Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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One of the most important challenges in mobile wireless networks communications is unavailability of enough channel to accommodate incoming handover calls. Handover in 4G network occurs when a device moves from the cell coverage serving it towards another; a process where the user established session must not be interrupted due to this cell change. to provide full mobility with steady signal strength, together with minimum degradation of quality of service, this journal is based on improving handover probability in mobile 4G network by modulation of the cell to get more cell. with a steady signal quality .Handoff simply is the procedure of providing the connection to the backbone network while a mobile terminal or subscriber moves across the boundaries of coverage of the wireless points of connection without being disconnected due to poor signal strength. This research work was carried out on mobile telecommunication of Nigeria (MTN) within eight different base stations. In this research work, lots of measures was taking into consideration to remedy the situation. An extensive drive test was carried out which actually showed us some handoff issue or problems on the network. and an enhanced cognitive radio model was developed coupled with an algorithm which was used to enhanced signal quality. A compares was carried and we found out that a great improvement was achieved by using the enhanced cognitive radio network. to monitor the signal quality and cell utilization and expansion.


Online buying behavior during Covid-19 has seen drastic changes. Consumers due to various factors preferred Online purchasing rather than Offline shopping. In this study we have tried to understand the demographic characteristics and its association with the buying behavior of online consumers during Covid-19. We have also extended the study to understand if there is any relationship exists between demographic characteristics and Online purchase intention components and Covid-19 Pandemic factors. The data was collected from 583 Work from Home (WFH) IT Professionals using online Survey form. The study found that the demographic factors had a moderate association with the buying behavior. It is observed that, there was a positive relationship between the demographic characteristics and independent variables. Data analytic methods such as Correlation and Frequency distribution are used in this study. It is also observed from Frequency distribution that IT Professionals surveyed are more prone to still purchase in online through Amazon (49.4 percent) and Flipkart (28.6 percent) which have a combined share of 78 percent. It is also found that a high degree of correlation existed between the variables.

Agroforestry for Soil Fertility and Sustainable Agriculture in Sudan Case of Nabag Reserve Forest, South Kordofan, Sudan []

Climate change coupled by increasing population number, have aggravated the problem of different farming systems in Sudan. Soils have lost their fertility due to over-cultivation, overgrazing, and desertification. Added to that, civil war and continuous rural areas out migration in the study area, South Kordofan State, let to land over exploitation and conflicts over resources. Hence the sustainability of farming system is threatened and food security became an immediate issue for decision makers. Agroforestry is the available alternative in the study area as there is a reserve forest persists. Nabag reserve forest, 4000 ha was natural forest in which Acacia senegal trees dominate. There was an urgent need for forest rehabilitation. The introduction of agroforestry represented by Taungya practice would solve the problem of immigrants and landless war affected people at the same time forest rehabilitation would be achieved. The overall objective of this study was to assess the effect of adopting Taungya in improving soil fertility, increasing crop productivity and hence support food security and sustainable farming. According to tree density forest compartments were divided into three strata, low, medium and optimum. In each stratum random circular sample plots 0.001ha have been laid. A total of 21 sample plots were made. Tree performance, forage coverage and gum arabic production have been measured for two consecutive years. Structured questionnaire have been conducted for 50 households in villages surrounding the forest.. Study results revealed that there is significant increase in crop productivity under Taungya, tree performance was beyond the optimum and so the gum arabic. The comparison between crop productivity under the system and outside indicated, improvement in soil fertility and protection against wind erosion. The study concluded that agroforestry is a suitable method to improve degraded lands, improve soil fertility, increase crop productivity and hence food security as well as improving livelihood by diversifying and increasing income sources. Key words: Agroforestry, Taungya, Gum Arabic, South Kordofan, Nabag Reserve Forest

The Effect of Flood Control Management at Yangtze River Delta in The Past and Present []

