Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]   [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]


The Effect of Investing in Modern Technology on Relationship Between Relevance of Financial Statement and Disclosure Quality on Firm Value []


The purpose of this study is to examine the trend of value relevance of financial statements and to examine the effect of financial statement information and the quality of financial statement disclosure on firm value with modern technology investment as a moderator. The sample in this study were 76 manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the period 2016-2019. The sample was tested using Multiple Regression analysis and moderated regression analysis. The results of this study indicate: first, there is an increasing trend in value relevance from 2016 to 2019, second, financial statement information and the quality of financial statement disclosure have a significant effect on firm value, third, modern technology investment strengthens the effect of financial statement information and the quality of financial statement disclosure. to company value. The results of the research empirically prove that the decline in the trend of value relevance of financial statements does not occur, especially manufacturing companies listed on the IDX for the 2016-2019 period.


The Impact of the Corona Pandemic on the Economic-Commerce Sector []


Due to the importance of the rise in the recent period of electronic trade, as it is the product of progress in the field of technology, information and communication sought that e-commerce has become a certain reality in light of the current colonels that the world economy is going through, where more than one country of the world is seeking to develop this vital sector due to the impact on the markets and the performance of institutions and their competitiveness, which has affected the attention of the Arab countries towards the importance of e-commerce, but it still has a long way to get the desired goal of that trade and has many challenges ahead. We will therefore review this research in several demands on this important topic such as: • The first requirement: what is e-commerce • The second requirement: the level and size of e-commerce • The third requirement: e-commerce in the Arab world Search terms: The meaning of a pandemic: the destruction or blin, which is the scourge that deciles revenge, self and money, a widespread epidemic among human beings that transcends the borders of many countries affecting the highest number of individuals. • The Definition of Covid.19: A group of viruses that can cause diseases that can lead to human life has begun to spread in China and in March the World Health Organization (WHO) classified Covid.19 as a global pandemic. Knowledge economy: the economy in which knowledge achieves the greatest part of the added value, i.e. knowledge remains an essential component of the production process and is based on information and communication technology. The information gap: the digital divide created by the information and communication revolution between technical and technological knowledge between developed and developing countries.


ASSESEMENT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY ON ETHIOPIAN ELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION, EASTERN REGION (EEPCO) DIRE DAWA DISTRICT []


The study was conducted for identifying motivational factors affecting employees performance. The objective of the study was to assess motivational factors affecting the employees performance and techniques applied to come up with successful performance. The case study was under taken in EEPCO Easteren Region Dire dawa district office in Diredawa In order to answer the above mentioned objectives the study used both primary and secondary source of data. These primary data were collected by structured questionnaire and interviews, whereas secondary data from Books Company journal and different documents collected through document analysis (document review) techniques. The method of sampling I used was simple random sampling because it gives equal chance for all employees and free from biases. In order to analyze and present the data collected from different parts, the researcher used descriptive type of data analyze through percentage and tabulations.Finally based on the finding it is possible to say the EEPCO eastern Region Dire Dawa distinct office failed in providing motivational factors, resulting the poor performance of the employee is in the office. Regarding this problem, the researcher recommends the district to provide sufficient incentives for the employees to enhance their performance.


The Impact of Corporate Governance on the financial performance of Insurance companies In Ethiopia. []


