Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication



PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE PLASTIC MATERIAL CONVERTED TO FUEL []


A polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastic was recycled into liquid fuel by thermal pyrolysis to recycle it into liquid fuel. The physiochemical properties of the fuel were determined and compared with petrol. The results of the research indicated that the fuel from the waste plastic (WPO) has flash point of 72.50°C, as against 21°C of petrol, implying that the former has less hazard than the latter. The WPO’s density is 0.804 g/cm3 while that of the petrol is 0.740 g/cm3.. WPO and petrol has heating value of 39.5MJ/Kg and 44.18MJ/Kg, respectively. The conversion of waste plastic into fuel will alleviate problems associated with depletion of conventional energy sources.


LACK OF CYCLING AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES AS IMPEDIMENTS TO SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN LAGOS, NIGERIA []


This paper identifies cycling and pedestrian facilities as essential sustainable transport infrastructures. It notes that their non-availability is hindering the shift towards sustainable urban transportation in the Lagos megacity. It first looks at the meaning of sustainable transport and then relates this to the transport situation in Lagos. Some of the problems facing Lagos transport system are highlighted. To address some of these problems, walking and cycling are identified as sustainable transport modes with immense benefits. These benefits include: contributing to healthy environment, promoting health and physical wellbeing of the citizens, promoting choice and social wellbeing, providing economic benefits, as well as promoting social inclusion, which might all accrue to Lagos if the use of the modes is promoted. The discussion closes by making recommendations on ways to promote walking and cycling in Lagos. Some of these recommendations are: promoting land use policies that favour high density, compact urban development, and jobs-housing balance, provision of pedestrian and cycling facilities such as walkways, sidewalks, cycle lanes and pedestrian bridges to promote safety of non-motorised transport (NMT), introduction of pedestrian-only streets to promote human scale urban centres, introduction of traffic management strategies and car restraint policies to discourage car use, introduction of non-obstructive development policy that mandates developers to provide access within and between buildings to reduce walking and cycling distance.


ECONOMICS OF IMPROVED CASSAVA PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES IN KWARA STATE []


This study examined the economics and profitability of improved cassava production technologies in Kwara State. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for this study. The result shows that the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that 43.75% of the farmers made the modal age group between 41-50 years. 71.25% of the respondents were male and each of them has at least primary education, 72.50% of the farmers were married, 46% of them had an average of 6 year experience in cassava production, 68.75% of the respondents have 4.9 hectares while 23.75% has less than 1 hectare of farm size. In the area of capital source for production: 45% of the farmers sourced their capital through cooperative societies, 26.25% source for capital through personal savings, 21.25% made their source through money lenders, while only 8% obtained loans through commercial banks. The respondents reported the following as their major constraints which was rated in percentage (%), which slowed down the growth and development of their production/farming in the area of study; these were inadequate source of fund (capital) and high interest rate (23.75%), poor transportation facilities (13.75%), high cost of tractor hiring services (12.50%), inadequate access to land for farm use (11.25%), less impacts of extension services (7.50%), and poor pricing for the products i.e lack of ready market (6.25%). The Gross Margin (GM) for the farming was ₦27, 754.00 with the benefit/cost ratio at ₦2.40. This however revealed that the improved cassava farming is profitable in the study area; for every ₦1 invested there was a return of ₦2.40 kobo. The study recommended that Government should provide low micro-credits, functional extension services, provision of rural infrastructure and subsidized tractor hiring service with adequate maintenance of farm machineries.


MODELING THE HEAT LOSS VIA AN ALUMINA SILICON CARBIDE PARTICULATE REINFORCED ALUMINUM ALLOY COMPOSITE AUTOMOBILE PISTON WALL []


Piston as one of the most critical components of an engine must be designed to withstand the damages caused due to extreme heat and pressure of combustion processes resulting to piston side wear, piston head cracks, etc. The temperature of a particular engine determines the performance of the engine. However, the design/analysis of the piston is based on structural and thermal considerations. In this project, we model the heat loss through an Aluminium alloy composite piston wall reinforced with Alumina and Silicon Carbide. The materials (Aluminium ingots, Silicon Carbide and Alumina) were sourced locally and the production of the composites was done by the double stir-casting method and as per ASTM Standards. The conductive and convective steady state thermal behaviour of the individual elements of the piston were modeled using Fourier’s Law and Newton’s Law of Cooling. Under steady state conditions and assuming an outside and inside engine/piston temperatures of 393K and 363K respectively, the heat loss via the piston wall of the composite was found to be 4.745KW, an information vital in computing the heat load for an automobile engine.


