Volume 12, Issue 6, June 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Omani banks' financial performance was studied in relation to corporate governance. Banks need good corporate governance to operate efficiently and sustainably. Few studies have examined their impact on Omani banking. The study examined how corporate governance affects Oman's banks' financial stability and profitability. The goals were to determine if governance codes improve stability and profits, examine how governance attributes affect operational efficiency and asset quality, and identify high-performing governance practices. Secondary data was acquired from 2014–2023 annual reports of four main Omani banks: Bank Muscat, National Bank of Oman, Bank Dhofar, and Bank Nizwa. Governance variables included board structure, disclosure, risk management, and ownership concentration. Return on equity, net profit margin, cost-to-income ratio, liquidity ratio, and NPL ratio measured financial performance. Some corporate governance traits were significantly associated to bank performance using regression analysis. Board independence boosted return on equity at Bank Muscat and Bank Dhofar. National Bank of Oman non-performing loans decreased with disclosure. Finally, corporate governance affects Omani banks' financial stability and profitability. The measurements showed that better-governed banks performed better. To improve results, the research suggests Omani banks focus on board independence, transparency, and risk management. Regulators should strengthen banks corporate governance and compliance frameworks.


This study explores the critical role that auditing plays in fraud prevention and detection, with a focus on auditing operations in Oman. This study uses a detailed examination of auditing procedures to present fraud risk mitigation techniques in the Omani context. Through a review of relevant literature and industry practices, this study makes clear how important effective auditing procedures are to maintaining financial honesty and investor confidence. It contributes to the discussion on the role of auditing in detecting fraud by examining the specific procedures and systems that auditing firms put in place to prevent fraud using a case study methodology. The questionnaire used to collect the data needed for this report is distributed to the auditing company staff. HCI aspects play a major role in designing the financial dashboards for a faster decision-making process. The results of this study clearly indicate the need for auditing to prevent and detect fraud in financial operations.

Using Information Technology in Determining Yearly Aggregate Loss Distribution in an Insurance Portfolio []

This article shows the using of information technology in preparing the claims aggregate loss table in an insurance portfolio or insurance policy and and will compare the results with both the four moments for one insurance policy introduced by HON SHIANG LAU and the for moments of all insurance portfolio introduced by THOMAS AUIPPA, hence the measurements of skewness and kurtosis.


Internet connectivity and digital skills gap are still present to this date, which is a disadvantage to those who struggle to level up with the changing era digitally. This paper aims at identifying, analyzing and discussing the various factors that may have led to the emergence of the digital divide in the chosen regions by using literature Data and Case studies. It explores the socio-economic, infrastructural, and sys-temic barriers that negatively impact the ability of marginalized groups to engage with digital technology and benefits. In addition, this paper discusses the impact of the digital divide in education, health, and employment sector in order to stress on addressing these issues as soon as possible. Based on the evaluation of the existing approaches and experience in the development and implementation of strategies, the paper outlines practical solutions to close the digital divide and achieve digital equity. Hence, it is within this aforementioned context of the impact of the digital divide and the promotion of social equality and economic opportunity for those who are ‘left behind’ in the new digital economy that this scholarship seeks to offer its support.


The global increase in demand for electronic products which gives rise to increasing e-waste generated per annum coupled with its associated environmental and health problems resulting from improper management and disposal necessitated this research. The hazardous nature of Electronic waste (e-waste) due to its components and rapid increase in its generation makes it a global concern, posing significant environmental and health risks. This study aims to address the challenges associated with the tremendous increase in e-waste generated all over the world and proffering effective approaches for mitigating its adverse environmental and health impact. Key focus include. Global e-waste generation, environmental impact of e-waste, E-waste management practices, and e-waste regulatory framework. Results of the review reveal that reusing, refurbishing, repairing, recycling, developing policy recommendations and administer trainings for stakeholder are current and effective solutions to minimize e-waste generation.

Significance and Challenges of Online Teaching: A Case Study of Fez High Schools []

In today's educational landscape, the integration of technology has become a necessity for enhancing the learning experience for both learners and educators. This article delves into the challenges and solutions in adapting to online teaching, with a focus on its transformative impact on teaching methodologies, student engagement, and access to information. We analyze the benefits and obstacles associated with online teaching in educational settings by examining current literature and empirical studies. By illuminating the evolving role of technology in education, this article aims to provide practical strategies that can be readily implemented to develop its potential to create dynamic and inclusive learning environments. Keywords: online teaching, educational technology, challenges, solutions, student engagement


