Volume 10, Issue 10, October 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Aim :The study aimed to compare the acoustic characteristics of konkani choir singers and non-singers and to compare gender differences in acoustic parameters of voice between males and females konkani choir singers and non-singers. Method: A total of 30 choir singers ( 15 males, 15 females) and 30 non-singers ( 15 males, 15 females) participated in the study. PRAAT software version (6.1.16) was used to extract voice related parameters. Result: The results revealed higher F0 in male choir singers than non- singers. Lower jitter and shimmer values was obtained in male choir singers than non-singers. Higher HNR and lower NHR in male choir singers and lower HNR and higher NHR in male non singers. In female groups higher F0 was obtained in choir singers than non-singers, lower jitter and shimmer values was obtained in choir singers than non- singers. Higher HNR and lower NHR in choir singers and lower HNR and higher NHR in non-singers. Results from comparison of the gender differences in acoustic parameters of voice between male and female konkani choir singers and non-singers revealed higher F0 in female choir singers than male choir singers and no changes in other acoustic parameters like jitter, shimmer, HNR and NHR. Results from Male and female non- singers showed higher F0 in females than male non singers and no changes in other parameters like jitter, shimmer, HNR and NHR. Conclusion: The results revealed the importance of acoustic analysis in comparing choir singer’s voices and distinguishing them from normal voices to identify any changes in vocal characteristics. Therefore, Konkani choir singers and non-singers must be aware of the voice problems that they might face due to the over voice usage which can result in voice disorders. They should undergo systematic vocal assessment utilizing acoustic characteristics to examine the voice changes and also for any vocal intervention. Therefore, utilizing acoustic analysis will help SLP’s assessing any changes in their voice, create awareness in them to prevent voice disorders.

Turbulent Natural Convection using k-ω-sst Model with varying Aspect Ratios []

Natural convection is a means of air mixing inside an enclosure which arises from temperature difference. It’s one of the most important modes of heat flow and heat transfer. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate natural turbulent convection in a three dimensional rectangular enclosure using k-ω-sst model. The research is to investigate the effect of varying aspect ratios (1.5≥A.R.≥0.75) on temperature distribution in a rectangular enclosure with constant Rayleigh number (Ra=7.80×1011). The equations governing the flow (Momentum, Continuity and Energy equations) were first time averaged. The averaging process introduced non-linear terms; Reynolds stress and heat flux which are modelled using k-ω-sst model. The emerging equations after modelling are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by finite difference method and the results solved using ANSYS Fluent. The results showed that, increasing the height of the enclosure decreases the aspect ratio which then causes vectors of temperature to rise on the left-hand side (hot wall) and sink in the right hand side (cold wall).


The cycle index of dihedral group D_n acting on the set X of the vertices of a regular n-gon was studied by Harary and Palmer in 1973 (See [1]). In this paper we study the cycle index formulas of D_n acting on unordered triples from the set X={1,2,…,n}. In each case the actions of the cyclic part and the reflection part are studied separately for both an even value of n and an odd value of n.

Teenage Pregnancy Factors On Completion Rate Of Female Students In Public Secondary Schools In Nyamasheke District-Rwanda []

