Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Five-Fold Intelligences For Effective Leaders []

This research paper came as response to a plethora of corruption cases implicating senior officials in Southern African governments. Public media is awash with incidences of corruption in government departments and in the corridors of power. This is symptomatic of a serious bankruptcy in terms of spiritual capital among senior officials in governments. This research seeks to identify areas of intelligences that the Southern African leaders need for them to lead and manage government departments competently and ethically. It is practically impossible to instil ethical values to the junior staff members when those in the top echelons of the organogram are not ethical. The researcher has identified 5 intelligences that need to be an integral part in leadership development programmes. The study started by conducting a literature review of relevant theories on different forms of intelligence. A qualitative research paradigm was adopted as a research methodology for this study. Data was collected through interviewing a sample of 50 senior managers within government and the responses were recorded and later transcribed for analysis. Five major themes came out of the research which showed that, in Southern Africa, senior managers in government are spiritually bankrupt and therefore lack a sustainable source of ethical values. The results also showed that most leaders were just average in terms of social and emotional intelligence. On intellectual and physical intelligence, the results depicted mastery of those intelligences. The researchers responded to the findings and conclusions by developing a Sikhosana Five-Fold Model which when used to develop managers and leaders, will produce a new breed of managers who excel in management and leadership whilst at the same time holding high values of ethics.

High Performance Thermoplastic Elastomer (HPTE) HVMV Cables instead of XLPE HVMV Cables- A trend towards Circular Economy []

High-purity plastics must be used to insulate cables running at medium, high, and extra-high voltages. XLPE (cross-linkable polyethylene) is most commonly used to insulate cables. The cross-linking of the XLPE, the cable passes through a continuous vulcanization tube (CV-tube), where it is exposed to high temperatures. In the manufacture of these types of cables, the CV tube is filled with nitrogen and operated at a pressure of 10 bar. To further process the cable, such as applying a screen and outer sheaths, degassing is necessary, which can take up to ten days. Normally, the line is built as a CCV or VCV line (Catenary Continuous Vulcanization or Vertical Continuous Vulcanization). Although the technology has been in use for decades, it is expensive to build and maintain.

Influence of Chemical Reaction, Heat Source and Thermal radiation on MHD Blood flow through a Porous Medium with an Inclined Magnetic field in Treatments of Cardiovascular Diseases []

This article considers the application of chemical reactions, heat sources, and thermal radiation on MHD blood flow through a porous horizontal channels with an inclined magnetic fields in treatments of cardiovascular disease. The governing non-linear partial differential equations, were converted into an ordinary differential equations using a non-dimensional variable, and analytically solved with the aid of appropriate boundary conditions. The findings revealed that, various parameters affected the blood flow profile, temperature and concentration of blood flow, and the results were discussed and presented graphically. Also, the results revealed that increased thermal radiation has a mixing effect on blood flow, increasing magnetic field and chemical reaction parameters reduces blood flow profiles, but increasing heat sources significantly increases blood flow and blood temperature levels.

The Impact of Robots on Industry []

dear Journal Robots are growing and impacting the way society, economy and the world are organized. Area the lowest income, usually rural regions, are more vulnerable to the progress of automation. the permanent loss of jobs will be softened by new jobs that will be created and demand new skills from people. automation is likely to increase economic growth and boost productivity but it will also increase inequality among the globe and drastically change it.

Characterization of natural zeolite from Al-Gedaref state in Sudan []

In this study samples of one type of natural zeolite were selected and determined the characters samples were collected from Al-Gedaref state eastern part of Sudan the structure of the samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction XRD showed to be natrolite associated with mesolite and scanning electron microscopy SEM the chemical and physical properties as well as were determined by IR, TGA and X-ray fluorescence XRF. The results obtained reveal natural zeolite are of very high quality compare to many other natural zeolite the results shows in tables and figures below the good properties of natural zeolite.