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the evolution of China's tactics for dealing with overflowing rivers created by two of the country's largest rivers, the Yellow and Yangtze, from ancient to modern times, as well as the effect on recent days. China's mother river's statement is also entirely true; from 2350 to 2250 BC, the huge flood happened under the reign of Emperor Yao, the ancestor of the Han Dynasty, till the present day in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, in July 2021. The location of early civilization was adjacent to enormous rivers, which are prone to floods, and so safeguarding the river's catchment lands was farmed in a variety of ways. The first temptation was to build great dykes along the river to contain the river when it overflows; secondly, Emperor Shun divided the flood-prone area into 12 adminis-trative regions and developed them into a stable, harmonious, and well-governed society; and thirdly, the Emperor Shun divided the flood-prone area into 12 administrative regions and developed it into a stable, harmonious, and well-governed society. The Great Yu dredged the Yellow River and the other three major rivers, the Ji, the Huai, and the Yangtze; also, the Great Yu formed a new river corridor through the mountains, dredged it, and redirected it to the mother river. Then, in the modern era, the Chinese government implemented a flood control program that included the construction of 1800 kilometers of dykes, 46 river dams, and irrigation canals, as well as terracing and tree planting. By addressing soil erosion and silt problems through these water-conservation projects, the flooding problem was final-ly resolved. Especially on the south bank of the Yangtze River, which is the lowest stretch of major rivers, the flood problem has the poten-tial to have catastrophic consequences for civilization and the nation's economic and political well-being. Ecologically, Jiangxu, Jiaxing, and Zhejiang Provinces suffered the most severe consequences of the river overflow because these provinces are home to the largest water town in China Culture, remnants of the ancient social order, and the route of army conquest. Exploring the transformation of a flood-prone river valley into a heritage water town may not immediately prevent the harm caused by floods that have occurred virtually every-where in China, but the struggle to overcome it will serve as a lesson for other nations with similar geographical conditions.

Strategic Change and Firm Performance: A Theoretical Review []

The business environment has become very dynamic that even predicting the future of a business is becoming difficult. To be able to stand out of the rest means that firms must be able to serve their customers more effectively and efficiently than competitors. Change is important in every organization because it helps them compete with other organizations and lead them to company goals. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of strategic change on the performance of firms, with the objectives of looking at the comprehensive review of extant conceptual literature on strategic change and firms performance, comprehensive review of relevant theoretical literature underpinning the constructs and the corresponding phenomenon, review of previous empirical work on the constructs, identify conceptual, theoretical and empirical gaps with implications for future research and finally propose a suitable theoretical framework based on the identified gaps for future research. The study was also based at a review of relevant literature and theories to establish a relationship between the concept of strategic change and firm performance. A review of published studies and theories was used to provide relevant information. Based on the review results, the main findings indicate that strategic change has an impact on the firm performance. Based on the findings, it shows that strategic change in firms is necessary. It is worth mentioning that the underlined aim of any change initiative is to enhance economic and shareholders’ value as well as maximizing profit. Because of this, managements of change and transition need to be taken as a core activity in achievement of firm’s survival and growth. To crown it all, strategic change is likely to improve on the performance of any firm as it will lead to better efficiency and effectiveness.


Adherence to medication is extremely important for the patient's wellbeing and the treatment's effectiveness. Failure to follow instructions could result in serious problems for the patient and the healthcare system. This study is about the factors affecting the antihypertensive medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic in selected barangays of T’boli, South Cotabato. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the adherence of hypertensive patients to their medication during this pandemic. The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional research design, and using the purposive sampling technique, respondents were selected to ensure a reasonably balanced presentation of the variables for the study. The respondents were limited to 306 hypertensive patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease. In collecting the respondents’ data, a survey questionnaire was provided to them by the Barangay Health Workers following minimum health standards. The data was analyzed using correlational analysis to identify the significant relationship between the factors. The results showed that educational attainment had a significant relationship to perception (r=0.989) with a significant level at 0.05. Moreover, habitual smoking with (r=0.980) and comorbidity with (r=0.979), significant levels of accessibility were also contributing factors to their adherence to medication. It is found that there is a connection between respondents' demographic profile, clinical conditions, and factors influencing medication adherence to anti-hypertensive medication. Thus, healthcare staff should promote and assess hypertensive patients' medication adherence by urging them to take their medicine as directed to enhance their health and avoid extra health-related burdens of this pandemic.