Corporate governance plays a pivotal role in corporate companies’ overall management. There are many companies that looked great on paper but failed due to ill corporate governance. This study was necessitated by lack of unique governance system across the world and scant corporate governance studies in Ethiopia. Indeed, there are a few studies which are done in case of insurers in Ethiopia. Additionally, previous corporate governance studies documented mixed findings. The main objective of this study was to identify the impact of corporate governance on the financial performance of insurers in Ethiopia. Explanatory research design was used to measure the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on the financial performance of insurers which is measured by ROA. The corporate governance variables of the study are board size, board gender diversity, board business management experience, meeting frequency of the board, educational qualification of the board, board subcommittee size, firm size, leverage, liquidity and the dividend payment policy of the company. This study used both primary and secondary sources of data which are basically more quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data for Board size, board meeting frequency, the number of board sub committees, board gender diversity, business management experience of board members and the board members educational qualification are obtained through questionnaire administered to insurers CEOs/Presidents or board secretaries. Data for firm size, liquidity, leverage and dividend payment policy of insurers were obtained from secondary source. Eleven insurers were selected to investigate the impact of corporate governance on the financial performance of insurers based on purposive sampling method. This study used random panel regression analysis. Based on a regression analysis firm size, board subcommittee size and liquidity have a significant positive impact on ROA of insurers while leverage has a significant negative impact on ROA. Furthermore, board size, meeting frequency of the board, educational qualification of board members, board gender diversity, business management experience of the board and dividend payment policy have had insignificant impact on ROA of Ethiopian insurers.


Max Weber's Model of Bureaucracy and how Ghana's public Administration conforms to it []


COMBATING ILLEGAL MINING IN GHANA: THE ROLE OF OPINION LEADERS (EVIDENCE FROM THE NTOBROSU COMMUNITY) UNIVERSITY OF GHANA BUSINESS SCHOOL -LEGON,GHANA Email: wurakumiwaa@gmail.com Contact :+233 246469424 Category - Delegate ABSTRACT The mining industry has been overwhelmed by the activities of small scale miners. These miners and their activities are considered as nuisance to the environment and the sustainability of the industry. The government through its agencies (Ministry of Mines and Natural Resources) directly handles the issues of illegal mining. However the roles of opinion leaders such as chiefs, assembly members, District Chief Executives, clergy and other community organizers in the community cannot be disregarded. This research unravels how opinion leaders influence the activities of illegal mining in Ntobroso. The study used in-depth interview guide and semi-structured questionnaires to obtain information from some of the direct and indirect stakeholders of the mining activities in the district for the study. The research proved that opinion leaders are doing little to curb the situation because they do not feel strong enough to fight the menace but rather need strong men “government support” to come to their aid. In line with the findings, the study recommends the need to collaborate with all opinion leaders such as the leadership of the district assembly, clergy, Imam and other recognizable groups such as dressmakers and tailors association, market women association etc who are highly respected in the community to engage the miners on the risks their activities pose on the community. Traditional authorities should be transparent enough and desist from permitting illegal miners to operate in their communities and discourage private land owners from doing same. Key Words: Illegal Mining, opinion leaders, community, government


PLANNING EDUCATION: Developing the full personality of the individual or preparing the individual to undertake specific jobs which will change their environment []


Education is the process which provides the young with knowledge, skills and attitudes which a society believes are necessary. It has a two-fold function to perform in the life of an individual and the society. On the one hand, it must enable an individual to become more efficient and achieve with increasing facility the legitimate goal of life. On the other hand, it must train one for quick resolute and critical thinking. Various forms of traditional education have existed in Africa over hundreds of years. This paper therefore adopts the analytical approach of the major learning modes - formal, non-formal and informal. The study also explores the form of educational planning worked out by the government in terms of investment and programs. It highlights the challenges of the Cameroon educational system and provide documentary evidence of the educational policies implemented with the hope of attaining economic independence. Finally it suggest proposals that Cameroon through educational planning can use in developing its own resources rather than using aids from abroad and relying on foreign imports.


Improving the performance of Linear Regression Model: A Residual Analysis Approach []