Background: This study aimed at examining the effects of teenage pregnancy on Completion rate of female students in public secondary schools in Nyamasheke District, Rwanda. It was guided by three specific objectives: to identify the teenage pregnancy factors in secondary schools in Nyamasheke District, Rwanda, to analyze the effects of teenage pregnancy factors on the completion rate of female students in public secondary schools, and to determine the completion rate of female students in secondary schools of Nyamasheke District Rwanda. Materials and Methods: It used quantitative research approach, which employs a descriptive survey to generate deeper meaning as compared to other research approaches. The targeted population of this study was 117, which included Head teachers, teachers, and students from five secondary schools of Nyamasheke District, Rwanda. The sample size was 91 respondents. The technique of sampling was purposive, and data were collected from the field by use the questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by using IBM/SPSS software version 21 and presented by using tables and frequencies. This study will benefit the teenagers in as much as the prevention of unwanted pregnancies is concerned; it will also benefit the schools, parents, policy makers and the local community in the matters of putting all the efforts together to set strategies, which will contribute to the eradication of the problem and its consequences. Results: On the teenage pregnancy factors in secondary schools, the overall mean was 4.225, which shows that the economic factors influence the teenage pregnancy in secondary schools. According to Oke (2010), poverty has a dual dynamic on teenage pregnancy, presenting both as determinant and a consequence of teenage pregnancy. On social cultural factors, the overall mean of 4.13 indicated that social-cultural factors gave high effect on teenage pregnancy. On school factors, the overall mean of 3.795 showed that there were the scholar factors that affect the students and cause teenage pregnancy. On the effects of teenage pregnancy factors on the completion rate of female students in public secondary schools, the results showed the school dropout with the mean of 4.36, the repetition of grades with the mean of 4.30 and the examination failure with the mean of 4.24. The overall mean of 4.306 indicated that the teenage pregnancies affect the completion rate of female students in public secondary schools in Nyamasheke District. The correlation between teenage pregnancies and completion rate of female students was r=0.889, this shows that there was a positive correlation and there was the significant relationship between teenage pregnancies and low completion rate of female students in secondary schools. Conclusion: According to the results, this research concluded that; the teenage pregnancies affect the completion rate of female students in public secondary schools in Nyamasheke District based on the overall mean of 4.036. The study recommends that the Parliament should reinforce the laws punishing people who appear in actions of impregnating young girls. It also recommends that teenage education for sex and preventive measures, be strengthened in schools where this will increase the level of knowledge about sexual activities, especially fertility; and put in place re-entry educational policy for girls after teenage pregnancy.

Factors Associated With Substance Use among Psychiatric Patients Attending Mental Health Service in Selected District Hospitals of Kigali, Rwanda []

Background: There is a remarkable increase in drug use worldwide. More than 269 million people are drug users and 35millions are suffering from substance use disorders. The association between substance use and psychiatric disorder was known worldwide and has been found among substance users in Rwanda but little is known about the prevalence and the factors that are associated with this substance use in psychiatric patients. Thus, the main objective of this research was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with substance use among psychiatric patients attending mental health services at Masaka, Kibagabaga, and Muhima district hospitals in Rwanda. Materials and Methods: Research is carried out under a cross-sectional study design with a quantitative approach. A stratified sampling technique was performed to get the sample size from each district hospital and a sample of 155 patients was selected using the convenience sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Chi-square was performed and variables that have been significantly associated with outcome were processed into multivariate analysis to quantify the strength of association between variables at 95% CI. Results: The overall prevalence of substance use among patients attending mental health services at Masaka, Kibagabaga, and Muhima District hospitals in Rwanda was 26.5% and the common substances used include alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco with prevalence rates of 14.8, 8.6, and 2.6 percent respectively. Variables such as gender was significantly associated with substance use (AOR⁚ 0.201, 95%CI⁚0.66-0.615, P-value=0.005) where patients of female gender were less likely to use substances compared to male gender. Religion was also significantly associated with substance use (AOR⁚0.136, 95%CI⁚0.040-0.464, P-value=0.001) where substance use was less likely to be used among protestant patients compared to catholic patients, and behavior disorder was also significantly associated with substance use (AOR⁚12.227, 95%CI⁚1.757- 85.07, P-value=0.011) where patients with behavior disorder were more likely to use substances than patients with anxiety disorders. Conclusion: In conclusion, substance use was associated with gender, religion, and behavior disorder underlying mental conditions. Prevalence of substance use was a reality among psychiatric patients. Therefore, it is recommended to the Ministry of Health and other health stakeholders to strengthen the treatment program for those comorbid conditions at the district level and increase the mental health services utilization specifically for substance users. Thus, this study was limited in its methodology; other researchers are encouraged to conduct research on how each substance contributes to developing the mental disorder. Keywords: Substance Use, Psychiatric Patients, Mental Health Service, Selected District Hospitals Of Kigali, Rwanda.

