Volume 10, Issue 10, October 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Africa is perceived as the poorest continent in the world. Various authors have written on the phenomenon; however, they seem to confuse effects to causes of poverty. This misinformation is always evident in research conducted by foreigners in Africa, rating agencies, etc. In addressing the research question (How would African poverty be best tackled?) We found that since African poverty is the legacy of colonisation and divide-and-rule; therefore, Africans need to decolonise their minds which will lead to removing the remnant of colonisation and advance a “Unite-and-build” endeavour.

Newbouldia Laevis Leaf Extract's Possibilities as a Medium Carbon Steel Corrosion Inhibitor in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) Using a Weight Loss Technique []

Corrosion processes have been blamed for several failures and losses in the manufacturing and chemical industries. Chemical inhibitors can be used to prevent failures caused by metals that are corroded to the point that they can no longer withstand the intended load. Synthetic inhibitors are effective, but they have disadvantages, such as toxicity, disposal problems, legal troubles, and astronomical costs. Green inhibitors have become more and more popular as partial and complete alternatives for chemical inhibitors in order to protect people, the environment, and money. However, because green inhibitors are environment-specific, more research is necessary to determine the metal-inhibitor-media combination that produces the greatest outcomes. Corrosion has a variety of repercussions, and they are frequently more serious than a simple loss in metal mass in terms of how well a piece of machinery or a structure function securely, consistently, and effectively. The goal of this research was to assess the Newbouldia Laevis leaf's ability to prevent corrosion of medium carbon steel. Utilizing the weight loss approach, the experiment was conducted. The corrosion rates significantly rose for the controlled trial (acidic media without leaf extract), but they significantly decreased when different doses of the leaf extract were added to the acidic medium, showing that the Newbouldia Laevis leaf extract was shielding the metal. After 20 hours of aging in acidic conditions with different inhibitor doses of 0.0g/L, 0.1g/L, and 0.5g/L, the test piece lost the following amounts of weight: 0.9386g, 0.1702g, and 0.0763g, respectively. The test piece corrosion rate decreased as expected after 20 hours of aging in acidic conditions with various inhibitor concentrations of 0.0g/L, 0.1g/L, and 0.5g/L: 1.3100mm/yr., 0.2400mm/yr., and 0.1100mm/yr., respectively. As inhibitor concentration increases, corrosion rates typically decline, with a dose of 0.5g/L at 20 hours of immersion of the test piece, showing inhibitory efficiency of 92%. The Newbouldia Laevis Leaf Extract demonstrated that when applied in the right quantity, it will lengthen the service life of medium carbon steel in sulphuric acid settings. It has positive inhibitory effects on mild steel.


Electrical energy is one of the primary human needs that continues to increase. Dependence on fossil energy and the lack of use of renewable energy is one of the weaknesses in the implementation of energy policies. Hydroelectric power is one of the options in utilizing renewable energy sources. The availability of water in Indonesia has the potential to be used as a renewable energy source. This study aims to determine the effect of variations in angle of attack and variations in flow rate on turbine performance (turbine rotation and torque produced). 0.006 m3/s, 0.0083 m3/s and, 0.01 m3/s. The results showed that the greater the angle of attack of the turbine, the greater the turbine rotation obtained. The greater the flow rate, the greater the value of the turbine torque produced. The largest rotation was obtained at 67.7 rpm at an angle of attack of 90° at a discharge of 0.01 m3/s, and the largest torque value ob-tained is 1.043 Nm at an angle of attack of 45° at a discharge of 0.01 m3/s.