Caregivers holds the key for successful development of preschooler’s motor development. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of early childhood caregivers on fine and gross motor development of preschoolers in Lilongwe area 36. Questionnaires, and observational checklist were used to collect data. Data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The results demonstrated that 75% of the caregivers were within productive age group and 97.7% of the caregivers were female and married. The majority of caregivers had MSCE (77.2%) and 52.3% went through ECD training. Caregivers lacked knowledge in many crucial dimensions of motor development which among others include individual difference affecting motor attainment, handedness, and interventions helping preschoolers attaining normal motor. The presence of motor practices like jumping, dancing, matching, molding, coloring, packing and throwing among others in ECD schools depending on preschooler’s age, provides a preliminary support for a potential preschooler’s motor development. The study recommends more reflective training on activities promoting motor development rather than wide range training on what ECD is all about, how to teach and how make learning materials. Furthermore the absence of caregivers planning and intentional support of preschoolers motor skills merit further consideration in curriculum suitable for preschooler’s motor development. Lastly the study recommends further research on handedness (left, right and both handed) as a contributing factor of motor development, by considering that both handed children do worse on motor activities.


Abstract International law guarantees the right to health for all human beings without discrimination. In the face of armed conflict, the duty to enjoy that right is paramount andthepresence of medical personnel cannot be underestimated. Treating the wounded persons during combats is the role and neutrality is the principle. On the field, the neutrality of medicsand paramedicsis challenged especially military medical personnel who wear the same uniform as the regular soldiers and evencarry light fire arms. In the North West and SW regions of Cameroon, medical personnel and institutions havebeenattacked both by the military and armed separatistsfighters,theyby violating the neutrality principle and committing war crimes.The aim of this paper is to enlightened parties to the conflict of the indispensable role of medics whoshould not be attacked. We recommendthat proper investigations should be conducted in case of violations for the purpose of prosecution.

Entrepreneurship education and it's policies in Cameroon []

Abstract The modern world has seen the economies of several nations across the world being upset and rearranged to accommodate the might of smart entrepreneurs building worthwhile business enterprises. Since the conclusion of the 20th century, there has been increasing recognition of the important role of entrepreneurship in national economic growth of nations and organizations (Schwartz & Malach-Pines, 2009). Advancements in technology, financing, and government policies across the world have seen the growth in this trend with countries in Asia, Europe, and North America recording a significant growth in the number of billionaires on their respective continents. This trend is however not lost on the African continent as many nations particularly in East Africa are recording meaningful advancements in economic performance based on the wit and might of some skilled entrepreneurs. Arguably, the blueprints for the economic emergence of developing countries like Cameroon have already been imprinted in the success of other nations for all to see. However, in Cameroon, entrepreneurs have not been the main source of employment and economic progress (Kamdem, 2019), as the mixed market system within the country has been dominated by the public sector which has been responsible for the employment of majority of Cameroon’s work force. In recent years however, entrepreneurship education has taken up steam from what was previously an obscure concept to a must have across all disciplines in public universities especially as the country faces the effects of prolonged conflicts and challenged economic performance in major parts of the Country. The government policies in place and entrepreneurship education mechanisms in place hold great promise, but in a fragile economy rife with potential and opportunities, the need for such an education cannot be overstated. Thus, as at now in Cameroon entrepreneurship education and its enhancement remain indispensable and must be fully engaged in public planning and national development talks, as a full transition to a private sector dominated mixed market system presents as the best format for meaningful rejuvenation and growth.

School violence related to Mauritian context []

Abstract Violent acts are in existence in the Mauritian colleges among pupils. The violent learners keep disrupting the positive school environment. There is an increase in violent acts by some pupils in the Mauritian schools. The school management should find solutions for this social ill. The educators in some secondary schools face constraints to carry out some classes where there are violent pupils. The college is a vital component for the overall development of the pupils. The crucial knowledge is transmitted to the pupils at the secondary institutions. The aim of the colleges should be to lessen violence and increase progress of the children. School violence is a problem in Mauritian colleges. In Mauritius, violence at school outline; threat, use of force, injury, death, psychological harm, lacuna of socialisation and deprivation. Bullying at secondary schools is a phenomenon in Mauritius. In Mauritius, some of the pupils are very indulged in bullying. There are differences among pupils in the classroom, for example, gender as well as age differences. Therefore, in Mauritius the learners are bullied by their friends and they adopt abusive attitude that is not according to the norms of schools. In Mauritius, there is also the problem of peer violence. The pupils may adopt a negative peer group attitude. There may be gender differences in the negative peer group. The learners are successful when they have high IQ, they are pro-social, they have skills as well as they usually follow religion in a positive way in their lives. School violence is in relation to family background, problems[poverty] as well as violence. The pupils are influenced by peer groups and they may face character problems like not adapting with the other friends. The rectors should outline strict rules in order to lessen violence for the pupils. The policy making is done to diminish violence by Ministry of education with the collaboration of the colleges. The school violence issue is present in our island and there are prevention measures that are outlined for the betterment of the students in the secondary institutions.

