Volume 12, Issue 6, June 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This research paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the financial performance of Oman Cement Company and Raysut Cement Company, two pivotal enterprises within the Sultanate of Oman’s manufacturing sector, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using financial data from 2017 to 2023, this study evaluates the impact of the pandemic on these companies through key financial ratios, including profitability, liquidity, debt-to-equity, and interest coverage ratios, as well as vertical and horizontal analysis. The findings indicate that Oman Cement maintained relative financial stability, with fluctuations in performance metrics, whereas Raysut Cement faced significant challenges, illustrated by its high leverage ratio and decrease in profitability. These differences highlight the varying impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on both enterprises and underscore the importance of strategic financial management during periods of economic distress. Recommendations are provided to strengthen the sector against future economic challenges.


This research paper showcases a comprehensive analysis of the financial analysis and performance of Oman Cement Company and Raysut Cement Company, two essential enterprises within the Sultanate of Oman’s manufacturing sector, during the challenging period of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. Using financial data from 2017 to 2023, the research illustrates how the two companies adapted to the economic distress caused by COVID-19. This research paper uses profitability, liquidity, debt-to-equity, and interest coverage ratios, as well as vertical and horizontal analysis, to study pre, during, and post-pandemic financial behaviors. The findings of this report showcase that Oman Cement Company had a reasonably stable financial response with relative fluctuation in its performance metrics. On the other hand, Raysut Cement Company showcased more challenges, illustrated by its high leverage ratio, and decrease in its profitability. These differences showcased the different impact of the novel pandemic of COVID-19 on both enterprises. This research paper also shed light on the importance of financial strategies during financial distress and provides recommendations to fortify the sector against future economic distress.

Roles of Agricultural Extension Programme in promoting food security among Farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. []

This study examined the roles of agricultural extension programme in promoting food Security among farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. Five research objectives, and five research questions, were used for the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population of the study was 375 farmers who are members of cooperative farmers’ organisations in the study area that are registered with Rivers State Agricultural Development Programme (RSADP) office in Rivers State. The entire population was used for the study without sampling because it was a manageable size, and represents 100% of the population. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “Roles of Agricultural Extension Programme in Promoting Food Security Questionnaire”. The face and content validity of the instrument was determined by two experts of Adult Education and Community Development. The reliability of the instrument was determined through a pilot study of 30 respondents who were registered farmers outside the study population, while Cronbach Alpha method was used to establish the overall reliability coefficient (r) value of 0.72. The data collected from the research questions were analysed with Mean ( ) Statistic. The findings from the study revealed that introduction of new farming technologies, education for farmers on new farming techniques, crop diversification, sustainable agricultural programme for farmers, and provision of credit and markets for farmers as agricultural extension programme plays key roles in promoting food security among farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study recommended amongst others that government at all levels should mobilise farmers to participate in the introduction of new farming technologies programme designed to equip farmers with modern knowledge and skills in technology to ensure sustainable food security.

Urban road transport performance and challenges in Sub-Saharan millionaire cities: Case of the Douala IV municipality in Cameroon []

Unorthodox and anarchical use of urban road transport ruffles performance. This article probes into the fundamental challenges of urban road transport in Douala 4 with the hope to introduce salvage solutions to the anarchy accrued. The paper posits that inadequate road infrastructure, anarchical use of roads and socio-economic drawbacks has triggered poor performance of road transport in Douala 4. Some 238 questionnaires were administered to households and other road users in the Douala 4 municipality to capture first hand data from the field. Interview sessions, focus group discussions and field observation were done to collect data on the mundus-operandi of road transport in the area and its effect on performance. An in-depth documentary research was done to match-up the data collected from the field with existing research in order to have a good analyses for results. Results from findings propound that mobility in the municipality is dominated by private transport while collective transport is by commercial motorbikes. The performance of road transport is hampered by inadequate roads sizes (42.8%), limited parking lots (26.5) inefficient mass urban transport (16.5%), and poor state of vehicles (14.2%). This has provoked unadorned traffic congestion from poorly managed road circulation which produces exhaustible delays and delivery time. This is caused by limited road intersections, lawless roadside parking, non-respect of traffic control lights, unwanted road accidents as well as rebellious circulation of heavy duty vehicles which leaves much to be desired. This article endorses that the road sizes should be revised and road intersections, roundabouts and parking spaces should be properly managed. Circulation of motorbike and mini-transport buses should be regulated to limit anarchy at best. Stringent rules and sanctions on any defaulters to circulation norms must be meted in order to improve on the performance of road transport in Douala 4 and beyond. Keywords: urban road transport, performance, challenges, anarchy, congestion, control, Douala 4.