Abstrak (Abstract) Ang pag-aaral na ito ay nakapokus sa mga larawan ng ligaya at lungkot sa mga pamilyang Pinoy (Filipino) sa pamamaraang panunuring pampanitikan. Mayroong sampung piling akda ni Liwayway A. Arceo ang binigyang-diin ng pagsusuri. Sinuri ang mga lutang na tema, estilo, tauhan, paningin, banghay, pati na rin ang paglalarawan ng pamagat, bilang batayan ng mananaliksik upang mauuunawaan ang estilo ng maunulat. Natuklasan ang mga lutang na tema sa mga piling akda ni Liwayway A. Arceo ay ang iresponsable at lasengong ama, martir na asawa, pabayang ina at wasak na pamilya, anak na suwail, pangingibang bansa ng magulang na naging sanhi ng pagkawasak ng pamilya. Natuklasan din ang estilo ng may-akda sa pagtalakay ng mga sumusunod: pamagat na kombensyunal ngunit iilan din ay di-kombensyunal kung saan gumamit ng isang malalim na pakahulugan o simbolismo ang may-akda upang mas maging masining ang paglalarawan nito; mga bilugang tauhan dahil sa pagbabago ng kanilang paniniwala, emosyon, at pananaw lalong-lalo na sa wakas ng kwento; kadalasan gumamit ng paninging “third person omniscient” kung saan ang nagsasalaysay ay may malawak na kaalaman sa mga nadarama, naiiisip at mga kilos ng mga pangunahing tauhan, at, banghay na may pagbabalik-gunita (flashback), at bitin na pagtatapos (A-T); at higit sa lahat, tinalakay ng may-akda ang moralistikong pagdulog sa mga piling kwento upang maihambing sa nangyayari sa kasalukuyang Lipunan. Ipinakita rin ang kaligayahan at kapighatian ng may akda sa pamamamgitan ng magulang na nagsusumikap magbanat ng buto para sa mga anak, di bale nang naghihikahos basta’t magkasama sa iisang bubong ang buong mag-anak, ang pananatili kahit sinasaktan ng asawa mabuo lang ang pamilyang naging kaligayahan.

Exploring Challenges Faced by Orphans in Primary Schools in Ludewa District: a Case of Ludewa Ward []

Background: The growing number of deaths of parents has created groups of children deprived of parents and parental care because of breakdown of the social safety net, community-based care, and support arrangements. Consequently, orphaned children are faced with many challenges which affect school performance. Methods: Descriptive qualitative study design was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Participants selected included Street Leaders and heads of households in Ludewa Ward, Ludewa District, Njombe Region. Data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analysed using Grounded Theory approach. Results: Five themes emerged including self-directed reading time at home, school attendance, school requirement, grief, and social support systems. Heavy domestic chores after school affected school attendance and performance; and grief coupled with poor social support systems enhanced psychosocial challenges contributing to poor school attendance and performance. Conclusion: Concerted effort is required to involve parents, guardians, religious organisations, and other spheres of influence to advance collaboration across government in order to achieve a world without orphans and vulnerable children.

Soot: It’s Effect on Property Value in Abuloma, Port Harcout, Rivers State, Nigeria []

Abstract The study examined the effects of soot (environmental degradation) on property value in Abuloma, Port Harcourt City Local Government Area of Rivers State. Four objectives and four research questions guided the study. The study is quantitative and the researcher adopted a survey research method. The targeted study population was 130 respondents which constitutes practicing real estate firms in Port Harcourt, community landlords in charge of sales of land and tenants in the study area. The study adopted the snowball sampling techniques in arriving at 130 respondents for the sample size in essence, the researcher made use of the entire population; this is because the population size is small and manageable. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used for study. Mean rating will be used to answer the research questions posed in chapter one. Based on the findings, the study concluded that factors such as residential property values are reduced by increased proximity to hazardous waste sites, property prices differed depending on property location from the source of pollution are seen as major factors that has an effect on Property Value in Abuloma Area of Rivers State. Hence, the study recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria should provide regulatory bodies in charge pollution control such as soot to eradicate cases of low property acquirements in cases affected by soot, properties should be enacted in areas far from environmental pollution which increases the number of tenancy populace and in turn promotes property developments.

