Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The field performance data for silicon-based monocrystalline and polycrystalline photovoltaic cell (PV) modules in Enugu State were investigated and collected. The choice of the modules was based on availability, cost and power ratings. The Manufacturers’ specifications were taken. The parameters measured and calculated during the experiment were; open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Isc), relative humidity (R.H), ambient temperature, solar radiance, power, efficiency, fill factor and performance ratio. The results of hourly average values of these parameters were used to plot time series graphs. There was a decrease in Voc of the modules with time, with the Polycrystalline modules clearly showing the Staebler-Wronski effect. The Isc of the modules showed little variation while maximum power of the modules had reduced significantly. The maximum power of most of the modules was found not to match with the manufacturers specifications provided in their data sheet. On inspection of the modules, the polycrystalline modules revealed a defect which was as a result of overheating of the cells. This contributed greatly to its poor performance in comparison with monocrystalline modules. The efficiency of the Monocrystalline modules was found to be above 20%, while that of Polycrystalline was up to 19%. Time series plot for the performance ratio of monocrystalline and polycrystalline PV modules showed that monocrystalline PV modules performed better than polycrystalline PV modules in Enugu state.


The study adopted a descriptive case study design, which involved carrying out an intensive census survey of the 37-management staff at the NHIF headquarters in Nairobi. The choice of a descriptive design and a census survey in this meant that sampling would not be relevant. A closed ended questionnaire were used for data collection. The data collection instrument was piloted before it was finally administered to the target population. Primary data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and narrative summary analysis. The study established that there exists a significant relationship between strategic factors on the performance of National Hospital Insurance Fund. The study established significant positive correlation between alignment and organizational performance. Additionally, the study found a positive correlation between outsourcing and the performance of NHIF. Furthermore, the study findings concluded that there is significant relationship between resource diversification and organisational performance. Finally, the study established that there exists a direct positive relationship


The purity of CH4 produced from biogas is a very important consideration, this has an effect on the resulting calorific value. So that the CH4 produced can be purified against CO2. The presence of CO2 in biogas is very undesirable, this is because the higher the CO2 level in the biogas, the lower the calorific value of the biogas and it is very disturbing in the combustion process. This research will be conducted with CO2 levels using Ca(OH)2 media or limestone sediment. Limestone sediment are reacted with CO2 by flowing biogas with 3 variations of flow rates, namely 5, 10 and 15 l/minute into the limestone sediment. The variable to be studied is the effect of using biogas that has been purified with various treatments on the performance of the combustion motor at engine speed of 1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm. The results showed that the most economical use of biogas was obtained from purification of variation 2, namely an average of 0,235 kg / hour. Increasing the greatest effective power obtained in variation 2 with an average increase of 20,7% of the unrefined biogas. In the variation, it was found that the average SFCE reduction against unrefined biogas was 32,3%.

A comprehensive study on Mechanical Property of Metal Matrix Composite []

Abstract Composites materials are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Basically, they can be categorized into two major types, i.e., structural composites with outstanding mechanical properties and functional composites with various outstanding physical, chemical, or electrochemical properties. Metal matrix composites are ahead of extensive approval for automobile, aerospace, agriculture farm machinery, and many other industrial applications because of their essential properties such as high strength, low density, good wear resistance compared to any other metal. Metal matrix composite can be manufactured by various manufacturing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, pressure infiltration, squeeze casting, chemical vapor deposition, etc. Reinforced material has an individual property which when incorporates to improve the properties of the base alloy. The reinforcements being used are whiskers, fibers, and particulates. An effort has been made to review the different combinations of the composites and how they affect the properties of the different alloys of aluminum. Comprehensive knowledge of the properties is provided in order to have an overall study of the composites and the best results can be employed for the further development of the Aluminium reinforced composed. This investigation shows that monolithic materials are highly replaced by metal matrix composites for better performance and longer life. Key Words: Aluminium; Reinforcement, Stir Casting


