Volume 10, Issue 10, October 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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An investigation into the challenges of road construction projects in Qatar []

The study below conducts an investigation into the road construction project in Doha, Qatar, to understand the challenges faced by the project management team in different stages of the road construction project. The study presents a background of the study, leading to the critical discussion of the extant literature review. The study identifies the themes to conduct the primary research collection from the extant literature review that helps with the questionnaire. The primary data is collected from five project managers who worked in different stages of the road construction project, leading to the analysis and conclusion, finally helping with the recommendations.

Stakeholders’ Inclusion in Projects and Socioeconomic Development of selected Nongovernmental Organization’s Beneficiaries in Nyamasheke and Rusizi Districts in Rwanda: A case of CORE World Vision Project []

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are popularly known for their contribution in uplifting the living standards of the poor especially in the developing countries. The general interest of this research was to investigate the effect of stakeholders’ inclusion in projects on the socioeconomic development of beneficiaries of NGO projects in Rwanda, taking case of CORE World Vision project. It was guided by three specific objectives, namely, to investigate the level of stakeholders’ inclusion in the CORE World Vision project’s beneficiaries; to evaluate the level of socioeconomic development of CORE World Vision project’s beneficiaries and to investigate the relationship between stakeholders’ inclusion in projects and socioeconomic development of CORE World Vision project’s beneficiaries. Both descriptive and causal relationship research designs were used. The research used both quantitative and qualitative in approach. A sample of 398 beneficiaries was selected using simple random sampling method. Primary data was collected by use of structured questionnaire and focused-group discussion. The data collected was analysed using SPSS version 22. The data was presented using frequency tables and graphs. Further, regression analysis was conducted to determine the causal relationship between stakeholders’ inclusion in projects and socioeconomic development. The findings on first specific objective showed that 187(55.7%) of the respondents indicated that they learnt about the CORE project through word of mouth. On the second objective, the combined results showed that 52.7% of the respondents said the project helped them economically while 36.6% of the total respondents said CORE project helped them socially. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that all the three indicator variables of inclusion of stakeholders, namely, project penetration(r=0.677,p<0.05), project acceptability (r=0.740,p<0.05) and project participation (r=0.878,p<0.05)were all positively and significantly related to socioeconomic development of the project beneficiaries since all the p-values obtained were since all the p-values obtained were less than 5%. the researcher highly recommends that the project managers should first conduct a stakeholders’ analysis to determine the key stakeholders that should be included in the project life cycle. Managers should actively and continuously conduct this stakeholders’ analysis to ensure that the right stakeholders are involved.

Access Site Complication among Patients undergoing Percutaneous Cardiovascular Procedures []

Background: Cardiac catheterization and percutaneous intervention can result in vascular access-site complications. It is important for individuals caring for the patient returning from the cardiac catheterization laboratory to be aware of and recognize the various complications that can occur and how they should be treated. Objective: aimed to assess access site complication among patients undergoing percutaneous cardiovascular procedures, and to find out the association between the patient undergoing Percutaneous Cardiovascular Procedures access site complication and their demographic characteristics. Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out through the present study in order to achieve the early stated objectives. The study is conducted in the Center for Cardiac Surgery and Catheterization. A non-probability (Purposive) sample of Twenty nine (29) patients with Cardiac disease. The data were collected through the use of constructed questionnaire, which consisted of three parts, the first part was concerning socio-demographic characteristics, and the second part was concerning with medical history. Finally, the last part of questionnaire which include (Access Site Complication). Results: results of the study show that the patients with percutaneous cardiovascular procedures have many complications occur at the site of access or occur as general complication. Conclusion: the study concluded that access site of patients with percutaneous cardiovascular procedures associated with many complication which include (bleeding, thrombosis, ecchymosis, hematoma and puncture infection).. Recommendation: According to the findings, the study recommends that the catheter should be performed only by trained personnel, enhance the methods of sterile techniques in cardiac surgery unit to decrease infection by improving the nursing practice through training course and health directorate should apply continuous education activities to improve nurses' practice toward access of percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. Key wards: Access Site, Complication, Percutaneous, Cardiovascular, Procedures.