Explosions are short duration dynamic events that generate pressure waves which propagate radially from the source in space, exciting dynamic response in the structures that are encountered in their path.The pressures acting on the affected surfaces are impulsive loads that impart significant amount ofenergy which introduces damage-causing vibrations in the structure.This paper examines the effects of impact of a steel, semi-rigid missile made of Steel4340 asprovided in Ansys work bench 2022-R1 with explosive TNT as provided in Ansys work bench 2022-R1packed inside the missile container, hitting on a concrete box type structure.The barrier is assumed to be made of reinforced concrete M35 grade as provided inAnsys work bench2022-R1 material modelling library , a commonly used material for this purpose due toits structural stiffness and ductility for absorbing the effect of impact and explosion. The failure modelare evaluated in Brittle Crack Concrete(B.C ),Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDPL) and RHT modelusing Ansys Work bench 2022R1.

Analysis and evaluate Sustainable Distribution Practices and Environmental Challenges []

The global supply chain and distribution network face increasing pressure to address environmental concerns and adopt more sustainable practices. This paper aims to analyse and evaluate the current state of sustainable distribution practices and the environmental challenges associated with them. The study begins by examining the key drivers behind the push for sustainability in distribution, including regulatory requirements, consumer demand, and corporate social responsibility initiatives. It then explores various sustainable distribution strategies, such as optimized route planning, alternative fuel vehicles, reverse logistics, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Through a comprehensive literature review and case studies, the paper assesses the environmental impacts of these sustainable distribution practices, considering metrics like carbon emissions, resource utilization, and waste reduction. The analysis also identifies the barriers and challenges that organizations encounter when implementing sustainable distribution, including technological limitations, financial constraints, and organizational resistance to change. Furthermore, the paper discusses emerging trends and innovative solutions in sustainable distribution, such as the use of blockchain technology, autonomous vehicles, and data-driven decision-making. The study concludes by providing recommendations for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers to address the environmental challenges and drive the adoption of sustainable distribution practices more effectively. This abstract provides a concise overview of the key elements that will be covered in the full analysis and evaluation of sustainable distribution practices and environmental challenges. It outlines the scope of the study, the main objectives, the methodology, and the expected outcomes.


ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and exam anxiety among second-year baccalaureate students. Specifically, it examines whether a significant correlation exists between emotional intelligence and exam anxiety levels within a sample of 100 students, evenly divided between males and females. The research utilizes the Arabic versions of Bar-On's Emotional Intelligence Scale (2002) and Sarason's Exam Anxiety Scale (1960) for assessment. The results indicate a statistically significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and exam anxiety, as demonstrated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.767. This finding suggests that students with higher emotional intelligence tend to exhibit lower levels of exam anxiety. Therefore, the study concludes that emotional intelligence is associated with reduced exam anxiety among second-year baccalaureate students. Furthermore, the study determined that there were no statistically significant differences in emotional intelligence levels between males and females, as assessed by the t-test for mean differences. Thus, gender does not seem to influence emotional intelligence levels in this context. However, gender-based differences were observed in test anxiety, with females exhibiting higher levels of test anxiety compared to males.