Analysis of psychoeducational difficulties for students who consume drugs living in Christian families: Case of the City of Bukavu/DRC []

This study is focuses on the analysis of psycho-educational difficulties on student who consume drugs living in Christian families in the city of Bukavu. Using an interview guide, clinical observation and questionnaire helped us in data collection and thematic of content analysis and Excel 2010 software were helped us to analyze our results. Following the verification of the question by the methodological approach adopted in this study, by the thematic analysis of content three themes were carried out in the analysis of our results from our interviews. By the first theme concerning the causes which pushing schoolchildren towards drug consumption, it has been identified that the psychosocial problem and the environmental influence are stimulants that lead schoolchildren towards the consumption of drugs. The second theme identified, which is the psychological problems encountered by student drug users, indicates that, in the affective aspect, it has been noticed in schoolchildren (sexual vagabondage, feeling of insecurity, feeling of ambivalence, feeling of sadness; crisis of anxiety. On the behavioral aspect, it was found in schoolchildren (behavior of isolation accompanied by the inferiority complex, behavior of aggressiveness). On the cognitive aspect, it has been observed among schoolchildren (lack of concentration, school failure, loss of academic interest, agitation in schools, school phobia).The third theme identified the attitudes and behaviors of educators towards students who using drogues, where it has been observed that teachers are indignant at the physical and verbal aggression of these drug-using by students, towards theirs colleagues and teachers. It turns out that in terms of youth participation in church activities on 11 young people interviewed, 8 young drug users agreed to participate in church activities while 3 declined to participate. With regard to the permission of drug consumption within the families 7 out of 11 of our interviewees agreed that to consume drugs is a permitted act in a Protestant Christian family.10 out of 11 of our interviewees opted for the use of drugs before entering in the church, while 9 out of 11 admitted that in the present day drug use among Christian young is taking place on a large scale. The churches are not involved in encouraging drug use in the arguments of 10 out of 11 and 6 out of 11 showed the extent given by Bukavu churches about the consequence relative of the drug’s use in daily life of population. At this point, 11 out of 11 agree that taking drugs helps them to pray suitably where 11 out of 11 young people admit that the use of drugs helps them to overcome the problems of daily life than the word of God preached in Bukavu churches. In addition, 82% of the subjects surveyed refer to the lack of psychotherapeutic assistance among troubled young people in local churches and 91% of young people are in need of the existence of psychotherapist pastor in Bukavu churches. In view of the foregoing, it is advisable to suggest the following: We wish to recommend the denominations of Protestant churches, to use within their communities the pastors-psychotherapist (PPT) from which they will play the role of a Christian Psychotherapist Assistant Pastor (CPAP); We recommend to Christian families sheltering schoolchildren drug-user to reassure the children with non-traumatic counseling and dialogues that can lead to drug abandonment; monitor the child's attitude and behaviors within the family, neighborhood group, church, and even track relationships with teachers to uncover unusual behaviors and attitudes of the children into school settings; interact with their children to understand or find their problems, and help them overcome them.