Background: Globally, an estimated 58 million have chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular cancer affect 10% to 20% of those who have been chronically infected with HCV for 20 to 30 years. The current use of direct-acting anti-viral (sofosbuvir and daclatasvir) has generated remarkable treatment success. However, many factors were found to reduce the treatment's success. This study aimed at investigating factors associated with treatment failure using sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in the Kigeme DH catchment area from April 2019 to December 2021. Methods: Thy study has involved 310 study participants with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on sofosbuvir/ daclatasvir with SVR 12 using the Yamane sample size formula. The data collection was performed by info and SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis. This study was conducted in Kigeme DH, Rwanda. The significance of a P-value less than 0.05 was considered. Results: The overall results showed that the experienced treatment patients, the high viral load at the starting point of the DAA, being cirrhotic were significantly associated with treatment failure with AOR: 57.67, 95%CI:(7.60-437.01), p <0.001; AOR: 26.9, 95%CI:(3.01-240.13), p=0.003; 29.81, 95%CI:(1.80-491.54), p=0.018, respectively. The comorbidities were also associated with the treatment failure, mostly hepatitis B, HIV, hypertension, and diabetes with AOR:79.85, 95%CI:(2.53-173.5),p=0.013; AOR:27.54,95%CI:3.78-200.33), p=0.001; AOR of 20.68,95%CI:2.20-193.8), p=0.008; AOR:17.38,95%CI:3.74-80.66, p<0.001. Conclusion: Clinical and comorbidity management is advisable for ensuring the treatment's success. Hence the policymakers and MoH have created a new strategic and successful hepatitis C management. Keywords: Hepatitis C, SRV12, prevalence,

Critical Review of the Learning Theories of John Dewey and Jean Piaget []

John Dewey and Jean Piaget are most influential theorists in the field of education then and now. Their theories explored the paradigm shift on the notion of learning detaching from structuralists /behaviourists school of thought. They challenged the pseudo learning procedures claimed by structuralism/behaviorism. In this article, the reviews are made limiting to the Dewey's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) and Piaget's Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). These theories are shortly discussed and evaluated critically from educational perspective.


Fish head is a waste generated from various activities of the fish processing industry . Utilization of fish heads into certain products, it is important to do. This article aims to review research conducted in Indonesia on the use of fish heads into non-food products. The use of fish heads into non-food products from various studies that have been carried out in Indonesia is the processing of fish heads into flour for feed ingredients, the use of fish heads for organic gair fertilizer, the extraction of oil from fish heads for biocells and soap, the use of fish heads into peptones, e gelatin extraction from fish heads for masks (cosmetics). The utilization of fish heads into non-food products is aimed at increasing the added value of fish heads and reducing the negative impact of fish processing waste.

The inevitable influence of rural development in the attainment of sustainable development []

The paper will explore the view that the achievement of sustainable development goals requires a strong investment in rural development in the Sub-Saharan Africa context. The quest for achievement of desired rural development has remained a critical concern of most countries in the contemporary world. Revitalization of rural regions is key to address the adverse impacts of rapid urbanization, potential trade wars, climate change and ever increasing rural-urban inequalities. Investments in the rural areas should target and promote inclusive and sustainable outcomes in Agri-business, Rural education and ICTs, Energy for Rural Development, Rural health and Financial inclusion, to mention but a few.


Gender mainstreaming is a process that ensures that women and men have equal access to opportunities, rewards, and society’s valued resources. Nigeria signed and ratified, without reservations, practically all international and regional instruments designed to guarantee the human rights of every citizen. However, certain human-made socio-cultural factors constrain the process, and make it an arduous task in Nigeria. This paper identified and discussed some key gender-related socio-cultural factors that inhibit gender mainstreaming in Nigeria. Namely, patriarchy and androcentrism; the skewed nature of gender socialization; gender inequality in marriage and in the famil;, religious beliefs and harmful gender practices; Government’s poor political will in allocating resources to understanding and addressing the nature of gender inequality; poor representation of women in political offices; gender discrimination in Nigeria’s constitution and government policies; and the failure of government to domesticate ratified international instruments on women’s human rights. It argued that these factors are open to change and therefore concluded that although daunting, gender mainstreaming is achievable in Nigeria. It also made some critical recommendations to make it happen.