The inadequacy of cow milk in Nigeria has stimulated the production of yoghurt from non-conventional milk sources such as plant seeds and nuts. The production of yoghurt from the composite formulation of cow milk, coconut milk, almond milk and soymilk was therefore investigated. The various component milk were blended at different proportions to produce yoghurt types. The proximate composition of the yoghurt types revealed the following trend: moisture content (79.3 - 80.7 g/100g), protein (2.2 - 3.1 g/100g), total lipids (9.8 - 11.2 g/100g), total ash (0.45 - 1.41 g/100g), crude fibre (0.36 - 1.64 g/100g), and carbohydrate (4.24 - 5.65 g/100g). The physicochemical properties of the yoghurt types exhibited value range of pH (3.91 - 4.05), total titratable acidity (0.66 - 0.78%), and total solids (19.3 - 20.7 g/100g). The yoghurt types contained appreciable quantity of Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and P. The values were relatively lower than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) but the product could serve as a good complementary source for these mineral elements. The microbial load of the yoghurt types showed the following trend: bacterial count (7.6x103 7.5x104 cfu/ml), yeast and mould count (1.69x102 - 2.30x102 cfu/ml) while coliform was observed to be absent. The organoleptic characteristics of the yoghurt types revealed that sample YOGO-E (blend of 50% cow milk, 20% coconut milk, 10% almond milk, 20% soymilk) was rated closer to the control sample (100% cow milk alone) and is therefore recommended as an alternative imitation yoghurt since it did not show significant differences (P<0.05) in terms of appearance, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability.

Conceptual Review on Business Sustainability Reporting []

Markets and companies are becoming competitive and sticking only to financial reporting does not no longer create a competitive edge. Therefore, companies have enhanced their commitment towards sustainability initiatives as well as the communication of sustainability related matters to the stakeholders. As a responsible corporate citizen it is essential to pay attention to the effects made by them on society, environment and economy. Subsequently, sustainability reporting is the systematic disclosure and communication of the company’s compliance on environmental, social and governance goals. Even though sustainability reporting is a voluntarily practice, most of the companies are keen on communicating their sustainability initiatives to its stakeholders. It is because sustainability reporting subsequently assists the companies to establish a good corporate image among the stakeholders.

Impact of Electronic Human Resource Management on Employee Job Performance: A Conceptual Review []

Competition has become demanding in the business environment over past few decades. As a result, gaining and retention of the competitive position within the market place has become one of the major concern in the business organizations. In order to achieve this objective, employee performance is vigorous for any organization and ultimately it will engender core competencies within the organization. Alongside, this study attempts to investigate how e-HRM has been utilized for employee performance. Paper followed an extensive literature review to form a discussion on theoretical and empirical contents related to e- HRM practices in employee performance. Paper endeavors to appreciate the application of ECG theory and management by objective theory to explain the theoretical foundation in the use of e- HRM for employee performance. The literature review was developed addressing to key sub contents related e- HRM and employee performance. It reviewed journal articles as the main source of information to organize the contents with empirical justifications. Finally, paper discusses the concepts of employee recruitment, training, performance and communication by applying e- HRM practices.


This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater in Rivers State. Five Local Government Areas (Okrika, Eche, Gokana, Obio/Akpor and Port Harcourt) were selected for the study. Within these LGAs, four regions were selected for the analyses. Samples of water collected were analysed usind atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) equipment for better accuracy. The samples were subjected to basic preservation methods by subjecting about 100ml of each water sample for filtration using Whattman filter paper No.1 to eliminate suspended solids and stored in plastic bottles. Subsequently, 1ml of concntrated nitric acid was added to the water samples and stored in 500ml double covered polyethylene bottle for preservation. The samples were subsequently stored at 400°C for a short time prior to analysis. The maximum values obtained are Zn (0.633mg/kg), Fe(0.36mg/Kg), Mn(0.18mg/Kg), Cu(0.018mg/Kg) and Pb(0.01mg/Kg), others like Ni amd Cr are found as trace elements far below 0.001. PH values obtained are 5.4, 5.8, 6.1, 6.3, and 6.6, which are below WHO (2015) recommende values of 6.5-8.5. Also, higher temperature values of 28.9 – 29.6 were recorded as against 27.5- 28.5 WHO values.