The study considered GDP as independent variable, agriculture, industry and trade as independent variables respectively. The data was gotten from the central bank of Nigeria from 1983 to 2019. The aim of the study was to apply residual analysis approach to improve the performance of linear regression. The relationship between the dependent variable, GDP, and the independent variables, Agriculture, industry and trade was determined using the ordinary least squares estimation method. The results of the ordinary least squares estimated regression showed that Agriculture, industry and trade contributed significantly to GDP and were able to explain about 89% of the variance in GDP. Furthermore, evidence from Breusch-pagan test confirmed that heteroscedasticity exist in the residuals of the linear regression model while ACF and PACF revealed that the error terms were autocorrelated. The Jarque-Bera normality test revealed that the errors were normally distributed. To account for the autocorrelation in the error terms, we applied two different generalized least squares models, that is regression ARMA model (RAM) and overfitted regression ARMA model (ORAM) with different ARMA components, that is, ARMA (1, 2) and ARMA (1, 3) respectively. Results of our analysis revealed that the estimates of the RAM model were better than those of ORAM. Also based on minimum information selection criteria (AIC, BIC, LOGLIK) RAM was selected as the suitable model. The autocorrelation in the error terms was found to be completely modelled by ARMA (1, 2) process. An ARMA (1,3) model (specification) would be unusually complicated, but in any event the tests support the ARIMA(1,2) specification.


research: Exploring the extent of Case Conviction in influencing sexual assault perpetration against married women in Zanzibar []


This paper aims at exploring the extent of case conviction in influencing sexual assault perpetration against married women in Zanzibar. The study was guided by examining the number of sexual assault cases reported per a year at the court, number of cases convicted, number of cases dismissed and acquitted and factors influencing the conviction rate on sexual assault cases. Conviction rates can be explained from two theories, i.e., trial-based theory and report-based theory. The trial based perspective measures the conviction rate in terms of the numbers of cases that go to trial. The later approach focuses on the number of cases reported to the police. The study was conducted in urban west region in Zanzibar. A total of 134 respondents were sampled from 6 human service agencies including Bububu gender desks, Madema gender desk, Zanzibar female lawyers association, Tanzania media women association, department of women affairs and Mnazi Mmoja one stop center. Data was collected from married women, social welfare officers, social workers, police officers and key informants using questionnaire, interview and life history methods. The study found that, the level of case conviction on sexual assault cases was very low. The low level was critically attributed with repeated adjournment of cases, long delays and bureaucracy in cases, lack of sufficient evidences and ineffective procedures and case management. Finally, the findings suggested an improvement of expedient transaction in investigating and ruling cases of violence, effective procedures and case management should be put in place, and periodic review and monitoring of judicial practices to ensure compliance with substantive and procedural aspects of the law should be carried out.


HOUSEHOLD CATEGORIES AND LIVELIHOOD CHOICES IN DRYLAND AREAS IN KENYA: INSIGHTS FOR DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AND POLICY. []


This study investigated household livelihood options in dryland areas. In order to champion livelihoods in these areas, various government and non-governmental development agencies are involved in diverse interventions. The study objective was to categorise and characterise households, identify household livelihood choices, and ascertain household development intervention priorities in dryland areas. The study was carried out in the semi-arid area of Buuri and Abothuguchi West divisions, also called the Northern Grazing Area [NGA], Meru Central district in Kenya. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to collect primary and secondary data from 68 households and development agencies working in the area. Data with quantifiable factors was analysed by statistical analysis using SPSS. Qualitative data was analysed using content and narrative analysis techniques. Results established three household categories: Rich/Gatonga[7.4%], Non-Rich/Nkia[42.6%], and Poor/Nkia Mukeu[50%] households in the study area. The results further found four common household livelihood choices including agricultural(Crops and livestock)[83.8%]; Non-farm (self-employment)[39.7%]; Non-agricultural wage labour (formal and informal employment)[26.5%]; and social network(relief food, borrowing, begging and remittances)[84.0%] activities. Results also show preferred development interventions at household, community and external institution levels in the short, medium and long terms. In the short, improvement of livestock production [25%] was preferred at household level, while water infrastructure development was both prioritised at community level [43%], and external institution level [49%]. In the medium term, preferred intervention at household level was also livestock improvement [21%], small business development [29%] at community level, and water infrastructure development [28%]. Finally, results too show that in the long term, households prefer small business development at household [28%] and community [21%] levels, while at external institutional level; livestock production improvement [22%] in the long term was preferred. The study recommends detailed baseline studies that analyse household: categories and characteristics; livelihood choices; and intervention priorities as basis for the formulation of dryland poverty reduction strategies. In policy terms, the study calls for partnerships in the implementation of dryland development programmes to avoid effort duplication. In broad terms, three principles are recommended for ASAL development i.e. Active involvement of the local people and their practices; Strengthening of local resources; and Promotion of coherence through the establishment of linkages between endogenous and exogenous resources. Keywords Arid and Semi-arid Lands; ASALs; Coherence; Communities; Baseline Studies; Drylands; Development Interventions, Management, and Policy; External Institutions; Government; Household Categories; Household Livelihoods; Kenya; Livelihood Choices; Meru Central District; NGOs; Poverty Alleviation Strategies; Rural Household.