School violence related to Mauritian secondary schools. []

Abstract SCHOOL VIOLENCE School violence is in existence in the Mauritian society. The violent learners keep disturbing the school environment. There is an increase of violent acts in the Mauritian colleges. The school management should find solutions for this phenomenon. The teachers in some colleges face difficulties to conduct some classes where violent learners exist. The school is called the temple of knowledge but when violence is reproduced, then necessary action should be taken to lessen it. The aim of the schools should be to reduce violent acts and promote the overall development of the children. School violence is a social ill in the Mauritian society. There is also verbal abuse and physical abuse in the Mauritian schools. Sometimes, in Mauritius, there are negative events produced at the colleges. In Mauritius, these serious phenomenon are noted: the demolition of school property by some violent pupils, peer conflict, drug abuse, sexual harassment and physical confrontation. School violence is related to the serious problem of anti-school gestures.


This study investigated the effect of human retention strategies on employee performance in Maisha holistic Africa foundation, Kagadi district. In particular, the study assessed; the effect of human resource planning on employee performance at Maisha Holistic Africa foundation. The study used a case study design and both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered with the use of interview guide and questionnaire respectively. The study respondents were selected using simple random sampling and purposive sampling. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis implemented with the aid of SPSS and qualitative data was analyzed using content thematic analysis. The study found out that; human resource planning has a positive significant effect on employee performance at Maisha Holistic Africa foundation (r=0.871, p<0.05); training has a positive significant effect on employee performance at Maisha Holistic Africa foundation (r=0.721, p<0.05)


This study examines the assessment of students’ competencies towards employment opportunities. Data was collected from the 4th year BSBA students of Tagoloan Community College using a descriptive research design and quantitative approach. The analysis reveals that the students at Tagoloan Community College (TCC) exhibit a strong level of competency across various skill areas, including analytical, financial, communication, and interpersonal skills. However, the data suggests there may be room for improvement in the program's ability to effectively develop the students' analytical reasoning and problem-solving abilities. Their relatively lower competency in understanding the role of taxes in financial management indicates a potential area for enhancement. Analytical, Financial, Communication, and Interpersonal skills all show strong positive correlations with employment prospects. Recommendations includes strengthening the college's curriculum and to further cultivate the students’ abilities. Expanding financial skills to provide comprehensive coverage of personal and business finance. Training and workshops to help students enhance their skills. Provide opportunities for students to through experiential learning activities and simulations. Collaborating with local and regional businesses for continuous alignment of the college's educational offerings. Partnership with industry experts, undertake thorough review of the business administration curriculum and expand the college's career services and networking opportunities.

Innovative Approaches to carbon capture and utilization in Nigeria's Oil and Gas Sector: Transforming emissions into assets []

This study carried out an assessment of innovative approaches to carbon capture and utilization in Nigeria’s oil & gas sector: transforming emissions into assets. Nigeria's oil & gas sector is a significant contributor to the country's economy, but its operations also generate substantial greenhouse gas emissions. To address this challenge and align with Nigeria's climate commitments, innovative approaches to carbon utilization in the oil and gas sector are crucial. Findings identified direct air capture technology, carbon capture and storage technology and carbon capture and utilization technology as current innovative technologies adopted in transforming carbon emissions into assets in Nigeria’s oil & gas sector, showed the relationship between gas utilization and carbon emissions efficiency in Nigeria’s oil & gas sector and final findings identified five challenges of transforming carbon emissions into assets in Nigeria’s oil & gas sector namely technology, leakages, capture and storage costs, decision & regulatory strategies and implementation time. This paper recommends the need for collaboration between the Nigerian government, international organizations, and the private sector to develop and deploy the necessary technologies and infrastructure. By embracing these strategies, Nigeria's oil & gas sector can contribute to the country's transition towards a low-carbon economy while creating new revenue streams and aligning with global efforts to combat climate change.