The challenges to accessing services faced by adult (18 and above) disabled persons in Bangladesh: A systematic literature review []

Disability is an umbrella term that includes three-tier impairment— impairment, handicap, and disability. The situation of the PWD’s in Bangladesh is not improving much due to the access challenges to the provided services. This review aims to identify the access challenges in services faced by the adult (18 and above) disabled persons in Bangladesh so that government can focus on the issues and take appropriate intervention to address them. Objectives of the review is to identify the access challenges in services provided for an adult disabled person in Bangladesh, provide recommendations to improve the quality of life of the disabled living in Bangladesh and provide important information to the policymakers to take interventions to improve the lives of disable people and involve them in the country’s development process. This is a systematic literature review based on qualitative analysis with narrative synthesis. MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, and Google were searched for the review. PRISMA was used to track the number of included studies and their sources, not to extract information. There is no funding available. PWDs are facing many challenges to get access to the services. In education, employment, health care, getting assistive devices, rehabilitation -in all sectors they are discriminated against. These challenges are not only for their functional difficulty but also for the societal outlooks. Disabled people are also responsible for their poor state as they do not raise their voices to acquire their rights. Disable people are not aware of the provided services. Government should provide more effort on awareness creation. To improve the disability situation, the government and other organizations along with disabled persons need to work together.

Impact of Corporate Environmental Ethics on Organisational Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Innovation and Environmental Training []

The prime purpose of the study was to determine the mediating effect of green innovation and environmental training in the relationship between corporate environment ethics and organisational performance. The study adopted the quantitative research approach and thus executed a survey involving 261 respondents representing Pakistani firms. The study utilised SEM as the data analysing technique to determine the mediating effect by using SmartPLS. The findings suggest that there is no direct effect of corporate environmental ethics on organisational performance; however, in the presence of the mediating variables, the impact was found significant. The study confirms that green innovation and environmental training mediate the relationship between corporate environmental ethics and organisational performance. The study lacks qualitative evidence; therefore, the study does not provide much insightful knowledge.

Double Muscle Animals: The Physical, Farming Characteristics and Their Future in Food Production []

Double Muscled (DM) Animals are being widely produced around the world in different species for better meat quality, high amount of yield of carcasses, more improved nature of food metabolism, enhanced organoleptic textures for both the consumers and the p roducers. The high carcass yield is also desirable to the butchers for better cuts and profits as well as for the buyers. So, the number of producing Double Muscled Animals is increasing per annum. The reduced activity of Myostatin (MSTN); a growth differe ntiation factor present in some animals Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) is responsible for the hypertrophic nature of the Double Muscled Animals. Though the MSTN works as the agent to increase the volume on the same time the hypertrophic nature of the Doubl e Muscled Animals creates risk and disease for the Double Muscled Animals. The major organs including heart, lungs, kidney, liver, reproduction system, breeding and metabolism are different than the ordinary animals. Moreover, the DM Animals rely upon modi fied high nutritive diets. These differences create life threatening risk, susceptible nature to catch diseases for the Double Muscled Animals. For these reasons farming of DM Animals is not popular and cost efficient among the farmers all around the world since it requires extra supervision, different environment and diet maintenance. Apart from all the shortcomings the DM Animals are making an influential impact on the food industry for their larger yield than other farming animals. The following chapters will discuss the nature of the DM Animals and their role in the food production industry

Le feu de brousse et ses effets sur l’environnement en chefferie de Ngweshe : cas du groupement d’Izege de 2000 à nos jours. []

Les feux de brousse sont souvent perçus comme un risque majeur pour le règne animal et végétal mais aussi comme une contrainte environnementale. Ces feux correspondent aux pratiques socioculturelles, faisant entièrement partie de l’environnement en milieu de savane. Bien qu’un facteur de dégradation de l’environnement, ils font aussi partie des modes de gestion de l’environnement par les sociétés agro-pastorales. La première partie présente la généralisation, la fréquence et la récurrence des feux de brousse dans la chefferie de Ngweshe en générale et dans le groupement d’Izege en particulier. Dans la deuxième partie, il s’agit de cibler et de revoir les notions de risque et de contrainte environnementale dans la problématique des feux de brousse. La troisième partie se consacrera à présenter les risques et les modifications qu’apportent les feux de brousse pendant et après son passage dans un milieu sur les espèces animales (cas d’arthropode) et végétales pendant une période donnée.


Résumé Il s’agit d’une étude qui fait la comparaison des quelques cycles de vie de certains logiciels. En effet, cette étude présente d’abord les logiciels et ensuite les avantages et les inconvénients de ces derniers. Le socle de toute cette étude est les comparaisons faites et présentées pour chaque cas de figures reprises dans un tableau d’une manière détaillée pour une meilleure compréhension. Et, une conclusion a été tirée de notre part. Abstract This is a study that compares the few life cycles of some software. Indeed, this study presents first the software and then the pros and cons of these. The basis of this whole study is the comparisons made and presented for each case of figures included in a table in a detailed way for a better understanding. And, a conclusion has been drawn from us.