Assessing the problems associated with Early Weaning of Children in Sierra Leone. Case Study: Golahun Tonkia Community in the Kenema District. []


This research probes in to the health status of weaning infants in the Tunkia chiefdom. The population for the study includes all weaning children between four (4) months to (6) months. Questionnaires, interviews and discussion, i.e., face to face dialogue were the methods used by researcher to carry out the investigation. The selected sample for the investigation was 30% of the total population. Children weaned between four (4) to six (6) months, thirty – five (35) infants were weaned at four (4) months compared to those weaned at six (6) months. There are many reasons for studying Child care, which include, babies and children (infants) need to eat good food, have great care, provide clothing, need fresh air to make them feel good, clean, and benefit from parental love. Children feeding on various foods, imported baby formula and Bennie mix had the highest number of respondent with 21.4%, while soft cook rice with palm oil and bulgur pap with sugar had the lowest with 7.1%. Twenty – five (25) of the infants with 35.7% were taken to local clinic for treatment, while fifteen (15) of them with 12.4% were taken to herbalist for medical help. Feeding methods used by infant mothers, twenty – five (25) of the mothers feed their infants using hand feeding method while thirteen (13) of them use the bottle feeding methods. Evidence of disease in weaning infants two (2) of the infants suffered from worm infestation, while fourteen (14) of the infants were suffered from typhoid fever.


ASSESSING THE METHODS OF DOMESTIC WASTE COLLECTION IN SIERRA LEONE. CASE STUDY: BO CITY: []


This research work examines the problem involved in domestic waste collection and disposal methods in central Bo City. The study itself is divided into five main chapters excluding the preliminary section which is composed of items such as certification, dedication, acknowledgements, abstract and table of contents. It comprises of the background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitation and delimitation of the study and definition of terms. The second chapter deals with the review of literature. In this chapter, the author consulted the work of renounced authors on the subject matter, critically analyzing the various viewpoints put forward by this author agreeing or disagreeing with them, where necessary. Chapter three deals with the methodology involved in caring out the research, whilst chapter four forms the bulk of the study and have to do with the result and the discussion carried out in the studies. This focuses mainly on the improper disposal of waste, causing a negative effect on the inhabitants of the community as a whole. The final chapter makes a summary of the findings, conclusion and several recommendations made for government, the community and other bodies concerned.


INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE. CASE STUDY: KENEMA CITY. []