Does the temperature variation and humidity affect the transmission of the coronavirus Covid-19 in Egypt? []

The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, that causes the COVID-19 disease, was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. This disease has spread-out speedily around the world in more than 200 countries involved Egypt. This study sought to examine the associations of daily highest temperature (HT), lowest temperature and relative humidity (RH) with the daily counts of COVID-19 cases in Egypt started from 5 March till the first week of August 2020. This study employed the data of daily infected people collected and announced daily by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and population. Many previous studies have supported an epidemiological hypothesis that weather conditions may affect the survival and spread of droplet-mediated viral diseases. However, some contradictory studies have also been reported in the same research topics. Pearson correlation test and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis to measure the correlation and also multiple regression which have been done on the daily infected cases with minimum and maximum temperature and relative humidity throughout the period of March till the first week of August (2020). The results of Pearson test showed that values of minimum temperature has significant effect on the infected cases of COVID (r= 0.5973, n=160, P= 0.041) and in the meantime the multiple regression analysis revealed that the whole factors including minimum, maximum and relative humidity showed a positive significant relationship with the number of daily infected cases of COVID-19, (F. ratio= 125.375, P=0.000) where the number of infection decrease with the increasing in the temperature and relative humidity.


Colorectal polyps are important precursors to colon cancer which is the third most common Cause of cancer mortality for both men and women. Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. During a colonoscopy, physicians manually inspect the colon of a patient using a camera in search for polyps, which are known to be possible precursors to colorectal cancer. Polyps are known as possible colorectal cancer precursors, and their early detection is of great importance, but highly challenging from an image processing standpoint. In the medical field, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN’s) have become state of the art for many computer visions tasks in recent years. A CNN is very similar to traditional Neural Networks in the sense of being constructed by neurons with their respective weights, biases and activation functions. CNNs have brought about a revolution in computer vision to large annotated datasets, such as ImageNet and Places. CNNs in CNNs are supervised models trained end to end to learn hierarchies of features automatically extracting. Experimental results for this paper show, we can obtain an accuracy over 90% in only 2 minutes by using small dataset with keras augmented data and with only a small CNN. However, no more change in accuracy while we apply transfer learning using pre-trained VGG16.While we obtained around 98% accuracy by apply a fine tuning.


It is well known that the highway plays an important role in the development of infrastructure of the country, the construction industry of highway is quite essential for Gross Domestic Growth (GDP) and also creating opportunities various jobs. The important goals of the country also depend on the highway. It also effects the social and economic development of the country. The construction industry is a big industry in the world in which the health and safety issues are occur means that it is very hazardous. The risk also associated with the construction industry. We know that the human behaviour is naturally associated that work done should be fast but it creates unsafe work zone which lead accidents. To change that behaviour, we should make the workplace safe by recognizing the hazards, safety procedures and standards, responsibilities, safety training and demos, rules for inspection and regulations. There is a mechanized and fast growth in highway construction projects. But the lack of implementation of these safety procedures due to policies from the authorities and government of Pakistan. So this research is basically to identify and investigate the safety procedures and standards, rules and regulations, worker behaviour, responsibilities, safety trainings and demos, rules for inspection and environmental safety of Communication and Works (C&W) Highways department Swat, Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. So for that we discovered the Questionnaires survey because most of the employees have the awareness of workplace risks, safety techniques, safety implementation, safety management, procedures of safety while some employees required the enhancement of safety procedures and standards of C&W Highways Swat, KP Pakistan.