ABSTRACT Dorstenia foeteda, which is a succulent plant in the genus Dorstenia, is a typical traditional medicinal plant in Amhara and Benishangul regions, Ethiopia used for the treatment of most fungal and protozoan diseases. The purpose of this study was to conduct phytochemical screening and evaluate Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Total flavonoid content (TFC), Total phenolic content (TPC), and microbial activities of leaf extracts of Dorstenia foeteda. The phytochemical screening result showed the presence of most secondary metabolites in the extracts. The TAC, TFC, and antioxidant analysis result also showed a strong positive correlation between TPC, TFC, and antioxidant power of the extracts. The DPPH, FRAP, and Phosphomolybdate assays revealed significant antioxidant activity of the plant extracts. DPPH scavenging activities leaf extracts lied from, 49.57 ± 1.35 (in hexane) to 76.63 ± 1.40 μg AAE /mL (in acetone). While Ferric reducing power leaf extracts varied from 331 ± 0.02 (hexane) to 554.3 ± 0.02 mg AAE /50g (in acetone). Phosphomolybdate total reducing the power of extracts varied from 32 ± 0.64 g(in hexane) to 38.4 ± 0.50 g AAE /kg (in acetone) dried powder of extract. Similarly, the TFC of extracts of Dorstenia varied from 47 ± 0.017 (hexane) to 64.3 ± 0.044 mg QE/g (in methanol) for the extracts dry powder of extracts. Surprisingly methanol crude extract showed the highest zone of inhibition (mm) which was better than the standard disc gentamycin and tetracycline in both grams negative and positive bacteria. 30.60 ± 0.03, 27.20 ± 0.5, 26.60 ± 0.69, 27.00 ± 0.53 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus Pyogenes respectively. The cumulative investigation of the study leads us to the conclusion that the plat has metabolites that contribute medicinal value. Therefore, it is recommended strongly to isolate metabolites and antioxidant components. Key-words: antioxidant, Dorstenia foeteda, DPPH assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content

International Organizations Initiatives And Malaria Eradication In Rwanda A Case Of USAID Initiative In Kicukiro District In The City Of Kigali []

Abstract: Background: This paper aims at analysing the role of USAID, the outcomes of the partnership between USAID initiative and the Government of Rwanda in malaria eradication from 2015 to 2018 in Kicukiro District and assessing the contribution of international organizations to the fight against malaria in Rwanda. The study highlights the needs, tools and requirements for the conclusion of the partnership between International Organizations (IOs) and Rwanda Government; and identifies the main challenges encountered by USAID in malaria eradication programs implementation process in Rwanda. Materials and Methods: The study included 56 healthcare workers selected from 10 health centers of the 10 sectors of the District of Kicukiro. Data collection tools were questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. This work provided opportunity for the researcher to put in practice the knowledge he acquired in theory, it improved the researcher’s knowledge in conducting a research paper and finding solutions to identified problems on malaria eradication at the national level in general and in Kicukiro District in particular. For policy makers of the Government of Rwanda, this study is of great importance in formulating a flexible and reasonable cooperation environment system of regulations of partnership towards malaria eradication in Rwanda. For USAID managers, the study findings helped to appreciate their role in malaria eradication in Rwanda and the study also showed more areas as challenges and opportunities for their increased intervention. For scholars in international relations and diplomacy, this study helped to understand the establishment of USAID in the eradication of malaria by evaluating different initiatives, policies and strategies elaborated for an efficient relationship between the GoR and USAID. Results: Findings revealed that GoR, IOs and the community health centers cooperate to improve USAID program performance in eradicating malaria disease, since projects are initiated basing on the needs of Kicukiro communities. For most of respondents, the contribution of USAID to fight against malaria in Kicukiro District can be perceived through the importance of the project to individuals where beneficiaries are able to receive mosquito nets, ease blood smear tests, initiate personal investment plans for the prevention of malaria, and the ability to take the family members to health facilities. Conclusion: at the end, the researcher has provided recommendations to the Government of Rwanda, to Kicukiro leaders and community members, to health centers managers, to USAID and to international organizations representatives. The Government of Rwanda should emphasize on open selection of project beneficiaries’ sites, and work conjointly with community leaders for minimizing malaria spread among the population. Project monitoring and evaluation should be done regularly without any delay: this will help to keep an eye on the people who could fall in the area of temptation to decrease the efforts in malaria eradication measures hence minimizing the behavior of reoccurrence of malaria infection. For USAID and International organizations representatives; it was recommended that meetings for community health leaders and the USAID managers should be conducted better at field without any biases: this could help in monitoring and evaluation of the project activities hence giving better results as far as malaria eradication is concerned. Kicukiro District leaders should make a permanent monitoring and evaluation and organize more training sessions on malaria prevention modalities while Kicukiro community members should keep and manage all activities carried out through implementation of projects undertaken for malaria eradication in Kicukiro District. Key words: International Organizations, Malaria Eradication, Usaid Initiative, Kicukiro District,Rwanda