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting the teaching and learning of English language in Technical Vocational institutes with a case study of four Technical and Vocational institutes in Kenema city. The incorporation of English Language into the curriculum of technical and vocational institutions is considered a frantic move to ensuring that learners acquire literacy skills in English Language since the language is being used as the official medium of communication in Sierra Leone. However, the teaching of English at technical and vocational institution is yet to meet this dream. The study will be of relevance to teachers of English in the technical and vocational institutes, learners, curriculum planners, education stakeholders, government and non-governmental organizations. This study will help them to identify some of the factors that affect the teaching and learning of English at technical and vocational institutions and therefore help them to plan and implement appropriate measures that will help to remedy the situation. Some related objectives were developed in order to guide the study. They include the assessment of the teaching methodology, an investigation of the time allocated to the teaching of English, an evaluation of the learning resources of the institution, an examination of learners ‘attitude towards the learning of English, the extent to which learners and teachers speak English and the professional qualification of the teachers of English. Therefore, the data for the research were gathered from the administration of structured questionnaires, to selected respondents of the targeted institutes, informal interviews with staff and student respondents, focus group discussions and the researcher’s personal experience and observation. A total of forty (40) students of the technical and vocational institutions and twelve (12) teachers of English were selected for the study. The results of the findings were presented in tabular form using simple arithmetic. The result of the research revealed that the number of periods for English per week is inadequate; that students seldom or very seldom speak English; that students have negative attitude towards the learning of English; that the methodology used to teach English is appalling; and that the institutions do not have libraries to compliment the learning process. English Language is used as the official medium of instruction and transaction in Sierra Leone. Therefore, its study remains a compulsory course in all academic institutions in Sierra Leone.


ASSESSING THE ROLE OF MAGISTRATE COURT IN DEALING WITH CRIMES IN SIERRA LEONE. CASE STUDY: KENEMA CITY. []


Magistrate court is a lower court which holds trails for summary offences and preliminary hearing for more serious ones. Some civil matters are also decided in those level notably family proceedings. It is the overall responsibility of the Head of Judiciary to see that, the magistrate court in Kenema provides justice for residents in Kenema City and it’s environ. This research work assesses “The Role of the Magistrate Court in Dealing with Crime in Kenema City”. This study focuses on four main objectives which are: • To identify some of the roles of magistrate court in dealing with crime. • To identify some of the common crimes and reasons for its existence within Kenema City. • To ascertain the level of crimes brought before the magistrate court in Kenema City. • To suggest or recommend strategies to be adopted in dealing with crimes by the magistrate courts in Sierra Leone. The research is a descriptive study, which the researcher used various methods to collect data, such as: questionnaires, discussions, documents, internet, and interview and sample size. The data in this research were drawn from both primary and secondary sources. The data were interpreted through descriptive and quantitative analysis and simple arithmetic procedures – addition, percentages and in degrees. The main findings of this research, revealed that, there is high level of crime in Kenema city and it level before the magistrate court is high. The performance of the magistrate court is effective in dealing with crime in Kenema city. The researcher provided a summary, conclusion of the research and recommendations both to the magistrate and the government of Sierra Leone that would help minimize anomalies in the magistrate court proceeding.


ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF PUNJAB DISTILLERY COMPANY ON THE HEALTH STATUSES OF INHABITANTS OF SIERRA LEONE.CASE STUDY: NYANYAWAMA COMMUNITY KENEMA CITY. []


A distillery is a geographic area or a place where the process of distillation of alcoholic spirits are manufactured through a series of complex chemical reactions that lead to the formation of desired products that are consumable by people. On the other hand, environmental impacts of a distillery are the overall-conspicuous results, effects and physical challenges which the desired products o by – products of the distillery posses on the inhabitants in that area, endangering their health and lives (Alam M Z, 2010). Distillery wastewater, for instance and its toxicity is concerns worldwide, as well as in Nyanyawama community in Kenema. Unfortunately, if discharged into the environment without proper treatment causes serious health and environmental problems both in humans and their domesticated animals. The operations and functioning of a distillery cannot be done without risking the normal health and the environment in which people live because it always involves dealing with large, potentially dangerous equipments and chemical reagents. What is more obvious is that those that manufacture alcoholic drinks/spirits often have to handle dangerous fumes, chemicals and other harmful substances which, when discharged into the surroundings will lead to environmental pollutions (Chowdhurg P. Raj A- 2018). Due to very high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), distillery wastewater causes inhibitory effects on seed germination and depletion of vegetables by reducing the soil alkalinity and manganese availability in agricultural lands; where as in aquatic environments, it reduces sunlight penetration and decreases photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen content- damaging the aquatic fauna and flora both.


