, d’identifier le profil des individus qui adoptent le mobile money et, d’autre part, d’évaluer l’impact de l’utilisation de cette innovation sur le bien-être des ménages de la ville de Mbandaka. Le premier objectif vise à exposer le profile socioéconomique des usagers du mobile money dans la ville de Mbandaka. Le second, lui, cherche à déterminer si l’utilisation de la monnaie mobile a un impact ou non sur la vie socioéconomique des utilisateurs. Cette étude a ciblé essentiellement les utilisateurs de la téléphonie mobile ayant un compte mobile money. Celle-ci a consisté à tirer un échantillon de 100 individus. Des informations sur les caractéristiques socioéconomiques ont été collectées avant et après le traitement. L’approche descriptive a consisté à détailler les caractéristiques des individus ayant adopté le produit qui constituent notre cible d'enquête. Les résultats montrent les utilisateurs de la monnaie mobile enquêtés se servent de la monnaie mobile pour leurs transactions plutôt qu’aux banques et les agences de transfert. Ainsi 100% d’utilisateurs enquêtés préfèrent les portemonnaies mobiles aux banques, la population enquêtée préfère en toute sa totalité (100%) les portemonnaies mobiles plutôt que les agences de transfert d’argent.Ces résultats confirment notre hypothèse selon laquelle le mobile money impacte positivement le bien-être des ménages de la ville de Mbandaka car il offre des opportunités non négligeables et que le 100% de nos enquêtés exclus du système bancaire ont accès aux services financiers grâce au paiement mobile.

“Climate Change and Increasing Drought Frequency in African Countries: A Systematic Analysis” []

Overview: Climate change refers to significant, long-term changes in the patterns of temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. It involves shifts in the average conditions and variability over decades to millions of years. The study was conducted in Luwingu district of Northern Province in Zambia. Body of Knowledge: Climate change is significantly impacting Africa, leading to an increase in drought frequency across the continent. This environmental shift is attributed to rising global temperatures, which alter precipitation patterns and reduce the availability of water resources. The heightened drought conditions exacerbate food and water insecurity, affecting agriculture, livelihoods, and overall economic stability in many African nations. Vulnerable communities, particularly those reliant on subsistence farming, are disproportionately affected, facing heightened risks of malnutrition and poverty. Methods: The study employed a mixed paradigm and descriptive survey design that sampled Government Officials, Farmers and Agricultural Workers. Data was obtained from the respondents by means of interviews, questionnaires and project observation schedules. The sample consisted of sixty respondents. Frequency, percentages, tables, graphs and pie-charts were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data obtained. Data was then analyzed manually in some cases with, a combination of software; MS Access and MS Excel. Results: The study found that rising global temperatures and changing precipitation patterns are exacerbating drought conditions across the continent. The findings indicated that these climatic shifts are largely driven by human activities, including greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. As a result, many regions in Africa are experiencing prolonged dry spells, reduced water availability, and adverse impacts on agriculture and food security. Recommendation: Governments should invest in advanced meteorological equipment and training to improve climate forecasting accuracy.


The study aims to investigate the effects of climate variability on agricultural production in Bugesera District, Rwanda for a period of 2012 up 2022.The objectives of the study are to analyze the historical trends and patterns of temperature and rainfall variability in Bugesera District from 2012 to 2022, to analyze agricultural production fluctuation over the same period, and to determine the relationship between climate variability and agricultural production. The research used quantitative research design. It was quantitative, by focusing on collecting numerical data to answer research questions and establish statistical relationships between climate variability and agricultural production of maize in Bugesera District. The researcher analyzed historical trends and patterns of temperature and rainfall variability in Bugesera District from 2012 to 2022, as well as agricultural production fluctuations over the same period from different institutions databases. The findings of the study have important implications for policy makers and farmers in Bugesera District and other regions facing similar challenges. According to the findings presented in table 4.2, the regression analysis indicated a strong positive relationship between the predictors of the model, which are rainfall variability and temperature variability, and the dependent variable, which is agricultural production in Bugesera district, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.716. This means that the predictors have a correlation of 71.6% with the dependent variable. Additionally, the study found that the combination of rainfall variability and temperature variability together accounted for 51.2% (R2 = 0.512) of the agricultural production in Bugesera district. Despite the availability of new agricultural technologies in the study sites, a reduction in maize yield was observed in the current study. The primary reason for the decline was linked to harsh weather conditions, particularly unpredictable rains and dry periods. The decrease in maize production resulted in food insecurity, which was characterized by inadequate quantities and poor quality of food, ultimately leading to malnutrition. In order to attain sustainable maize production and enhance food security, it is crucial to provide more support for adaptation and resilience strategies such as watershed management, utilization of drought-resistant and early-maturing maize varieties, establishment of community food reserves, formation of savings and credit groups, development of improved irrigation infrastructure, creation of diversified sources of income, and promotion of enhanced maize value chains.

Review on different five-membered heterocyclic aromatic compounds and their pharmaceutical applications. []

During the past decades and years of scientific research in the field of chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry, many chemical compounds with various therapeutic applications have been prepared and studied, which contain heterocyclic aromatic in their chemical structure, whether they are six-membered, five-membered and four-membered rings. Among the most important of these heterocyclic compounds are the organic compounds that contain five-membered heterocyclic that containing one, two, or three heteroatoms. Because of the great importance of these heterogeneous aromatic rings in the field of chemistry and because of their great therapeutic activities for various diseases, many methods and techniques have been developed to synthesize many of these compounds and market them as compounds that have many therapeutic applications. In this research, a brief overview of the most important five-membered heterocyclic aromatic was provided, along with a summary of the most notable pharmaceutically potent compounds that have these rings in their chemical structure.