Development of Phonetic Transcription System for Bangla to IPA []

This project is dedicated to evolve a phonetic transcription system for Bangla to IPA. In producing a bona fide phonetic code the complex and often inconsistent rules of Bangla Word present note worthy challenges. For simplifying the problems a number of rules are collected from diverse sources. On the other hand, for producing proper phonetic code for Bangla language software has been developed using Java. To verify the system BDNC01 purpose was used. The noteworthy matter is that the system successful transcript 87% of the text which is taken for evaluation. On the contrary, it is expected that the effort can work out diverse problems in Bangla processing. The consequence of it can be used in multiple issues converting text to speech, Bangla dictionary, pronunciation, verifier, cross lingual application etc. Not only this but also in future this project will be used for proposing a phonetic encoder for Bangla. In fact, it will be used for taking into account the various context-sensitive rules. Moreover, it is wished that the effort will be able to solve various problems in Bangla processing.

Design and Development of Bluetooth Controlled Car Using Bluetooth Module HC-05 []

The line follower robot is a mobile electronic device which is programmed to follow visible and invisible lines drawn on a surface or floor. Generally, the lines or moving circuits are predefined and they can be visible or invisible like magnetic fields. The robot, following the predefined path, moves on the line as directed or programmed. The robot has an Infrared Ray (IR) sensor under the robot. The sensor detects the line. Then the signal is sent to the processor. As per the signal, the processor runs the robot over the line. This is mainly how a line follower robot works in combination with other apparatus. With a view to introducing an efficient line follower robot, we have tried to moderate and develop a line follower robot. In this paper, we have taken a line follower robot and tried to remove it existing problems and complications. Therefore, we have investigated the technical and mechanical issues and problems.


While most urban and municipal area people are provided water supply through centralized water supply mechanism, approach of rural safe water supply shifted from supply driven approach to demand driven approach, becoming community in to major component in wa-ter governance. Community participation is an essential factor for continuous operations and sustainability. There are different factors affecting for community participation like, nature of community, nature of the leadership, ownership of the project, right approach and concentization etc.. Community participation will be challenged in a situation which is failed one or some of the above factors. Through the community participation, community empowerment will be taken place, driving communities to address their social and community challenges by themselves ensuring sustainability in their community development challenging to their poverty


Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disorder that not only causes joint damage but also affects the heart and lungs. Computed tomography is of high repute for evaluating lung parenchyma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These manifestations lung parenchymal disease like pleural effusion, lung nodules, fibrosis, alveolitis, bronchiectasis is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. In 67% of patients with RA, lung involvement has been reported that could involve pleura, airways, and lung parenchyma.


Masonry walls are subjected to various loading like settlements, earthquakes, and wind loadings and other loadings, these loadings may cause in plane as well as out of plane shear stress in the wall which lead to masonry joints failures. The failures caused by various loading may affect the strength as well as the esthetics of masonry walls. Many researches have been performed to improve the shear strengths of masonry walls and many of them achieved the improved strengths. In this research two types of bricks masonry are tested for the out of plane shear strength namely typical brick masonry and modified brick masonry. Typical brick masonry wall specimen are prepared from bricks typically available while that of modified brick masonry special bricks were prepared and then samples were prepared. The only difference between typical and modified bricks is that the modified bricks have groove on its header face which are filled with mortar to form a key. The dimensions of the both bricks are 9’’ length 4.5’’ width 3’’ height. In this research study three samples of each typical and modified bricks masonry wall are tested for out of plane shear strength. The dimension of the specimens are two feet length two feet height (2”×2”) and the thickness of the wall is that of the thickness of the bricks.