Introduction: Given the lack of information, the actual nature of substance abuse problem in Rwanda is not well known. This is a quantitative cross-sectional study aimed at determining the risk factors of substance use among youth admitted to Iwawa Rehabilitation Center. Method: This study targeted 1586 youths and took place from 25th April to 7th July 2022. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Inclusion criteria was being a client of the rehabilitation center and providing consent for participation. Those who did not consent to participate was excluded. A Questionnaire containing socio-Demographic, socioeconomic and Alcohol, Smoking, and Substances Involvement Screening Tests (ASSIST) was used to collect data with a face-to-face interview technique. The collected data was checked for quality, and analyzed through SPSS version 26. Results: A total of 372 male youths with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and a mean age of 25.68 (SD = 4.84) were included. Two hundreds and sixty (69.9%) were single, 58 (15.6%) never attended school, 49 (13.2) were Muslims, 323 (86.8) were Christians, and 204 (54.8) were urban dwellers. Sixty respondents (16.1%) were orphan, 130 (34.9%) had one parent, and 182 (48.9%) have both parents. Among these, 124 (68.1%) have parents who were still living together, 179 (48.1%) had at least one family member who use drugs, 262 (70.4%) started using substances before exceeding 18 years. Two hundreds and forty one (64.8%) were formally employed and 131 (35.2%) were informally employed. Alcoholic beverages were the most used substances among youth in Iwawa Rehabilitation Center (75.3%) followed by cannabis (56.5%), tobacco (33.6), and other drugs 23.3%. Opioids were used by 5.6%, Cocaine/crack used by 1.6%, and only less than one percent used amphetamine type stimulants, inhalants, sedatives, and hallucinogens. The overall substance involvement was low in 181 (48.7%) and high in 191 (51.3%). The everyday source of substance-related psychosocial and health problems among youth admitted at Iwawa Rehabilitation Center were mostly due to alcoholic beverages (34.1%), cannabis (31.5%), other drugs (10%), and opioids (4.3%). Urban residence, having parents who do not live together, having a family member who use drugs, having a history of previous admission in rehabilitation center, early age at the onset of substance abuse, and having informal employment were significantly associated with high overall substance involvement. Conclusion: Combined effort to conduct regular and testimonial community outreach programs may be helpful to prevent substance use among Rwandan youth.


Monitoring and Evaluation helps project managers in keeping track the implementation of the projects and its prudence in the utilization of the resources. It provides decision makers with a strategy to plan for success of the projects and guidance for future endeavors. Success is a key to stakeholders who in real sense need to be involved throughout the project and program cycles. The study focused on the effect of project monitoring and evaluation on project performance, a case of educational projects in Tumba Parish in Rulindo District. An evaluation needed to assess the effect of project monitoring and evaluation on project performance. The study based on four specific objectives, that is, to assess the effect of key performance indicators on performance of compassion international educational projects especially in Tumba Parish of Rulindo District such as percentage number of school dropout, to find out how monitoring and evaluation framework influence performance of compassion international , a case of educational projects in Tumba Parish of Rulindo District such as expected results; to investigate the role of human resource capacity building on performance of compassion international, a case of educational projects in Tumba Parish of Rulindo District such as quality performance and to examine the way in which project monitoring and evaluation budgeting influence performance of compassion international, a case of educational projects in Tumba Parish of Rulindo District such as number of cash plan. Relevant methods used to gather necessary data from various sources; either primary or secondary sources. A sample size of 296 respondents selected according to the table of Morgan. This sample was chosen because it was easier to manage and it was enough to generate findings as well as to generalize the findings to a bigger population. Data analyzed by the use of statistical methods, (descriptive statistics, Correlations and regressions analyses). The findings revealed that p=0.000<0.05 with Pearson Correlation=0.704 indicates that key performance indicators had a significant high correlation with performance of Compassion International Rwanda educational projects at Tumba Parish. P value =0.000<0.05, Pearson Correlation = 0.717 indicates that monitoring and evaluation framework had a significant high correlation with performance of Compassion International Rwanda educational projects at Tumba Parish. The value of p=0.000<0.05 with Pearson Correlation = 0.680 indicates that Human resource capacity building had a significant moderate correlation with performance of Compassion International Rwanda educational projects at Tumba Parish. P value of 0.000<0.05 with Pearson Correlation = 0.826 indicates that Monitoring and evaluation budgeting had a significant high correlation with performance of Compassion International Rwanda educational projects at Tumba Parish. The CIR should stick with the monitoring and evaluation process, put in place open policies, and launch effective projects to help its people more. To fulfill its goals, the CIR Project must carry out technical activities on a regular basis in line with well-defined action plans and using well-defined tools and methods.