The Effect of Green Marketing and Brand Image toward Purchase Decision for Starbucks Coffee Consumers in Balikpapan City []

Abstract The aim of research is to study about the effect green marketing and brand image toward purchase decision for Starbucks Coffee in Balikpapan City and to know which more dominant between green marketing or brand image toward purchase decision. The informants were Starbucks Coffee consumers in Starbucks Coffee Balikpapan Plaza, E-Walks and Pentacity Mall with 210 repondents by saturated sampling. The study was a quantitative and qualitative descriptives, so the main instruments of data collection were observation, questioner, in-depth interview and documentation. The data were using analyzed by SPSS 25.0. The results are green marketing not influence purchase decision, but brand image has positive and significance influence purchase decision. Green marketing and brand image influence purchasing decisions simultaneously where brand image is the most dominant factor to influence purchasing decision. Keywords : Green marketing, brand image, Starbucks Coffee, purchase decision, dominant factor


This Project-Based Research & Development (PBRD) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) - based Pick and Place Industrial Pneumatic Trainer is a miniature model of industrial equipment which mimics and prototypes the actual operations in an industrial setting. Creating, designing, developing, and evaluating the function of the pick and place robotic powered pneumatics PLC, in a linear formation of the actuator. Thus, the systematic & theoretical analysis on the PBRD was tested and the infinite cycle cannot sustain due to the insufficient power source needed to capacitate the voltage. And, the overall results were 4.75 which indicates the very high acceptability of the PBRD however, in operating the system individual regulator on solenoid valves was needed so that the voltage on the power supply won’t dropdown. So that, the continuous environmental stimulus will always be sensitive to the needed environment reactor that imitates its sensitivity. Keywords: Robotic PLC, Auto-Electro-Pneumatic Trainer

Effects of Cassava Juice on the Corrosion Rate of Mild Steel. []

The current global increase in the utilization of cassava root and its products has necessitated a huge demand for cassava processing machines. However, the juice of these roots has a corrosive effect on the components of these machines making them vulnerable to damage. This work studied the effects of cassava root juice on the corrosion rate of mild steel which is commonly used for the fabrication of these cassava processing machines. Mild steel sheet purchased in Ilorin was cut into 90mm long and 20mm wide coupons. The samples were then separately immersed in the juice of a sweet Tropical Manihot Esculenta (TME) 7 (A) and bitter Tropical Manihot Esculenta (TME) 419 (B) varieties of cassava for 30 days (daily group) and 14 weeks (weekly group) respectively. In the daily group, two sets of thirty coupons each of the test samples were immersed in juice A and B and a coupon of the sample was removed daily until the last day. In the weekly group, another two sets of fourteen coupons of the sample were immersed in A and B, with a coupon removed weekly while juice A and B were changed weekly. The total weight loss of each coupon was used to determine corrosion rate while micrographs of their surfaces were taken and analyzed using a Frac347e measurement software. A tensile test of each coupon was also carried out before and after immersion using a Testometric M500-100AT. Mild steel had average corrosion rates of 6.03 mm/y in A and 6.32 mm/y in B for the daily group. In the weekly group, it had an average of 1.54mm/y in A and 1.59mm/y in B. In the daily group, the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel reduced from an average of 251.22 N/mm2 to 166.04 N/mm2 in juice A and from 258.26 N/mm2 to 189.60 N/mm2 in juice B; This study showed that mild steel had higher corrosion rates in the juice of bitter Tropical Manihot Esculenta 419 (B) than in the juice of sweet Tropical Manihot Esculenta 7 (A) varieties of cassava.