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Rheumatic Heart Disease among NCD Patients Attending Butaro District Hospital. []

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children and young adults worldwide, with a significant associated problem of morbidity and mortality. Africa has long been considered the region of the world with the highest RHD load and significant load in Rwanda.


This study aims to reveal the factors that influence the amount of demand and elasticity value of fresh yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Kedonganan fish market. Interview sampling method with purposive sampling technique and data analysis using linear equations with the help of SPSS software and Microsoft Excel. Respondents in this study were 50 buyers and 25 yellowfin tuna traders. The results of the F test state that the demand for fresh yellowfin tuna is simultaneously influenced by all X variables with a correlation value of 58%. Ttest analysis with a 95% confidence level, stated that the demand for tuna is significantly influenced by the price of yellowfin tuna, the price of kawakawa fish and the amount of family income and other X variables such as skipjack tuna prices, chicken meat prices and the number of family members have a significant effect. Partial. Calculating the elasticity of demand for fresh yellowfin tuna, it is found that the price elasticity of yellowfin tuna is inelastic. The cross-elasticity value states that the price of skipjack, kawakawa fish and chicken meat is elastic and is a substitute item. Income elasticity value found that yellowfin tuna is a normal type of goods.

Factors that influence the leadership style of the head of the room at TEBET Hospital and Medistra Hospital, 2006 []

A person`s leadership style is an important element in an organization / group both formal and informal, especially in nursing services in determining effectiveness, because style refers to the approach / method used by a leader to influence the behavior of others in various situations. This research is a type of quantitative research using descriptive analytic method with the research sample being the entire population of the head of the treatment room at Tebet Hospital and Medistra Hospital. Which amounted to 30 people, the purpose of this study to determine whether there is an influence between factors factors: knowledge; selfawareness ; communication; energy; goals and actions with the leadership style of the head of the room. Data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires, in the form of a Likert scale. The results of the Chi Square statistical test analysis with alpha = 0.05, there is a significant effect between knowledge and statistical tests obtained p value 0.000, selfawareness with statistical tests obtained p value 0.003, communication with statistical tests obtained p value 0.000, energy with statistical tests obtained p value 0.001, the goal with statistical tests obtained p value 0.000, and the action with statistical test New suggestions, regarding nursing, were obtained for those involved in leadership, the p party in the value of the hospital was 0.000. Advanced Seminars on Communication and Nursing in Hospitals, namely Therapeutic Medistras, support the provision of speakers and offer further training courses in advanced gymnastics leadership training. Training as a Nurse S1 Nursing training, during which the director runs a room for research and recreation. Those who perform more qualitative research methods in interviews are highly recommended. References: 20 books (1967 – 2000)

The Emerging and Trending Issues on Drugs and Substance Abuse Among Youths During The Covid19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Mbare, Harare. []

ABSTRACT The aim of this research study was to investigate the changes and rising issues on drug and substance abuse among youths as a result of the Covid 19 pandemic in Mbare. The research highlights an overview of the changes of drug types abused by young people during the pandemic as well as mitigation measures to drugs and substance abuse in the event of pandemics. The study was conducted in Mbare Matapi, High Density Suburb in Harare Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to explore community perceptions towards drug and substance abuse during the Covid 19 pandemic, to identify the trends and emerging issues on drug and substance abuse by youths during the Covid 19 pandemic in Mbare community and to come up with mitigation measures to drugs and substance abuse among youths in the event of pandemics. The study employed a qualitative research approach. The researcher selected 6 youths who are into drug and substance abuse in Mbare, and also targeted 2 key informants who are members of an organisation that rehabilitates youths engaging into drug and substance abuse and 2 participants who are community members. Data was collected through the use of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The researcher used the resilience theory to explain how young people are trying to cope with life during the pandemic as a result of drug and substance abuse. Research results showed that Covid 19 pandemic restrictions changed the pattern of drug and substance abuse among youths. The Covid 19 resulted in an increased number of youths turning into drug and substance abuse. The study also reviewed that community view drug and substance abuse differently. Recommendations to reduce drug and substance abuse in the event of pandemics include increasing drug rehabilitation centres in urban areas, social workers and non-governmental organisations intervention.