Stakeholder engagement should therefore be taken as a core element of any “sustainable development” plan. The general objective was to assess the impact of stakeholder participation on nutrition projects performance in Rwanda. The study was directed by the following three specific objectives: to examine the influence of project planning on nutrition projects performance of National Child Development Agency, to determine the influence of project implementation on nutrition projects performance of National Child Development Agency and to determine the influence of monitoring and evaluation on nutrition projects performance of National Child Development Agency. The researcher used descriptive design; the aim population was 12 employees of NCDA; 2,326 beneficiaries of the project and 20 employees from stakeholders of projects as per human resource report; the sample size was 92 respondents. The data collection tools were questionnaire, interview and documentation. After collecting data, it was cleaned and coded. The researcher used SPSS, version 23 software application in order to process the data. Mean, standard deviation, percentages, correlation and regression investigation was castoff for data examination. The association amid the variables was established by use of Pearson correlations. Findings on confirmed that stakeholder participation in project planning influences project performance by increasing project acceptability by community, stated by majority of respondents strongly agreed and agreed. Findings on confirmed that stakeholder participation in project implementation influences performance of projects by contribution in cash, stated by majority respondents strongly agreed and agreed. Findings in table 4.8 show that participation in monitoring and evaluation influences project performance by providing feedback, confirmed by the demonstrators and supervisors, stated by majority respondents strongly agreed and agreed. The research concluded that the study thus concluded that putting proper stakeholders practice in terms of project planning will increase project performance within time and scope as well as project completion within budget and quality delivery of nutrition projects in Rwanda. The research survey concluded signifies that there was statistically significant effect of project implementation on project performance within time and scope as well as quality delivery of nutrition projects in Rwanda. Eventually the research concluded that monitoring and evaluation increased project performance within time and scope and there was also statistical significant effect of monitoring and evaluation on project performance within quality delivery of nutrition projects in Rwanda. The researcher suggested that management should ensure stakeholder participation in implementation of project influences project performance by creating a sense of ownership of the project by community. Researcher suggested the recommendations as management should put more emphasis on monitoring and evaluation for better project performance as well management should improve of project planning for better results. From the correlation matrix Table, the results show that there is a very strong correlation between project planning and performance of nutrition project as Pearson correlation is .663** with the p-value of 0.000, which is less than standard significance levels of 0.05. Reject the null hypothesis (Reject H0) and accept the alternative hypothesis (Accept H1). This indicates that, out of the considered other factors influencing performance of projects in Rwanda, only stakeholder participation in planning has significant and high positive effect on the performance of National Child Development Agency.


This study aims at assessing the effect of innovation spaces’ processes on the performance of young entrepreneurs. The study sought to assess the relationship between three factors that included: crowdsourcing, ideation, and business plan competition with the performance of young entrepreneurs. All those variables along with the dependent are shown in the conceptual framework in figure 1. The study was a descriptive research study. Quantitative data collection methods and convenience sampling methods were used. 150 questionnaires were collected from young entrepreneurs who went through some programs in innovation spaces available in the Iringa region such as SIDO TLED Hub, RLabs, Kiota Hub, and Agriedo Hub. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to test the reliability and factor analysis was used to test the validity of the instrument. The data were analyzed by using Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis. Multiple Regression results showed that the availability of ideation and business plan competition as innovation spaces’ processes showed a positive significant relationship with the performance of young entrepreneurs. On the other side, crowdsourcing as an innovation space process had a negative relationship with the performance of young entrepreneurs. Recommendations are posed to both innovation spaces and young entrepreneurs. Innovations spaces should invest their time, networks, and other resources to perfect their processes in delivering value to young entrepreneurs. Young entrepreneurs should associate themselves with innovation spaces since they have the resources, networks, and knowledge to speed up the performance of their enterprises