The Effect of Civil war on Education System in Somali National University in Mogadishu, Somalia. []

Background: Globally, The American Civil War was one of the bloodiest wars in the history of America. It took place from 1861 to 1865.The war broke out between the two sections: The North and the South, and it emerged as a result of the differences between these two sections. While the North was industrial, the South was utterly based on agriculture. The economic differences resulted in two blocks or divisions: South and North. Southerners depended on plantations in addition to slave labor. Unlike the South, the North was wealthy, and they relied on manufactures and did not need slaves.(Khadidja, 2018). Objective: To establish the effect of civil war on educational development case study: SNU specially faculty of education. To determine the effect of civil war on students performance case study: SNU especially faculty of education. To find out the effect of civil war on enrolment rates case study: SNU specially faculty of education. Methodology: the researcher used descriptive design the target population was 100 concluded faculties administers, lecturers and students of faculty of education and social science of SNU. The number of sample size is to 80.the sampling technique was probability sampling technique and the research instrument was questionnaire. The research got authority letter from SNU to facilitate collecting data from respondents. The researcher used SPSS to analyse data from respondents. Result: respondent of males was 60, (75%) and females were 20, (25%), respondent’s level of education, Bachelor degree level group was 56, (70%), Master degree level group was 18, (22.5%) and PHD level group was 6, (7.5%). Mostly the results showed that the effect of civil war on education system. For example 53, (66.2%) strongly agreed civil war causes to destroy building of education system. In my conclusion, I found that civil war had huge effect on education system especially public institutions in Mogadishu-Somalia, and after doing this research the researcher found that the civil war had the greatest impact on educational development in Somali.

Navigating Operational Challenges in Supply Chain Management []

This research draws a methodological analysis of the effects of operations management on supply chain and the interconnection among numerous supply chain elements. Lead time, supplier performance, inventory control, transportation costs, product quality and packaging, inventory turnover rates, warehousing, information technology, visibility, risks, and collaboration are the accuracy of supply chain resilience, agility, and adaptability, according to the research. The findings of this study, therefore, show that through a multiple regression analysis, the successful management of operational challenges is crucial for achieving supply-chain responsiveness and reliability. The results indicate that it is possible to increase leaders’ supply chain performance by investing in such areas as lead time, supplier performance, inventory management, transportation costs, product quality, packaging, inventory turns, storage, IT integration, supply chain visibility, risk management, and collaboration (Das, 2022). Thus, the presented study adds to the extant literature about supply chain management, focusing on the necessity to resolve operational issues to enhance supply chain performance. The conclusions of the research would be beneficial for any company and policy maker who strives to reach optimal supply chain performance and minimize potential operational issues (Mentzer, 2001). Key words Sustainable, supplier performance, performance, challenges


ABSTRACT This study investigated factors affecting knowledge of preventive measures of cybercrime among public university student’s in Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, two research questions and corresponding hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The population of the study comprised 185 four hundred level Business Education students of public universities student’s in Cross River State. Total sample of one hundred and eighty five (185) respondents were selected for the study using the census sampling technique. The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. Collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Moreover, inferential statistics, such as independent t-test was used for hypothesis testing. Findings of this study revealed that peer group significantly influence public university students’ knowledge of cybercrime preventive measures. The study further revealed that Parenting does not significantly influence public university students’ knowledge of cybercrime preventive measures. The findings of this study hold important implications for cybercrime education and youth well-being. The study underscores the need for tailored educational interventions on cybercrime prevention within public universities, with a particular focus on addressing knowledge gaps among younger students and those from single or co-parenting backgrounds. It was recommended, among others, that educational institutions and authorities involved in fighting crime threat design targeted educational interventions tailored to the specific peer groups of students. This will address the needs and knowledge levels of students, ensuring that they receive appropriate information that support their comprehensive understanding of cybercrime prevention.