Co-curricular activities are instrumental for drawing out the best abilities of the student. Co-curricular plays an important role in education like fertilize of personality and unity. Participation of students as young people and folk in the country in co-curricular activities can cultivate goodwill, unity, national integration and inculcating good values indirectly and directly participating in such activities. This study aims to assess the co-curricular activities, perceptions and problem encountered that facilitate in enhancing skills and personality of Initao College students and demographic profile by gathering data through a developed self-made questionnaire and evaluating the data through the use of descriptive statistics. The variables under Co-curricular activities include Intellectual, Emotional, Social, Spiritual and Sports. Lastly, the demographic profile of Initao college students includes Age, Gender, Civil Status and Status in organization. It was most found that more of the skills and personality of Initao College students develop through intellectual activities and less in spiritual and emotional or psychological activities. Most respondents belong in the younger age group mostly of female, single and are active member of the co-curricular organizations. Those in the older generation aged 23 – 38 years old who participated the co-curricular activities responded less when prompted to answer questions that entail co-curricular activities. The researchers suggests further that there should be massive information to all Initao College students on co-curricular organization in order to achieve a greater participation, secondly, co-curricular activities should be strengthened through the support from the Initao College Administration and Parents Association spearheaded by the different co-curricular department organization and the Central Student Government (CSG) in making it more beneficial both the physical and intellect development of the students and the values such as Proactive leadership, Excellent service to the community, Alive entrepreneurial spirit, Responsible stewardship of resources, and Life-long education (PEARL) should always be included in all co-curricular activities either internal or external affairs to attain an equal contribution to the development of Initao College students.

Contribution des institutions de la microfinance pour l’émergence des Micros et Petites Entreprises à Kisangani. Cas de la Société de microcrédits Congolais. []

This article examines the role played by microfinance and small business organizations in Kisangani, drawing on research by the Société de Microcredit Congolais (SMICO). on research by the Société de Microcredit Congolais (SMICO). It highlights the vital role played by these institutions in the local economy, providing small business owners with essential financial support. The vital role played by these institutions in the local economy, providing small business owners with essential financial support. The SMICO case study demonstrates how microloans can stimulate business growth and encourage the emergence of an entrepreneurial dynamic in the Kisangani region. The study demonstrates how microloans can stimulate business growth and encourage the emergence of an entrepreneurial dynamic in the Kisangani region. KEY WORDS: Microfinance – Contribution for the emergence of micro and small businesses

L'Objectivité de l'Évaluation : entre Réalisme et Chimère []

L'objectivité en évaluation, telle une étoile polaire dans l'univers de l'éducation, guide les aspirations vers une équité solide et une justice inébranlable. Cet article, à la fois érudit et critique, s'attaque à la chimère de l'objectivité absolue, en déployant un panorama riche de théories et de pratiques visant à minimiser la subjectivité dans les évaluations éducatives. Nous sondons d’emblée les fondements théoriques, allant de la théorie de la réponse à l'item à l'analyse factorielle, mettant en lumière les avancées méthodologiques destinées à affiner la précision des évaluations. Cependant, nous révélons également les limites inhérentes à ces approches, illustrant les biais persistants qui érodent la pureté de l'objectivité. Ensuite, nous étudions des stratégies pragmatiques pour réduire ces biais, telles que la formation rigoureuse des évaluateurs, l'utilisation de rubriques détaillées, et l'intégration de technologies éducatives sophistiquées. Ces méthodes, bien que loin d'offrir une solution parfaite, représentent des pas significatifs vers une évaluation plus juste et équitable. Le présent article propose une réflexion profonde et nuancée cherchant à démontrer que l'objectivité ne constitue pas une destination finale, mais un parcours incessant vers l'amélioration continue et l'excellence éducative.

Teachers’ understanding and enhancement of learning for sustainability in Mauritian primary schools. []

The purpose of the current action research study within a case study design was to explore teachers’ understanding and enhancement of Learning for Sustainability (LFS) in the Mauritian primary education context using a participant-designed action research. Theoretically, the study drew from Burns Model of Sustainability Pedagogy and O’Donoghue’s Active Learning Framework. LFS might be simply understood as a concept that describes all educational activities concerned with developing an understanding of the related concepts in sustainability. Teachers find it difficult to bridge their understanding and practice through enhancement in their teaching. This study helped to address such a shortfall in schools and to address the purpose, methods including observations and reflections to generate data from six participants were used. Data generated was analysed using thematic analysis where data was categorized and interpreted in terms of common themes which were synthesized and generalised to provide an overall portrait of the case constructed. The findings indicated that there was different understanding of LFS among primary school teachers and that their understanding greatly influenced their enhancement in their teaching. The study further found that enhancement of LFS improved teachers’ practices and experiences by bringing new knowledge in their understanding of LFS. We recommend that this study allows other teachers, school leaders, policy makers and curriculum writers to develop proper understanding of LFS and address the lack of data and provide insights for future teachers’ enhancement by bringing positive change and adaptation strategies in teacher learning and understanding practices.