« Amélioration de la satisfaction de la clientèle dans une agence de transport : Cas de l’Etablissement Dieu Seul Sait (DISSA) ». []

Résumé : Le présent article s’est fixé comme objectif principal de contribuer à l’amélioration de la satisfaction de la clientèle de DISSA. Cet objectif est soutenu par des objectifs spécifiques suivants : Identifier les dimensions du service qui sont prioritaires pour les clients de DISSA, Mesurer le degré de satisfaction de la clientèle envers les services offerts par DISS, Déterminer la relation entre la qualité de service et la satisfaction de la clientèle de DISSA et Déterminer les actions à engager pour améliorer la satisfaction de la clientèle de DISSA. Après le recours à une analyse quantitative, le questionnaire de Likert était constitué pour récolter les données auprès d’un échantillon occasionnel de 100 clients de DISSA, les résultats ont révélé ce qui suit : La combinaison voyages et transport constitue la branche pilote de l’Etablissement DISSA suivi de la combinaison voyages courriers, et enfin, les autres. Pour ce qui est de la corrélation entre les variables d’étude, il existe une forte corrélation positive et significative entre la qualité de service et de la satisfaction des clients de l’établissement DISSA avec un coefficient de corrélation r = 0,677 et Sig de 0,000 < 0,01. Cela signifie que la qualité du service fourni par l’Etablissement DISSA influence positive sur la satisfaction du client. Malgré ce coefficient, le degré de satisfaction reste toujours moyen, c’est-à-dire les répondants sont en moyenne = 3,27 d’accord soit 65,4% et écart type=1,025 soit 20,5% de divergence d’opinion. Ce résultat implique un niveau moyen de la satisfaction des clients de DISSA au cours de la période sous étude. D’où, l’étude a identifié un certains nombres d’actions visant à améliorer la satisfaction de ses clients que l’établissement DISSA doit entreprendre notamment : la révision du prix exprimée par (31%) des enquêtés, respecter sa politique envers la clientèle soit (23%), l’écoute de la clientèle (20) %, accorder aux clients des avantages personnalisés 19% et autres 7%. Dans cette logique, la clientèle serait davantage satisfaite. Car des prix concurrentiels peuvent entrainer une augmentation des clients et influencer significativement son chiffre d’affaire.

« Mise en place du modèle logique de données d’un système d’information organisationnel au sein des aéroports de la Province de l’Ituri » []

Résumé : Au terme de ce travail intitulé Mise en place du modèle logique de données d’un système d’information organisationnel au sein des aéroports de la Province de l’Ituri. L'objectif principal que nous nous sommes assignés dès le départ au cours de cette recherche est atteint. Il est de mettre en place un modèle logique de données permettant de décrire l’organisation de données au sein des aéroports de la Province de l’Ituri. Pour la réalisation de ce composant, il nous a fallu adopter une méthodologie de travail. Nous avons ainsi fait une lecture minutieuse des ouvrages et travaux de fin d'étude dans le cadre de notre thématique, en utilisant la technique documentaire et interview dans l’optique du déroulement de différentes activités au sein du service administratif. Ce présent article se rapporte à une représentation qui prend en compte le choix technologique, Traitant de la Mise en place du Modèle logique de données d’un Système d’Information des mouvements des avions et des personnes au sein de l’aéroport national de Bunia qui décrit l’organisation de données en tenant compte de leurs conditions d'utilisation par les traitements sans faire référence à un langage de programmation mais aussi contribuer sur le plan méthodologique à l’amélioration des techniques de gestion du trafic aérien sur les plates-formes aéroportuaires. . Pour y arrivé, nous nous sommes servi d’une méthode d’étude et réalisation informatique pour le système d’entreprise, en sigle MERISE qui nous a permis de réunir les données, de décrire la structure de données utilisée et de les traiter. A ce titre, cet article propose à partir de la situation générale des aéroports nationaux de la République Démocratique du Congo pour épingler le cas particulier de l’Ituri un modèle logique de données. Ainsi, ce dernier s’inscrit de la logique d’abstraction pour définir la procédure à suivre dans une démarche d’informatisation au sein de l’aéroport national de Bunia qui est le système existant dans cet article.