The Role of ChatGPT in Promoting EFL Students’ Autonomous Learning: Teachers’ Perspectives []

The revolution in technology with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) imposed looking for innovative strategies and methods to teach English as a foreign language. The use ChatGPT can enhance the performance of AI platforms by generating natural responses, and providing personalized learning for students. Eventually, the use of ChatGPT in Foreign Language Learning (FLL) seems to be a promising option to foster students’ autonomous learning. For this reason and others, this study aims to identify the perceptions of Moroccan teachers towards the use of ChatGPT in promoting students’ autonomy in EFL learning. To achieve this purpose, the research adopted a quantitative research method approach using an online close-ended questionnaire sent to 60 Moroccan EFL teachers. The data gathered from the respondents was analyzed through the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that teachers believe ChatGPT can have a positive impact on students’ autonomy, nonetheless, they confirmed a number of challenges and suggested strategies to be used to face this latter. The current research will guide future researches on the use of AI in enhancing students’ autonomous language learning.


The objective of this study was to identify the influences of surrounded animals on the behavioral adaptation of facial expression actions in human ancestors. The study was conducted through constructed a new hypothesis of evolutionary model which included ecological context, associated learning, phenotypic variations and fitness consequences. Already existing photographs of animals (with critical context for fair use) were used as data in the visual observational study to find Trait expressive facial features (TEFF) of surrounded animals. The study provided the evidences to four facial appearances which represented in the facial expressions evolved by the influence of surrounded animals. The facials appearance “the brows are lowered and drawn together” in anger facial expression represented the generally aggressive animals’ TEFF-B. The facials appearance “the lips positions: pressed firmly together, with the corners down” in anger facial expression represented the generally aggressive animals’ TEFF-C. As well the, the facial appearance “open, tensed in a squarish shape lips as if shouting” in anger facial expression represented the TEFF-D, which is the TEFF of generally aggressive animals in their highly aggressive state. Likewise, the facial appearance “corners of lips are drawn back and up” in happiness facial expression represented the TEFF-A, which is the TEFF of generally non-aggressive animals (herbivores). The findings of evolutionary process revealed the strong reasoning for universal adaption of facial expression actions.

The Regulatory Framework: Fostering Circular Economy Practices in E-Waste Management []

This research seeks to evaluate the sufficiency of the e-waste management regulatory mechanisms available. Every nation whether it is developed or still in the process of developing, is facing the problem of e-wastes and has come up with measures in order to curb the issue. As for the data gathered it could be stated that the given issue of e-waste management in Africa is dissimilar to that of developed world in the terms of reasons that affect it as well as the ways it is managed. It is imperative to include the newer approach from other stakerholders in the rule making for managing e-waste effectively. The nations need to create awareness on the impacts of e-waste, put in place and enhance e-waste related institutions and innovate on appropriate technologies in the management of e-waste.


This research clarifies the potential benefits and implementation challenges of such a system for. Developed inventory track-ing, less storage fees, and happier consumers resulted from applying this system. However, application was complex and time-consuming, requiring the expertise of outside IT experts and training of internal workforce. This case study shows how useful it can be for small and medium-sized enterprises to work with external IT consultants and vendors to aid them assess the expenditures and benefits of installing an automated inventory management system. In sum, the case study is instructive for other SMEs thinking about investing in robotic inventory management systems to boost effec-tiveness and cut expenditures.

Enhancing Patient Privacy And Data Security in Healthcare Information Systems with Keycloak and Blockchain []

In the digital age, the protection of patient data privacy is a critical concern, particularly with the rise of digitized healthcare records. This paper proposes integrating Keycloak, an open-source identity and access management system, with blockchain technology to enhance the security of patient data. The study identifies the limitations of existing data protection methods and introduces a new framework that combines the strengths of both Keycloak and blockchain. Keycloak ensures robust authentication and authorization, restricting access to sensitive patient information to authorized personnel only. Blockchain technology, with its decentralized and immutable characteristics, provides a secure and transparent method for recording data access and transactions, thereby preventing unauthorized changes and maintaining data integrity. The framework offers a multi-layered security approach, utilizing Keycloak's advanced access control along with blockchain's tamper-resistant properties. This combination aims to improve data privacy, reduce the risk of data breaches, and ensure compliance with regulations such as HIPAA and GDPR. The study includes a thorough analysis of current healthcare data challenges, the architectural design of the proposed system, and a detailed implementation strategy. A case study demonstrating the framework's application in a healthcare setting shows that integrating Keycloak and blockchain enhances patient data privacy and boosts transparency and trust in the healthcare system. Overall, this work contributes to healthcare informatics by providing a scalable, secure solution for managing patient data, paving the way for future advancements in healthcare data security.