Abstract The Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) is positioned to issue weather and climate related information for the socio-economic development of Nigeria. To do this NIMET has meteorological stations in every state of Nigeria. The Agency generates product such as annual Seasonal Rainfall Prediction (SRP) and Drought and Flood Monitoring Bulletins in order to warn Nigerians as early as possible about flood that annually devastate Nigeria. The data required for the rainfall predictions should be accurate and for this to be achieved meteorological stations should be established in compliance to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Standard. This study aimed to assess the extent of compliance by NIMET to WMO’s standard in meteorological stations (enclosures) establishment. Two Hundred and Eighty Seven responses affirmed that the enclosures of NIMET were established in compliance with WMO’s standard. The results shows that all the 287 respondents confirmed that the meteorological station were established using WMO’s Guide. This study concluded that NIMET’s data based on these findings can be effectively used for flood warning system in Nigeria. The study recommended that meteorological station should be established at every 150km intervals for surface stations and every 300km for upper air station for total coverage to be achieved in Nigeria. Also training and retraining of staff that will effectively manned the stations.

Population and Spatial Analysis of Fire Service Provision in Gombe Town []

People’s lives and properties need to be protected against any accident especially those that are caused by fire, because is one of the most dangerous calamities in human history. People should put in their mind that unwanted fire fighting is every body’s business; as such government, stakeholders, private organizations, individuals etc, should key in to see that fire and other related accidents are curtailed to the barest minimum. Hence, this research aimed to study population and spatial analysis of fire service provision in Gombe Town. And this is achieved through identifying the availability of fire stations and their absolute locations in Gombe Town, to know the rate of fire incidences from Jan, 2019 to April, 2019 among various wards in the metropolis, to know the estimated lost and estimated saved of property in the study area and to assess whether there are modern firefighting equipment in the region or not, to assess the ratio of fire personnel and fire trucks in relation to population in the study area and lastly to test whether there is any significant difference between fire frequencies among various wards and the amount of property lost and property saved between the various wards in Gombe Town. Descriptive statistics, R-Studio, GPS and Google Earth Maps were used to analyze data obtained from the field. Results show that; Gombe Town is grossly in short supply of fire stations, personnel, fire trucks, and modern fire equipment. Chi-Squire test using R-Studio shows a significant difference between property losses and saved as well as fire incidences among the various wards in the study area. It is highly recommended that; Governments and Philanthropies should immediately come to aid to rescue this great institution from total collapse by providing any type of help possible. Key Words: Population, Fire Service and Spatial Analysis.

Title:- Aframomum Corrorima Storage Behavior Status And Its Use As A Plant In The Community []

Abstract Storage behavior of Aframomum corrorima ginger family, Zingiberaceae (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen], seed Storage behavior study was conducted at Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) based on the secondary data from the Gene bank. This study was started to conduct since March, 2017. The persistence of this study was to classify seed storage behavior. This economically important, endangered, and endemic (EEE) spice for the country was collected from 12 different localities of, Keffa sheka zone. Seeds were dried at room temperature, measured initial moisture content, 12.8% under 200c, Seed were germinated by blotter method on filter paper, every 10 days taken germination data, final data was taken after 35 days. Grow very slowly, but all seeds germinate. To study them for long term conservation and sustainable utilization, all seeds kept under -100c for 6 months kept under -100c, viability was 0 %, means all seeds were not viable. According to the international seed storage behavior of (IBPGR 1991), seeds determined as recalcitrant seed behavior.


Abstract: Modified animals play a significant role in the field of biomedicine especially in drug development, animal disease models, xenotransplantation, gene pharming, antibody production, and blood replacement. Pigs and transgenic animal products like milk and eggs seem to be promising in developments of therapeutic strategies. Advances in molecular biology have made it possible to develop traits in animals quicker with more precision and allowing them as an alternative means to increase yields and improve the nutritional value of food products. Likewise, increased disease resistance can be achieved by introducing resistance conferring gene constructs into animals or by depleting a susceptible gene or locus from the animal. Moreover, livestock health can also be improved through the advent of sensitive and specific diagnostic technologies and new generation vaccines through genomic sequence. Similarly, the DNA sequence of genomes provide data for animal breeding programs to select breeds with desired traits (meat quality, milk production) and increased disease resistance. However, there are also some limitations in producing transgenic animals, being not a perfect technique by itself; its difficulty, lengthy and expensiveness of the procedure with low success and survival rates of transgenic animals.