Project Management Practices and Project Performance in Rwanda A Case of Schools Construction Projects in Kicukiro District []

Abstract: Background: Globally, building sector contributes close to 9 percent of various country's gross domestic product. The most common reason of company failure in the construction sector lacked the skills and experience. There was plenty of room for improvement in the construction business through honing project management abilities. The goal of this study was to determine how project management abilities affect the success of a school construction project in Kicukiro, Rwanda. The specific objectives were to assess how project-planning abilities affect school construction project performance in Kicukiro District, to establish the relationship between project budgeting abilities and project performance in Kicukiro District, and to assess how project communication abilities affect project performance in Kicukiro District. Methods and Materials: A descriptive survey research approach was used for the investigation. The target population in Kicukiro district was 202 people, including 1 district engineer in charge of school building, 31 city managers, and 170 TPA members. A sample size of 134 respondents was chosen using the Yamane (1967) formula, simple random, purposive, and cluster selection procedures. An interview guide and a questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, percentages, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Karl Pearson correlation and multiple regression) was utilized to determine the impacts, while a theme approach was employed to investigate qualitative results Regression analysis revealed that project planning procedures significantly improved the performance of the Kicukiro school construction project (B=.557, p=.000). Results: Budgeting technique was found to be statistically significant in improving the performance of school construction projects (B=.310, p=.015). Regression test results also showed that project scheduling is statistically significant for enhancing project performance. It was shown to be the case (B=0.414, p=.000). The calculated results showed that communication had statistically significant effects on performance. The results of (B=.657; P=.000) supported this. Conclusion: In addition, the researcher recommended the government and private sector to demonstrate a better project planning practices, the researcher recommended the government to improve on the budget practices, as it helped in performance. Furthermore, the researcher recommended the government and the private sector to improve in communication practices as it affected in the performance of the project. Lastly, the researcher recommended the government and private sector to schedule well the construction of schools in kicukiro District. Key words: Project Management Practices, Project Performance, Schools Construction Projects, Kicukiro District, Rwanda.


The study sought to investigate the contribution of monitoring and evaluation approaches on the sustainability of projects in Rwanda with specific referral of the Sustaining Religious Leaders’ Gender Desk initiative Project. The study was specifically focused on identification of the M&E approaches used by Sustaining Religious Leaders’ Gender Desk initiative project, to evaluate the level of Sustaining Religious Leaders’ Gender Desk initiative project sustainability and to find out the relationship between monitoring and evaluation approaches used by Sustaining Religious Leaders’ Gender Desk initiative project and the level of its sustainability. The study had a value for project sustainability in Rwanda and it is essential to judge how much progress has been made in the achievement of set goals. The study used participatory theory and theory of change. The study used a correlation design with mixed approaches of qualitative and quantitative data analysis. The targeted population was 92 respondents using Census method. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze data. Both descriptive and inferential statistic was used. Data was presented in table and figure. The findings shown that the general conditions of M&E of the project are very good (58.7%). The M&E Approaches that RRLI project team had implemented was, logical Framework Approach (Mean=1.29). The RRLI M&E team has implemented the LFA as a management tool for effective planning and implementation of the project (52.2%) and RRLI M&E team shares its LFA reports with donors and stakeholders (52.3%). There was adoption of the Theory based M&E approach by RRLI M&E team allows for an in-depth understanding of the program or project is working (38%). The researcher found that Rapid Appraisal M&E approach adopted by RRLI M&E team is used to provide a qualitative understanding of the complex socioeconomic changes (58.7%). The findings shown that Effectiveness of Project was Extent (46.7%) while Beneficiary Satisfaction was Extent (55.4%). The researcher identified the challenges for the project including insufficient of funds (66.3%), inability to create self-generating income activities (39.1%), sustainability of program (18.5%) and mismanagement (15.2%). The findings indicated that there was a negative correlation and no statistically significant correlation between the theory based M&E approach and logical framework approach (-.148±0.160). While there is a strong positive correlation and statistically significant between Rapid Appraisal M&E Approach and Theory based M&E Approach (0.342±0.001). There is a strong positive correlation and statistically significant between Timely completion of the Project and project effectiveness (0.564±0.000). There is a strong positive correlation and statistically significant between Beneficiary Satisfaction and Theory based M&E Approach (0.644±0.000). As general recommendations, the management of Rwanda Religious Leaders Initiative (RRLI) should consider the above findings and support the project especially in solving different constraints that the project had been facing, in order to create self-generating income to maintain the sustainability of the program.