The Silent Struggle: A Horror Tale of Poverty in Third World Countries []

Poverty cripples millions in developing nations, with Nigeria a harsh example. This multifaceted issue traps people in a cycle of hunger, disease, and illiteracy. Malnutrition, especially in rural areas, steals children's potential. Diseases like malaria and HIV/AIDS weaken communities already strained by inadequate healthcare. Colonial exploitation and corrupt governance play a historical role. International loans create burdens hindering development. Yet, hope persists. Determined Nigerians strive for a better life – farmers cultivating land, students walking for education, entrepreneurs building businesses. To conquer this beast, we need a multi-pronged approach. Local initiatives, advocacy, and collaboration between NGOs, governments, and businesses are crucial. Education, particularly job skills, empowers individuals. Sustainable practices ensure progress without harming the environment. As a Nigerian, I feel compelled to act. My community programs target agriculture, education, and healthcare. Social media platforms and my website, "Living in Poverty: The Silent Crisis," raise awareness. Eradicating poverty requires a global effort. Together, we can illuminate the path towards a brighter future.


Vocabulary knowledge and its role in reading comprehension has been one of the main areas of focus in second language research for years. The present study tends to investigate the effect of vocabulary knowledge on ESL learners’ reading comprehension performance. The participants consisted of 40 form two students of St. Peter’s SHS learners’ reading comprehension in an English class. The results of Pearson Correlation analyses showed a significant positive relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. The findings suggest that giving awareness of vocabulary knowledge to the students along with making them conscious of their ability gives them a broader sense of the depth of reading comprehension texts and improves their reading ability. This paper examines how vocabulary knowledge influences in written production. The instruments used in this study are the Vocabulary levels test. Data were collected from a quota sampling of 40 learners who study English as second language. The findings suggest that the vocabulary knowledge of foreign language is necessary; it provides learners a broader ability to produce well-structured written texts and contributes to the comprehension of utterances as well.


The study is on the topic "Globalization and National Policy Making in Third World Countries" and considers Nigeria as a case study. It investigates the impact of globalization on politics and policy making in third world countries. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable to global events and actions and have become heavily dependent on the international community for financial and technical assistance. As a result, poor countries generally have weak and fragile political accountability regimes, and national policies are tied to global issues. With few autonomous institutions and little ability to counter the power of the central government, external agencies wield great influence as potentially important political actors. I therefore attempt to explore the impact of globalization on public policy in relation to Nigeria's economic development. My main proposition is that Nigeria cannot meet the challenges of contemporary globalization without sustained efforts to develop its economic base. For if the objective of globalization is to advance the national development agenda, then globalization is likely to be utilitarian. This essay was based on Marxist theory of the state. The significance of this approach to this essay is that it begins with a comprehensive examination of the country's historical experience and the impact it has had on today's political economy. The research design was historically descriptive and data was obtained from secondary sources. Content analysis was used to analyze the data obtained. The study concludes that many poor countries like Nigeria have liberalized their economies without adequate preparation or care. I recommended that Nigeria should formulate economic policies that take into account Nigeria's specific needs and circumstances to promote inclusive economic development.

E-évaluation : Un Nouveau Paradigme pour l'Enseignement Supérieur []