A study on the Slope Instability Problems and Mitigation Measures for the Road Failure from Gebre Guracha to Lumame Road Segment []


Slope instability (landslide) cause damage civil engineering structures, such as buildings, dams, roads, railway, and other related structures. Road development is one of the major investments in Ethiopia. Roads damaged by slope instability. The research was conducted by identifying the slope instability problems and its effects on road segments in the central part of Ethiopia, specifically along Gebre Guracha - Lumame road segments. It was, identified the causes and effects of the slope instability problems on the road alignment conditions, which included investigation of the engineering properties of existing condition of the soils. In this study, water content, sieve analysis test, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, density and unit weight, static direct shear test and compaction test were done by using ASTM laboratory test procedure for determination of the geotechnical parameters that used in slope stability analysis. Geotechnical parameters that determined from the laboratory experiments, LL 58-63%, PL 28-35%, PI 24-34%, Gs 2.80-2.84, and also unit weight and shear strength parameters of the study site was determined. According to USC classification scheme most of the soil of the study area was highly plastic inorganic clay and inorganic silt. The main causes of the landslide of in the study site were pore water pressure, dynamic load due traffic and erosion of toe. Unit weight and shear strength parameters were used in slope stability analysis for the determination of the critical factor of safety and radius by using geostudio2012/slope/w software. The critical factor of safety, Bishop-1.17, Jambu-1.11, and Morgstem-price-1.17, ordinary-1.12 and spencer-1.17 and radius for all analysis methods were 32.889m. From results of the investigation the remedial solutions failed slope are the combinations of the Control works such as providing drain pipeline in the slope, surface drainage (provide ditch at the top of the crown to collect surface drainage out of the slide area), sub surface drain (by providing the horizontal and incline drain pipe) and restraint works by designed of cantilever retaining wall.


The Mediating Effect of Customer Satisfaction on the Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Loyalty []


To attain a higher level of customer loyalty in convenience stores in Davao region prompted the researcher to investigate service quality that could influence customer loyalty; service quality that could influence customer satisfaction as well as the mediating role of customer satisfaction on the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty. A descriptive correlational design was used. A total of 420 respondents were chosen. The level of service quality is moderate; the level of customer satisfaction is moderate; the level of customer loyalty is also moderate. The relationship between service quality and customer loyalty is significant. The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is significant and the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is also significant. Customer satisfaction as a mediator on the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty in selected convenience stores in Davao region is significant and resulted into a partial mediation based on the given techniques by Baron and Kenny, and supplemented by the Sobel z-test.


Environmental Impact of Newly Constructed Road (A case study of Jamrud bypass Road Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Pakistan) []


Jamrud is the main town located in Tribal District Khyber. Increase in traffic has created traffic congestion problems on the main road traversing through Jamrud town. Construction of this road (Jamrud bypass) can cause short-term and long-term negative impacts on environment in different ways if it is not well planned and appropriately maintained. In this research, environmental damages along a 7 km road in Jamrud Khyber Tribal District were evaluated. All of the road construction operations were monitored during the construction period. The road construction was evaluated according to the appropriate methods and standards. Along the 7 km road, forested area impacted was about 4,915 m2 while the number of trees cut were 295. 19 houses, 4 shops and 1 graveyard were also damaged during the construction phase of the road. A comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (EMP) was developed and implemented during construction and operation phase of the newly constructed road which has reduced negative impacts on the environment and local area.


Impact of Liquidity on Profitability of Nepalese Commercial Banks []