The concept of blockages in a non-bonded flexible pipe during oil and gas mining operations have over the years shown to be a persistent problem, and the need for a standardized remediation approach is paramount. This paper studied the behaviour of a non-bonded flexible pipes with methane hydrate blockage under the influence of various loading conditions. Non-linear tri-dimensional finite element models were used based on two (2) scenarios; blocked and unblocked conditions. The models recreate a seven (7)-layer flexible pipe with two tensile armour layers, an external polymeric sheath, high strength tape, orthotropic equivalent carcass, and pressure armour layers with an internal polymetric sheath. Several studies were conducted to verify the influence of key parameters on the instability phenomenon when the flexible pipe is under hydrate blockage. The internal pressure and compressive loads were considered as amongst the parameters, in which their variation causes a significant change in the stability response of the pipe layers. This includes a detailed description of the finite element model and a case study where the non-bonded flexible pipe is blocked by methane hydrate. The procedure of this analysis is here described, along with the results. For in-depth knowledge of hydrate formation and its consequences in flexible pipes, this work used ABAQUS, a standard finite element (FE), in modelling, simulating, and investigating a hydrate blocked and unblocked non-bonded flexible pipe under the influence of internal pressure. The specimen is divided into two Samples, A and B, respectively, under the influence of various load conditions but focus on internal pressure in this present paper. FE model was adopted to investigate the effects of hydrate on the layers as were not detailed in America Petroleum Institute codes [1]. This was carried out under various conditions such as pipe with and without blockage at various pressure, forces (longitudinal and compressive) values, different hydrate lengths, coefficients of friction and stiffness constants. However, this paper presents only the effect of internal pressure while other subsequent papers present the effects of other load conditions. The studies carried out were to determine the non-bonded flexible pipes responses under certain load conditions. This determines the deformation, stress concentration on individual layers, making sure the results are within the recommended API standards, hoop, axial and radial stresses, reactive force, and contact pressure between the layers. A simplified model was employed and a finer mesh to resolve the issue with the FE model. And progress the effect of the hydrate on the pipe layers. Importantly, this present work considered and investigated a 7-layers 6” diameter non-bonded flexible pipe as a case study. The results were obtained from the investigations, analyzed, and presented accordingly. Obtained results showed a significant influence of methane hydrate on Sample A, while Sample B behaves normally under various load conditions.

Information Technology and Service Delivery, Government Hospital, Kenema []

hospitals began investing in health IT during the 1960s. Information technology was first used to support billing and financial services. Subsequently, the role of IT grew to manage pharmacy, laboratory, and radiology service lines. This research aimed to assess the use of Information Technology and service delivery at a Government hospital, Kenema, concerning Government Hospital, Kenema. The study also determines the extent to which information and communication technology practices are implemented in Government Hospital, Kenema, determine the type of information and communication technology used for service delivery in the Government Hospital, Kenema, determine the benefits of using IT in their service delivery at Government Hospital, Kenema, determine the challenges faced in implementing information and communication technology in the Government Hospital, Kenema, and to examine the relationship between information technology and service delivery in Government Hospital, Kenema. The study relied mostly on primary data sources and data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions. The researcher selected 50 staff from Kenema Government Hospital that represented the entire population of the departments. The analysis was done using an in-depth interview, questionnaire, and Analyzed by using SPSS were presented in charts.


The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a unique, specialized chemical synapse that plays a crucial role in transmitting and amplifying information from spinal motor neurons to skeletal muscles. NMJ complexity ensures closely intertwined interactions between numerous synaptic vesicles, signaling molecules, ion channels, motor neurons, glia, and muscle fibers, making it difficult to dissect the underlying mechanisms and factors affecting neuro-degeneration and muscle loss. Muscle fiber or motor neuron cell death followed by rapid axonal degeneration due to injury or disease has a debilitating effect on movement and behavior, which adversely affects the quality of life. It thus becomes imperative to study the synapse and intercellular signaling processes that regulate plasticity at the NMJ and elucidate mechanisms and pathways at the cellular level. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the site of communication between motor nerve axons and skeletal muscle fibres, it is composed of four specialized cell types; Motor neurons, schwann cells, muscle fibre and the recently discovered kranocyte, the functions of the NMJ is to transmit signals from the motor neuron to the skeletal muscle fibre quickly and readily to ensure precise control of skeletal muscle contraction and therefore voluntary movement. The ability of the transmission is aided by specialized architecture (multiple active zone junctional folds) that promotes high level of transmitter released, large and reliable postsynaptic responses to transmitter binding and rapid termination of signaling event. The site where the terminus of a motor neuron (axon) meets with skeletal muscle firbre is quite complex. The motor neuron is a myelinated one, each of the branch produced by the nerve fibre is in close proximity with the muscle fibre membrane and each of the branches of the motor neuron invaginated in the muscle fibre but however, lie totally outside the skeletal muscle fibre membrane (sarcolemma).The motor nerve (axon) contain many sac-like structure known as mitochondria, suspended also in the intracellular fluid of the axon terminus are many tiny dots/sacs referred to as vesicles in which are stored the synthesized acetylcholine (ACh) molecules. These dots are better known as synaptic vesicles several hundred are usually within each branch of the nerve terminus. The vesicles contains membrane protein called synapto-brevin which when fuses with the axon membrane protein synthaxin brings about exocytotic release of its (ACh) contents into the synaptic cleft and the binding of the released neurotransmitter to its receptors brings about muscle contraction. Keywords: neuromuscular junction, apoptosis, end-plate potential, acetylcholine, neurotransmitters.