Reviews; Utilization of Fish Offal for Non-Food []

Waste generated from the fish processing industry includes fish offal. This article aims to review the processing or utilization of fish offal into non-food products both on a commercial scale and on a research scale. Based on the literature of the review, fish offal contains proteins of 14.01.01±0.68% lipids of 20.00±1.04%, minerals of 4.75±0.64 and water of 60.62±2.15%. This fish offal can be processed into non-food products that have high relative added value. Products that can be made are liquid fertilizers, hydrolyzed into peptones, extracted to take (isolated) enzymes, made feed ingredients and fermented into silage as a feed ingredient. Keywords: intestines, silage, feed, peptone, liquid fertilizer.

Project management processes and performance of Rwanda urban development project (RUDP) []

This research project assessed and analyze the effect of project management processes on the performance of government projects in Rwanda. This study uses a questionnaire and interviews for data collection distributed to 64 employees of the Rwanda Urban Development Project. This study exclusively uses quantitative analysis. The research findings revealed that the Rwanda Urban Development Project followed all project management processes and about 73.4%, 85%, 54.6%, and 67.1% of respondents agreed that planning, implementing, controlling and evaluation respectively contributed to the Rwanda Urban Development Project performance and the correlation coefficients are strongly positive, confirming hypotheses that the Rwanda Urban Development Project has followed all identified phases of project management processes. Furthermore, the results from regression analysis are also in line with the respondents ’views that the planning, implementing, controlling and evaluation processes with the following estimated value of respective coefficients 0.004, 0.357, 0.282, 0.1, and 0.058 had strengthened the Rwanda Urban Development Project. All coefficients are positive and highly significant, indicating that there is a strong positive effect of planning, implementing, controlling, and evaluating on Rwandan Urban Development project performance. Furthermore, the results from regression analysis are also in line with the respondents ’views that the planning, implementing, controlling and evaluation processes with the following estimated value of respective coefficients 0.004, 0.357, 0.282, 0.1, and 0.058 had strengthened the Rwanda Urban Development Project. All coefficients are positive and highly significant, indicating that there is a strong positive effect of planning, implementing, controlling, and evaluating on Rwandan Urban Development project performance. The implication of the findings suggests that project management processes are effective tools for achieving the success of a project. Thus, effective project management processes should have to be given great attention since they are the main driving force for the success of a project. Keywords: Project, management, processes, performance, urban, development, Rwanda

Added Value of Processing Cob Fish Into Shreds and Marketing Analysis in Cijulang District, Pangandaran Regency []

This research aims to calculate the added value of cob fish made into shreds and analyze the marketing of "Abonikol". The research method used is the survey method. Primary data are obtained by the technique of direct interviews with business owners and some labor people. Secondary data was obtained through citations from several published research articles. The data analysis used is value-added analysis based on the Hayami method and descriptive analysis to analyze its marketing. Based on the calculation results, the value added in making shredded cob fish was obtained at Rp. 27,300 / Kg with an added value ratio of 46.5%. The value of this ratio indicates that the cob fish is very worthy of shredding. Marketing analysis of "Abonikol" was carried out on the segmentation of the Pangandaran wiilayah market, identified rival competitors 1 product, competitors substitution 3 products, the basis of competition that occurred based on product reference, pricing based on cost plus pricing and promotion by way of personal selling and through social media, such as Facebook and Whatsapp.


With the constant awareness of healthy living in the society, the role of businesses towards the human well-being through environmental conservation has become a major business practice. This study is based on the debate surrounding the apparent value of Environmental Social Responsibility on the performance of firms. The overall objective of the study was to examine the influence of Environmental Social Responsibility on the performance of the manufacturing firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange with the firm size as the moderating variable. The study is grounded on stakeholder's theory, social contract theory and legitimacy theory. The operationalization of environmental social responsibility was based on three main dimensions: pollution prevention, renewable energy and environmental rehabilitation. Performance on the other hand was measured using financial and non-financial indicators. Census survey of nine manufacturing firms was used owing to the small population size. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire while secondary data was obtained from the published financial records. Regression analysis model is adopted as the econometric tool to establish the relationship between variables. The findings suggested that pollution prevention, renewable energy and environmental rehabilitation were negatively and significantly associated with financial performance but in contrast positively and significantly related with non-financial performance.