The study sought to find out the relationship between the liquidity and the profitability of commercial banks in Nepal. The article has taken sample of 8 commercial banks covering the period from 2014 to 2019. The return on assets and net income to loan and advances were taken as dependent variables and credit to deposit ratio, asset quality, interest expenses to deposit and inflation as independent variables. The secondary sources of data have been used from annual reports of the banks and supervision report of Nepal Rastra Bank. The regression models are estimated to test the significance and effect of bank liquidity on profitability of Nepalese commercial banks. Correlation between credit deposit ratio and return on assets found to be positive indicating higher the credit deposit ratio higher would be the return on assets. Asset quality ratio is found to be negative indicating higher the assets quality i.e non performing assets in the bank lower would be the return on assets. In study of overall regression model, Net income to total loan & advances has significant and positive relation with credit to deposit ratio, asset quality, interest expenses to deposit and inflation, which reveals that increase in these variables leads to increase in Net profit to total loan and advances. Similarly, Return on assets has positive and significant relation with credit to deposit ratio & Interest expenses to deposit ratio which means that increase in credit to deposit ratio will lead to increase in ROA of Nepalese commercial banks.


Evaluation of Phytochemical and Enzyme Activities of fresh Kola (C. nitida vent) of varying weights (g) and colours. []


Cola belongs to the family Sterculiaceae. Fresh C. nitida nuts of different weights (1-10g, 11-20g and above 21g) and colours (pink, red and white) were obtained from Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State. These Nuts were oven dried at 700C for 2 days, ground into powder for phytochemical and enzymatic analysis. Data were subjected to Analysis of variance. Increased phytochemical content from the smallest nut weight to the largest nut weight with the preponderance of anthraquinone ranged between 3.51g/100g to 6.38g/100g and the lowest mean value was obtained in alkaloids ranged between 1.44g/100g to 2.06g/100g. Red C. nitida nut had the highest mean value in tannin (4.22g/100g). The pink C. nitida nut recorded the highest mean values in alkaloid and saponin and was significant when compared to the red and white nuts. Similar result was obtained for chemical composition with increased values from the smallest nut weight to the biggest nut weight ranged between 3.32g/100g to 5.42g/100g for caffeine, 1.65 g/100g to 2.28g/100g for theobromine, 3.44g/100g to 4.78g/100g for kolatin, 1.57g/100g to 2.76g/100g for polyphenol and 4.21 to 5.75 for vitamin C. respectively. Increased enzymatic activities were observed from the smallest nut weight to the biggest nut weight with the preponderance of total (α and β) amylase activity ranged between 0.137mg maltose/min/g protein to 0.148mg maltose/min/g protein, followed by catalase, 0.136mg glucose/min/g protein to 0.145mg glucose/min/g protein and the lowest mean values was obtained for proteinase, 0.113mg tyrosine/min/g protein to 0.121mg tyrosine/min/g protein.. Similar results were obtained for the different colours. In conclusion, C. nitida nut >21g contain high level of phytochemical and enzymatic activities compared to medium and small nuts.


PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS: A CASE OF NEW-ROAD-OKILTON BY ADA-GEORGE RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. []


The study assessed the performance improvement of New-Road-Okilton by Ada-George electric power distribution system consisting of twenty-three (23) distribution transformers. The network was modeled in Electrical Transient Simulation software (ETAP12.6) and load flow performed using Newton-Raphson technique. The result obtained from the pre-upgrade network shows that buses [17(0.949pu), 18(0.948pu), 19(0.947pu), 20 (0.947pu), 21(0.946pu), 22(0.946pu) and 23(0.945pu)]violates thebus voltage statutory limit conditions 0.95-1.01pu. Also, the transformers that are loaded above 80% are as follows:- [4(107.67%), 5(118.33%), 6(113.67%), 11(106.33%) and 21(107.67%)]. Real and reactive power losses on the line are 130.978KW and 161.086kvar. However, tap setting the transformer LTC, upgrading overloaded transformers and placement of capacitor bank improved the voltage profile of the buses [17(0.982pu), 18(0.981pu), 19(0.981pu), 20(0.980pu), 21(0.980pu), 22(0.980pu) and 23(0.980pu)], also improved the load profile of the transformers [T4(64.6%), T5(69.0%), T6(68.2%), T11(63.8%) and T21(64.6%)]and the real and reactive power losses in the line have been reduced to 81.94KW and 94.359kvar. It is thereby concluded that the proposed optimization techniques impacted significantly in the improvement of the distribution network.