This study aimed to determine if the sociodemographic profile, knowledge, and attitude of residents in Barangay Matina Crossing, Davao City, were predictors of mitigation practices against COVID-19. The research design was descriptive correlational research. The respondents who participated in the study were identified using stratified random sampling. Further, a purposive sampling technique was used to obtain seven respondents per stratum. The Mean and Standard Deviation were used to get the average rate and spread of scores within the given data. Furthermore, Multiple Regression Analysis was used to evaluate if the sociodemographic profile, knowledge, and attitude were predictors of mitigation practices. Results showed that the mean knowledge score was very high. Also, results showed that the mean attitude score was high. Likewise, the mean mitigation practices score was very high. Moreover, the sociodemographic profile did not significantly influence the level of COVID-19 mitigation practices. Notably, the knowledge and attitude mean scores significantly influenced the COVID-19 mitigation practices of the respondents. The residents of Barangay Matina Crossing, Davao City have a good grasp of relevant knowledge, positive attitudes, and mitigation practices concerning protective behaviors on COVID-19.


Abstract The study's goal is to create and develop a speaking assessment tool that can be used objectively. The study includes 36 Senior High School students from X College who serve as the survey's respondents. Ten Master Teachers and three Experts in the field of English language check and validate the instrument. The students are graded using both the existing rubrics used at X College and the researchers' developed rubrics. It has a Cronbach's Alpha of .952. As a result, no item for the speaking evaluation has been eliminated. The Pearson's r of 0.898714852 with a P-value of 0.0001 is used to determine the internal consistency. The students' ratings are connected with the values in the established rubric. This indicates that the P-value is 0.0001 is classified as good shape, with a mean of 2.536 and a variance of .856. It denotes that the item's internal consistency is subject to variation. The factor analyzability of more discriminating index is the Kaise Meyer-Olkin of Sampling Adequacy of 0.938, which is quite substantial, according to Bartlett's test. The Pearson's r of 0.898714852 with a P-value of 0.0001 is used to determine the internal consistency. The students' ratings relate to the values in the established rubric. It denotes that the item's internal consistency is subject to variation. The factor analyzability of a more discriminating index is the Kaise Meyer-Olkin of Sampling Adequacy of 0.938, which is substantial, according to Bartlett's test. The result of the study makes the instrumentation valid and reliable.

Determination of Optimum Rate of Sulfur for Tef (Eragrostis tef/Zucc./Trotter) under Balanced Fertilization in Vertisol, East Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia []

Abstract: Tef is an annual grass indigenous to Ethiopia. Tef seeds are small in size, and weight of 1000 seeds is 0.3 to 0.4g. Currently, sulfur is emerging as limiting nutrient, especially in Vertisols. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine optimum rate of sulfur for tef under balanced fertilization. A field experiment was conducted on-farm for two consecutive years (2015-2016) in Vertisol at Ada’a Dstrict. The experimental was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications per treatment. The experiment had 8 treatments (six rates of sulfur each with fixed rate of N, P2O5, K2O, Zn, B, Control and recommended NP). Sulfur was applied at the rates of (0, 10,20,30,40, and 50) kg ha-1 and balanced fertilizer (N, P2O5, K2O, Zn, B) at the rate of 92, 69, 90, 2, and 1 kg ha-1, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that plant height (Plh) and grain yield (GY) were strongly significantly affected (P<0.0001) over control. However, number of tillers, above ground biomass (AGB) and straw yield (SY) were not significantly affected by sulfur rates application. The maximum and minimum tef grain yields were recorded at 30 kg S ha-1 and at negative control and the results were found being 1946 and 956 kg ha-1, respectively. The treatment receiving 30 and 0 kg S ha-1 had shown 103.6% and 58.5% over control. The maximum net benefit was recorded at treatment that receiving 30 kg S ha-1 following by 20 kg S ha-1 and the net benefits were found being 69466.6 and 68318.9 ETB ha-1. Treatments receiving 0, 30 kg S ha-1, recommended NP (60 kg N ha-1+10 kg P ha-1), and 20 kg S ha-1 had recorded 92, 164, 168 and 2372% marginal rate of returns (MRR), respectively. Therefore, Based on MRR application of 20 kg S ha-1 under balanced fertilization could be recommended for the study site and areas having similar agro-ecology to the study site.