Suitability of Waters for Important Economical Fish Mariculture (Tiger Grouper, Red Snapper, Abalone) in Kelabat Dalam Bay, West Bangka. The potential of West Bangka Regency's marine waters for mariculture has yet to be utilized, including in the Kelabat Dalam Bay. The suitability of the waters for the life of the cultivated biota is one of the success factors of the mariculture business. This research was carried out with the aim of analyzing the suitability of waters for economically important fish (tiger grouper, red snapper, and abalone) in the waters of the Kelabat Dalam Bay, as well as mapping the appropriate locations for each commodity. The research method uses a survey method with seven stations. The measured water parameters include, temperature, salinity, degree of acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), brightness, depth, and current speed. The research results obtained the highest suitability value for mariculture in tiger grouper commodity at station 1 and station 6 with a suitability value of 58.82, covering an area of 182.2 ha; red snapper commodity the highest suitability value at station 3 and station 5 with a value of 60.42, covering an area of 144.3 ha; abalone commodity, the highest suitability value at station 4 and station 7 with a value of 57.65 covering an area of 129.4 ha.

Comparison of Neonatal Deliveries in Hospital Verses Domestic Deliveries in Lahore City []

Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman .It usually lasts around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ends in childbirth. Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus. There was about 135 million births globally.www.cia.gov. About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation,. while between 3 and 12% were born after 42 weeks. Childbirth routinely occurs in hospitals in much of Western society. Before the 20th century and in some countries to the present day it has more typically occurred at home. The aim of this research was find out the knowledge and thinking regarding midwifery and hospital deliveries and how the midwife play a role in our community against the government hospital regarding neonatal care and its complications. The study design was select to conduct this research. This is the comparative study based on the dichotomous types of questioner on the primary data for one time. For this research target population as: Patients of GOVT hospital and midwifery Homes. The research was conducted within approximately 100 samples size. This was random convenient sampling method use in study to assess the response about neonatal care in GOVT hospital and Midwifery homes. Ethical considerations were followed while conducting the research at every step. A permission letter was taken from the principal of Vertex College to conduct the research. Before obtaining research data the permission were taken from all the family. The time limit was be 3-4 months approximately for conducting this research. All collected data about research project was interpreted and analyzed on Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS).

Analysis of Safety Climate Factors and Compliance in the Nigerian Construction System []

The construction industry plays an important role in the social and economic development in Nigeria. Statistics shows that there are persistently high accident rates in the industry which has resulted in various forms of injuries and fatalities. This study analyzed the safety climate factors and compliance among construction industry workers to determine the extent of safety climate factors and compliance in the industry; the relationship between safety climate factors and the prevalence of accidents and as well as the relationship between safety climate factors and compliance among workers in construction companies. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A sample size of 82 respondents were sampled using stratified sampling technique. The data gathered were tabulated and analysis using descriptive statistics of simple percentages, mean and standard deviation, while the inferential statistics of ANOVA and regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The results of the analysis indicated 38.25% prevalence of accident in the construction industry. At 2.5 mean score criteria, the study indicated negative safety climate perceptions of 2.32, 2.43, 2.41 and 2.39 respectively for management commitment to safety; safety training; workers’ involvement in safety and safety communication. Also, in the case safety compliance, the mean score was 2.38 indicating poor workers’ compliance to safety in the industry. However, hypotheses tested at P ˂ 0.05 level of significance revealed a significant relationship between safety climate factors and prevalence of accidents of P = 0.004; significant relationship between safety climate factors and compliance of P = 0.000. The results also revealed (P= 0.000) that worker’s safety compliance is influenced by their levels of educational background and worker’s safety compliance is not influenced by their years of work experience with P = 0.874. Based on the findings, the study recommended that construction industry management should implement visible top management commitment to safety and health to drive employee’s motivation to comply to rules and procedures and consistently address complacency related behavior by the workers.