EFFECT OF LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ON STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES IN SOME CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS AT SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL []


This study investigated the effects of guided discovery and demonstration methods against lecture method on students’ attitudes, A total of 230 senior secondary one (SS1) chemistry students were involved in the study. This number was made up of 100 males and 130 females from five secondary schools in Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State of Nigeria. A non- randomized pretest- posttest control group was used for the study. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability of the Chemistry Students’ Attitude Scale (CAS). The reliability coefficient of CAS was 0.75 .To analyze the data of the study, the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation scores. Hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From the findings, it was observed that guided discovery was the most effective in facilitating students’ attitudes. This was followed by demonstration while lecture was found to be the least facilitative method. Attitude is dependent on teaching methods. Students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were significant. The interaction effect of gender and teaching methods on students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were not significantly different. The interaction effect of gender and teaching methods on students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were not significantly different. The study recommended among others that guided discovery and demonstration methods should be used by teachers in teaching practical chemistry contents (acids and bases) to guarantee effective instructional delivery.


ESTIMATION OF SHELF LIFE USING ACCELERATED SHELF LIFE TEST (ASLT) METHOD ARRHENIUS MODEL ON SHEET NILE TILAPIA JERKY []


This estimation of the shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky research was conducted in the Laboratory of Fishery Products Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine University of Padjadjaran. The aim of this research was to determine the shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky using Accelerated Shelf Life Test (ASLT) Method Arrhenius Model. Determining shelf life using ASLT method by accelerating the degradation process by increasing the storage temperature on some degrees above the room temperature, so that accelerated shelf life with the time analysis. Water content test and sensory test used as a parameter to determine the expired date. The sheet Nile tilapia jerky saved for 35 days at the storage temperature 250C, 350C, and 450C. The calculation result Arrhenius model was chosen flavor parameter as a critical parameter to determine the shelf life had the biggest R2 value (zero ordo reaction) with equation Arrhenius Ln K = 3,1517 (1/T) –1697,9 with R2 value equal to 0,997. The shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky that saved at the room temperature (250C) was 76 days 12 hours 46 minutes 4 seconds.


EFFECT OF FIRM SIZE ON FINANCIAL LEVERAGE []


Making decisions on financial leverage is important in small, medium or large organizations. Thus, Firm size is a most crucial determinant when discussed on financial policies. Each firmis using financial leverage on different level which may be high or low level. Every firm is giving attentions that how to manage financial leverage according to their firm size. Thus, financial leverage is influencing to the success or bankruptcy of the companies. In generally larger firms have higher debt ratio, more profitable and less volatile. Therefore, larger firms are showing favorable situation and positive link of firm size on leverage and they are leading differentiate of market and less fail their stability in the market than small firms.The purpose of this study, investigate the effect of firm size on financial leverage. The firm size is the independent variable and financial leverage is the dependent variable. Total assets and Sales Volume used to measure size of the firm and total debt ratio used to measure financial leverage in this study. Obviously, the present study investigates that are there any linkage between firm size and financial leverage and also there check whether firm size has any effect on the financial leverage. The technique of regression analysis and descriptive statistic model is used for data analysis which it is required to examine the relationship between firm size and financial leverage. There are appropriated 10 listed manufacturing companies at Colombo Stock Exchange of Sri Lanka as sample over the period of 2012 to 2016 and this research used Quantitative approach. It used secondary data from annual reports.According to previous studies most researchers indicated that positive relationship between firm size and financial leverage. As well some researchers have illustrated negative relationship. According to this study investigate Sales Volume is a positively correlate and significantly affect with Debt ratio in evaluating listed manufacturing companies at CSE in Sri Lanka. In addition to their attained that Total Assets has negatively relation with Debt ratio but it is insignificant level.