Soil invertebrates studies was carried out in Mfamosing community, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, South-South of Nigeria to assess the impact of the industrial activity of United Cement Company of Nigeria (UNICEM) on the prevalence of land invertebrates. A total of 1,427 invertebrate classified into 4 phylum, 6 classes, 16 orders and 21 genera were obtained. Out of which black ant (Dorylus helvolus) was the most abundant recording a total of 655(45.90%). This was followed by Nematode 144(7.98%), Springtail (Dicyrtomina sp) 79(5.53%), earthworm (L.terresris) 75(5.25%), grasshopper 65(4.55%), mite 54(3.78%), mole cricket (Gryllotalpa sp.) 44(3.08%), termite (Macrotermes nigeriense) 43(3.01%), beetle (Colosoma sp.) and millipede (Polydesmus sp.) both were 42(2.94%) respectively. Snail (Helix sp.) was 28(1.96%), spider (Sceliphron sp.) 15(1.05%), centipede 14(0.98%). Millipede (Julus sp.) and butterfly (Papillio sp.) were both 9(0.63%), praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) 8(0.56%), aphid (Aphid sp.) 4(0.28%), yellow and black wasp (Vespula sp.) 3(0.21%), dragonfly (Brachymeria furcata), moth (Hedylidae sp.), leafhopper (Eurymela distincta) and slug (Vernicelloidea sp.) all had 2(0.14%). Margalef’s index calculated for Unicem was 2.88 and Aneheje with 2.9; also Shannon-Weiner index for Unicem was 0.92 and 0.87 for Aneheje. However, the closeness of these numbers was interesting and the fact that the indices are 0.05 away from each other’s disprove our expectation that they would be huge impact of cement production on land invertebrate in Mfamosing.

Credit Management Strategies and Organization Performance of Private Companies in Rwanda. A Case Study of Highsec []

Abstract: Credit is one of the numerous components that can be utilized by a firm to impact request for its products. Firms can as it were advantage from credit if the productivity produced from expanded deals surpasses the included costs of receivables. Many studies have been undertaken and have identified numerous problems as being associated with failure due to lack of effective credit management, such as lack of assessment, lack of staff participation in decision-making and many others. Little attention however has been paid to continuing training in credit management, which is the underlying factor to the achievement of any private institution. The general objective of the research is to assess the extent to which credit management contribute on organization performance of private companies in Rwanda based on the experience of High Sec. The study specifically focused on contribution of credit appraisal, credit risk control and lending policy contribute on organization performance of private companies in Rwanda. The research used questionnaire as research instrument to collect information from staff that are at the same time client of the above-mentioned organization. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population of study consisted of 57 employees of High Sec. The census method was used to select the sample size that were selected at random from 57 respondents who represented the population under study. The researcher administered questionnaires to the respondents in order to collect primary data. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study discovered that credit appraisal, credit risk management, and lending policy all had an impact on High Sec's organizational performance. The study discovered a strong relationship between High Sec organization performance and credit appraisal, credit risk control, and lending policy in Rwanda. The majority of respondents felt that credit evaluation is a realistic technique for credit management, as evidenced by a mean of 1.70 in the survey. Organization performance would be at 0.454 for credit appraisal while the most significant p value was .003. Therefore, an increase in credit appraisal, credit risk monitoring, and lending policy stimulate adequate organization performance by a factor of .883 standardized significances. The study found that credit appraisal, credit risk management, and lending policy all have a significant impact on High Sec's organizational performance. It was revealed that lending policy has a higher impact on organizational performance and that a strict policy is more effective in debt collection than one that is flexible. For efficient debt recovery, High Sec. could enhance their lending strategy by transitioning from a tight to a flexible one, according to the study

The Impact of Drought and its Socioeconomic Consequences: A Literature Review, in the Case of Ethiopia []