Dans cet article, nous nous intéresserons à la e-évaluation, ou évaluation électronique, en tant qu’une méthode qui utilise les technologies numériques pour concevoir, administrer et analyser les évaluations académiques. Cet article examine les avantages, les défis, et les stratégies nécessaires pour une mise en œuvre efficace de la e-évaluation dans l'enseignement supérieur. Les avantages principaux de la e-évaluation incluent l'accessibilité et la flexibilité, permettant aux étudiants de passer leurs évaluations à tout moment et de tout endroit. Elle permet également une personnalisation et une adaptation des évaluations aux besoins spécifiques des étudiants, offrant une expérience d'apprentissage individualisée. En outre, la e-évaluation améliore l'efficacité et la précision dans la collecte et l'analyse des données, facilitant une rétroaction immédiate et une gestion proactive des performances des étudiants. Cependant, des défis significatifs doivent être surmontés pour assurer son succès. Les problèmes techniques et infrastructurels, tels que les pannes de réseau et les interruptions de service, peuvent perturber les évaluations. Les questions de sécurité et de confidentialité des données des étudiants sont également cruciales, nécessitant des protocoles robustes pour protéger contre les cyberattaques. De surcroît, la résistance au changement parmi les enseignants et la nécessité d'une formation continue sont des obstacles à l'adoption des nouvelles technologies d'évaluation. Pour une mise en œuvre réussie, il est essentiel de développer des plateformes et des outils adaptés, qui soient intuitifs, flexibles et sécurisés. La formation et le support technique pour les enseignants et les étudiants sont également cruciaux pour maximiser les avantages de la e-évaluation. Enfin, les politiques institutionnelles et le cadre réglementaire doivent être établis pour garantir la qualité, la sécurité, et l'éthique des pratiques de e-évaluation. En vérité, bien que la e-évaluation offre de nombreux avantages et opportunités pour améliorer l'enseignement supérieur, son succès dépend de la gestion efficace de ses défis et de la mise en place de stratégies de soutien appropriées. Avec un investissement adéquat dans les technologies, la formation et les politiques, la e-évaluation peut transformer positivement l'expérience éducative pour les étudiants et les enseignants. Mots Clés : E-évaluation - Enseignement supérieur – Accessibilité – Flexibilité – Personnalisation - Sécurité des données - Formation des enseignants - Plateformes d'évaluation - Politiques institutionnelles - Cadre réglementaire

Development of a Cognitive Access Point Algorithm for proper spectrum management in a High Density Network. []

Abstract Newer innovations of electronic equipments come with factory fitted wireless network interface cards to enable them to have internet access. Consequently, the recent surge in youths signing up unto social media, file sharing and messaging services in addition to high rate of internet of things currently being deployed also increased the internet dependency rate. The global pandemic also surged the need for data dependency as corporate organisations and schools moved to online meetings and online classrooms. Classroom learning has also been drastically changed through the introduction of virtual classrooms and holograms. This research work studied conventional wireless access point environment through experimental setup of wireless access point scenarios. The effect of distance from the access point on the signal strength and transmission power was determined by setting up so many stations at various distances from the access point and packets transmitted to them while network analyser was used to read up the bandwidth and calculate the time, delay, throughput, and received signal strength. The effect of wireless interference on wireless network transmission within the same area was determined by setting up interfering radio signals to affect normal wireless LAN operations. Keywords: Cognitive Network, Bandwith


ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess EFL teachers' awareness and practice of cooperative language learning (CLL) methods in teaching speaking skills, as well as the challenges they face. A total of 30 grade ten English language teachers and 265 students from the same grade level were randomly selected to participate. A mixed-method research approach was employed, incorporating questionnaires, classroom observations, and analyses of grade ten English textbooks for data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and mean, while qualitative data were thematically analyzed. The results from the quantitative data were triangulated with the qualitative data and categorized for comprehensive analysis. Findings revealed that although teachers had a conceptual understanding of the benefits of CLL for enhancing students’ spoken language proficiency through interaction, their awareness did not translate into actual practice. Specifically, the implementation of CLL techniques was minimal, with many elements of cooperative language learning not being practiced. Factors contributing to the low implementation included the pressure to cover the curriculum, teachers’ lack of proficiency in CLL principles, students’ reluctance to collaborate, and teachers’ limited communicative language competence. To address these issues, it is recommended that English teachers enhance their interactive teaching skills and provide more opportunities for students to engage in cooperative work aligned with CLL principles. This effort would help bridge the gap between the teachers' awareness and the actual practice of cooperative language learning methods.