This paper attempted to investigate determinants of loan defaults in Tanzania. Specifically it determined the effect of credit assessments and inflation rate on loan defaults in selected banks, namely CRDB, NMB, TPB and EXIM Bank in Iringa Municipality. The study included a sample of 63 months of observations from selected banks in Iringa Mu-nicipality. Cross-section survey was applied where stratified random sampling technique was used to collect quanti-tative data. The data was analysed using linear regression estimation techniques and estimated Ordinary Least Squares estimator. From the results, credit assessments have a negative relationship with the loan defaults, while inflation rate have a positive relationship with the loan defaults. The t- test show that credit assessments and inflation rate have a significant impact on loan defaults and p-values less than 0.05. However, the regression result shows that credit assessments and inflation rate have a significance relationship with loan defaults in Iringa Municipality. The co-efficient of determination, the adjusted R2 amounted to 0.607, which shows that the independent variables explain about 60.7% of the variation in the dependent variable. It was concluded that loan defaults are determined by credit assessment done to borrowers and the level of inflation rate in the country. It was therefore recommended that effective credit assessments should be conducted to reduce possibilities of entailing loans to non-creditworthy applicants. Furthermore, BOT should use monetary policy to control inflation and giving a chance to borrowers to borrow under favorable rates.


This study assessed reward management as a correlate of administrative staff job performance in selected universities in Ondo State. The study adopted the correlational survey research design. The population of the study comprised 3,115 non-academic staff in the three universities in Ondo State. The sample size of 368 was obtained using William Godden formula. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents from each of the selected institutions. Data were collected using researcher - developed questionnaire. The instrument was subjected to both face and content validities. Similarly, the instrument was subjected to estimate of internal consistency specifically, Cronbach Alpha to determine a co-efficient of 0.67. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was used to answer the research while the t-test for correlational analysis was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.The findings of this study revealed that there is a positive high relationship between staff development opportunities affect job performance of employees of Universities in Ondo State. The findings also revealed that there is a positive low relationship between work environment and turnover of employees of Universities in Ondo State. The study equally revealed no significant relationship between staff development opportunities affect job performance of employees of Universities in Ondo State. Based on the findings, the study recommended that Universities in Ondo State, Nigeria should ensure that staff development opportunities should be created for employees’ of universities.


A study was conducted to assess child-feeding practices of under-five years’ children among women food vendors in Mbeya city, Tanzania. Cross-sectional study involving 50 women food vendors was carried out in Mbeya city in Mbeya region in Tanzania to assess child-feeding practices of under-five years’ children among women food vendors. A structured questionnaire with both close and open ended questions was administered to collect data of child feeding practices and demographic information. Respondents were selected using non-probability sampling method specifically Convenient or accidental sampling and sample of 50 respondents were obtained. Data were coded and analysed by using Statistical Product for Service Solutions, version 20 (SPSS). After analysis it was found that majority of selected women food vendors (96%) go to work early in the morning and they also go back home very late in the evening. Percentage of exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and breastfeeding of children for at least 2 years were 70% and 56% respectively. Overall responsive feeding practices were found to be good except for responding promptly to child’s hunger and satiety which indicated 54% of women do not respond promptly to child’s hunger and satiety. Attitudes of selected women food vendors towards feeding practices based on recommended practices of child feeding were found to be good and the strategy which was found to be mostly used by respondents to care for their children when working was to go with their children at working place. It was concluded from this study that the government of Tanzania and Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) still has long way to go in providing supportive environment, education and behaviour change to food vendors that will promote exclusive breastfeeding, continuation of breastfeeding up to 2 years and responsive feeding practices.