This document reviews the impact of drought and its socioeconomic consequences in Ethiopia. Livestock deaths and morbidity, human morbidity, food insecurity, reduction of livestock prices, and increase in food prices were among the socioeconomic impacts of drought experienced. Drought is a major cause of poverty in Ethiopia. It results in low stocking rate and livestock deaths, which leads to reduction of assets. Moreover, drought depletes water sources and reduces quantity and quality of forage for livestock. The impacts of drought are felt in large geographical scope than impacts that result from other natural hazards such as floods. Some researchers argue that wide spatial coverage and non-structural nature of impacts make it difficult for planners and decision makers to quantify impacts and provide disaster relief in the event of drought than for other natural hazards. Economic impacts of drought to pastorals are demonstrated by deteriorating livestock body conditions and massive livestock deaths, which lead to decline in livestock prices. It is therefore a fact that drought results in destruction and collapse of livelihoods, dependence on food aid and long-term destitution.

Effect of circadian rhythms disturbances in clock gene 3111T/C []

Venous blood samples were collected from 50 people (40 people with insomnia and 10 healthy people) to detect the association between lipid profile, hormone melatonin and clock protein with circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (clock) 3111T/C gene polymorphism, 50 people were divided in to males and females, and then each group was divided in to three group:_ the first group had the TT genotype, The second group had the TC genotype and the third group had the CC genotype detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the enzymatic method was used to measure the lipid profile and the ELISA technique was used to measure the hormone melatonin and the clock protein. The statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS program. The results indicated that cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL were elevated in the TC and CC genotypes compared to their decrease in the TT genotype. Whereas melatonin and clock protein were decreased in the TC and CC genotypes compared to its high in the TT genotype.

Perspectives of Managers on how Girl Re-entry Policy Should Be Managed –to Deter Re-Entered Girls from Falling Pregnant Again. A Case of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka District. []

The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of head teachers, guidance and counselling teachers and district guidance and counselling coordinators on how girl re-entry policy should be managed in secondary schools in Lusaka district. The girl’s re-entry policy was introduced with the view of helping a girl child who had been a victim of dropping from school due to pregnancy while the boy child continued with school which contributed to inequality on the attainment of education between boys and girls. The policy is in line with the world education framework “Education for All” and Zambia’s national document, “Educating our Future”. The study used phenomenological research design of qualitative research approach with a sample of thirty five (35) participants of which 17 were head teachers and 17 school guidance and counselling coordinators and a district guidance and counselling coordinator. The findings of the study on the views of managers on how the policy should be managed seemed to suggest that most of the respondents were not satisfied with the way the policy is managed. The managers seem to have suggested that they are of the view that the achievements of the policy surpasses the failures and that the policy came at the right time to help a girl child continue her education. The further study found that the policy document lack clear directions and that it does not stipulate the times that a girl can be re-entered. The study recommended that the government should evaluate the policy and addresses the loopholes found in the policy and that the government should ensure that copies of the policy document are distributed in schools. The study further recommended that policy should be interpreted in detail to the community as well as teachers and top implementers and also there should be an established link between health facilities and schools were they can termly do inspections on school girls. Finally there is need to promote training or workshops on guidance and counselling in schools.

Heavy metals analysis in foreign and local rice (Oryza Sativa) and its implications []

ABSTRACT The study of some metals in foreign and local rice (oryza sativa) were studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) . the metals analyzed and the results obtained include the following; For local rice ; Lead (Pb) = 0.42mg/kg, Iron (Fe) = 242mg/kg, cyanide = 27.26 mg/kg For foreign rice lead (Pb) – 0.47mg/kg, Iron (Fe) = 243mg/kg and cyanide = 120mg/kg respectively, the cyanide contents were also studied and the results obtained showed that the local rice CN = 27.26mg/kg and the foreign rice CN = 120.01(mg/kg. The result reveals that the concentration of lead (Pb) in both local and foreign price is high when compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standard which is 0.30mg/kg while that of cyanide and iron (27.26/242) and 66.85/33.02 for local and foreign rice respectively. These values are within yhe permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO). However, increase in the concentration of lead in both local and foreign rice can be as result of packaging, processing and other industrial activities associated in the production of rice. The health implications are minimal since the cyanide contents are within the limit. Keyword. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, cyanide, iron, oryza sativa etc