Deploying Artificial Intelligence (AI) to support law enforcement agencies in crime scene analysis and management []

“A crime scene” is pivotal in solving a crime as it holds info about the suspect (s), method (s) used to execute the crime, wound (s) inflicted on the victim, and related evidence. Artificial intelligence (AI) can simulate human intelligence in machines, and with the state-of-the-art technology available today can play a considerable role in solving crimes. AI has the functionality to maintain visual perception information, object identification algorithms and spatial information related to objects of crime. This information could be utilized to analyse blood spatter patterns and perform wound analysis which could match it to objects of crime discovered at the place of the crime. This paper will examine how using AI at a crime scene would reduce the probability of technicians not documenting evidence or overlooking evidence, as information documented via AI would preserve it. Reducing the quantity of technicians at the place of the crime will reduce the risk of crime site contamination and improve evidence safeguarding. It will eliminate the inevitability of revisitation of the site of the crime. Robots could be deployed to collect tangible evidence which could be linked to the AI system deployed at the crime site, again to reduce the number of technicians on site. Information on evidence that might have been overlooked during the primary investigation would be retrieved by reviewing electronic evidence. AI and robotics will support the crime scene technician and not take over his role, as robotics are not that autonomous yet. Deploying AI to analyse a crime site implies that crime site processing could be expedited, that the crime site could be released sooner, and the criminal be brought to justice more rapidly.


The contribution of the dairy sector to the total household income is substantial. For Sudan is endowed with good livestock production potential mainly due to relatively fair natural resource availability, suitable climate, and large cattle population. Livestock are raised by pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, crop/livestock mixed farmers and urban dwellers and play a vital role in economic development, particularly as societies evolve from subsistence agriculture into cash-based economies. This study was designed to assess the constrains in milk production in Gezira state, central of the Sudan, mainly focusing on limi-tation facing milk production and animal factors. The primary data for this study were collected at the village level using questioner from the milk producer households, a total number of target respondents where 120 samples were selected from four localities, Gezira State center of Sudan the study was conducted during the year 2017-2018.The results revelated that there were a highly significant differences (P≥ 0.01) between animal breeds reared in the locality, stock replacement, building materials used for animals housing, practicing milking methods, management systems and there were no significant differences between most of producers practicing subjected in current study. Also, the study was highlighted on some factors related mainly to animal’s factors, which affect production of milk and to predict the awareness of producers, about how to make benefit and to raise their income through application of different techniques mainly in dairy animal husbandry in the study area.

Physical Land Suitability Analysis for Barely in Debre Tabour Agricultural Research Sub-Center Area, Amhara Region (Ethiopia) []

The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Debre Tabour Sub-agricultural Research Center area for the production of food barley and malting barley. Aggregate data from various sources have been used for the analysis. The study has been benefited from the soil survey report by the FDRE Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, National Soil Research Center (NSRC) Soil Survey and Land Evaluation Section. The methodology used for the physical land suitability assessment was simple matching method. It consisted of matching environmental requirements of barley with the land qualities of the 12 land map units of the study area and rating suitability for each land characteristics and identifying limiting factors. Results of the simple limitation method showed that all the 12 land map units of the study area are moderately to marginally suitable for the production of both food barley and malting barley. The major limiting factors are nutrient availability, erosion hazard, workability and rooting condition. The study showed that despite some differences in their environmental requirements, there are no any differences between food barely and malting barley in suitability in the study area.


The design, installation and operation of an offshore platform can constitute a great danger and impact negatively on the safety of the marine activities. Features such as jack, spar, spacing as well as tower design can all have the potential likelihood and significances of numerus ocean risk and life-threatening hazard. This situation calls for an in-depth study of the conceivable risks and hazard that may play out in the oil and gas platform throughout the design, installation and operational phase. This journal aims at reviewing the possible hazard existing on the oil and gas platform using HAZID technique as the identifying framework.


The Weibull distribution functions is used to estimate the wind energy potential at the centre city of Wukari town. The wind speed data of Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State has been statistically analysed. Wukari, a town located at latitude 7°52' N and longitude 9°46' E, at an altitude of 252 m. The monthly average wind data for 10-year period (2010-2019) provided by the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) was analysed to obtain the average wind speed and maximum power that a household wind turbine will generate. Wind speed as high as 80 m/s was calculated at a height 10m. The highest monthly mean wind speed (80 m/s) occurred in the month of April (Dry season) and lowest wind speed (40 m/s) in October (Rainy season). The power output for a household wind turbine with swept area of 6.16 ㎡, air density of 1.224 kg/m and average wind speed of 20 m/s was calculated to be 30159 W.


Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a low-intensity intervention that has its roots in cognitive-behavioral and problem-solving strategies, and has been shown to improve depressive symptoms and improve functioning when delivered by non-specialists in resource-limited settings.


Special educators are crucial for the planning of role in helping SLP’s for the planning and intervention of AAC users. Inadequate information and a negative attitude toward AAC users and its treatment leads to a lack of ineffective use of management and recommendation.he current study assesses the AAC for children among special Education school’s special educators in Nepal.

A Comprehensive Review on Information Technology and Service Delivery; Sierra Leone Government Hospital, Kenema. []

The review's objective was to assess how healthy information technology and service delivery are utilized at Kenema Government Hospital, one of Sierra Leone's public hospitals. For the study, there was a 100% response rate. Each participant received one of the study's 40 questionnaires in total. The questionnaires included inquiries aligned with the study’s objectives (I. Massaquoi & A. Abu, 2022). Kenema Government Hospital does not make use of information and communication technologies. Management at the hospital should do everything possible to expand the institution's information and communication resources. To help hospitals perform their duties more effectively, the government and other development partners should make some of this technology accessible. To avoid paying for specialists, the Kenema Government Hospital administration might provide staff members with scholarships or training in computer technology. The government or other developing partners might work to secure funding for hospitals to use information and communication technologies rather than flying seriously ill people to other nations for treatment. Thirty respondents claim that the most significant barrier to using information technology is the high implementation costs. At the same time, another Thirty says that a key obstacle is a lack of necessary knowledge. Ten respondents noted a funding issue, and four added a problem with the caliber of the electrical supply. This has demonstrated that despite the advantages of information technology, difficulties still arise for both clients and staff. It highlights how the usage of information technology at Kenema Government Hospital is built on the principle of providing services. To put it another way, not all services demand the application of technology. Information technology tools are not required for service delivery, such as vaccination in Kenema Government Hospital. Furthermore, some services—such as those for children with illness—may not always require the use of information technology tools, whereas others—like those for surgery, diabetic care, specialized services, and diagnostic services—do.


Objective: Systematically review the studies that describes the outcomes of vocal hygiene practice in school teachers. Method: Two questions were used to review the outcomes of vocal hygiene. Conclusion: current review suggests that vocal hygiene training and program has positive outcome on teacher’s vocal health. Improvement in throat discomfort, breathe control and quality of voice was seen in most of the teachers. Voice rest also improved the quality of voice over short period of time. Vocal hygiene practice can be used as a preventive and therapeutic approach by teachers to maintain vocal quality and produce voice more efficiently. Teachers in the experimental group significantly raised their vocal handicap index (VHI) scores, while those in the control group saw a decline.


A major concern in the oil and gas industry entails schedule control. Most projects slip past planned date due to certain reasons from either the client side or from the contractor side, this further causes an increment in cost of executing the project. The oil and gas industry in Nigeria consists of the upstream, downstream and midstream sectors while there are other companies – the oil and gas servicing companies – they are involved in the Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Installation, and/or Commissioning (EPCIC) of oil and gas facilities. In this study, the oil and gas servicing companies in Nigeria are considered and studied based on experience of study population (being teams from oil and gas firms). The various functional departments of the EPCIC companies are studied and how various organizations gives roles to their project control and planning team. A survey was carried out considering three major oil and gas firms (Companies A, B and C). Responses were written and a total population of 15 persons was surveyed with total roles and responsibilities of forty-three gotten. From this study, Project controllers from company A are responsible for all three (cost, schedule and scope); project controllers for company B are responsible for only cost management while company C are responsible for cost and schedule management. The project schedule as a very important tool to a project and project manager has been substantially studied from various sources. From this study, it is no doubt that the project schedule and control function is a very important one as major IOCs have taken it as a means to measure progress with key software.