La télédétection de l’occupation de terre et difficultés d’accès aux investissements agricoles familiales dans le territoire de Kabare/RDC. []

This work is carried out in the territory of Kabare, this territory is constituted by 14 groups, in the 14 groups have investigated certain groups of this same territory and the application of the remote sensing is carried out in all the medium of study. The objective of this work is to analyze the factors determining the spatial-temporal variation of the agricultural areas in the territory of Kabare of 2005, 2010 and 2015 by approach of the remote sensing. As results of remote sensing, it has been observed that there is still a decrease in the agricultural areas in the territory of Kabare, whose agricultural area in 2005 is 25%, in 2010 is 19% in that of 2015 is 17%. In 15 years there has been a decrease in agricultural area of 8%. There has also been a decrease in primary forest, an increase in secondary forest and an increase in bare soil. What dismayed the difficulty related to family financial agricultural financing, the globalization and the economic liberalization which is essential in the countries of the South, touch today largely the agricultural sector and raises the problematic of the financing of agriculture with acuteness news. Family farmers need to intensify, modernize, and finance technical, organizational, and other innovations. Most often, their own self-financing capacity is not enough to finance this modernization. This study focuses on analyzing the problem of access to finance in the Kanbare territory. To this end, a research project was initiated from 2018 and was organized around the farmers of Kabare and their access to financial services. A survey of 108 households of farmers was conducted in September 2018. The results of the research revealed that the main sources of financing for farmers were informal, namely: equity, carers, local or international organizations. And the main guarantee provided was land ownership, so the constraints faced by farmers were mainly the remoteness or scarcity of financial institutions and even the lack of collateral. Moreover, the analyze showed that the reasons for the farmers' request for financing were mainly for reasons of working capital (input, salary, packaging) and for investment reasons (equipment and materials, animals for breeding). . In conclusion, the current funding offered by financial institutions or usurers does not favor the development of the agricultural sector and the improvement of the living conditions of the populations of the kabare territory. It is therefore necessary to rethink the financing of agricultural activities and to define a sustainable and sustainable financing mechanism.


The district of Rusizi is an overcrowded land than other districts of the western province of Rwanda. Consequently, the over-occupation of the soil had a negative effect on the physical environment. Because overpopulation has the main pollution, entropic activities are equal to climatic variability in that area of Rwanda. The Kh2 test (S: significant and Ns: not significant) was used for the responses of our respondents cause of reliability. For veracity of our questionnaire results, remote sensing was used to validate the results of our respondents. Excel, R software version 2.15.1, Arc software GIS10.3 and XLSTAT software was helped us in the processing and analysis of our data. Our satellite imagery for the period of 2005 to 2015 on land use in the district of Rusizi, we found that the area allocated to the residential land increased by 10%, the decrease of that of the bare soil (13 %) And secondary forests (4%). The individuals surveyed reported a highly significant seasonal variability (p-value = 1.59e-07) of the Khi2 test in the Ruzizi district. With regard of this condition, it is necessary to introduce a mechanism and a policy supporting sustainable management of the environment and climate stability

Comparative study between male and female student’s performance in senior secondary School the case of G.S Bunyenga in Nyasheke District-Rwanda []

This study was designed to diagnose the comparative study between male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school at G.S-Bunyenga. The study centered its review of related literature on comparative study between male and female students’ performance in senior secondary. In this research we were used Microsoft word and Excel for data entry and Analysis. The researcher used simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that the number of male were almost highest that of female students in age of 12-15 and number of female students appears high than male students on age of 15-18. This is because Rwandan parents who live in village decide early to send male children at school than female students and this cause lateness to female students to pass the class early on the same age as male students. In term of performance between female and male students, our result demonstrates that in 2014 0’Level examination, male students presented score of (6.2%) of performance than female students, while in 2015 0’Level examination the same male students were presented the score of (10.3%) of performance than female students who were participate in that exam. In 2016 0’Level examination it was observed that the rate of (19%) of male students as high performance rate than female students who were participated in that 0’Level examinational. In class room working from S1 to S3 since 2016 to 2018 male students were been well performed in their class room working as show us the general mean rate of three years where the score is (1.9%) of male performance than female students studying in S1 to S3. As our result exhibited the difference rate of performance between female and male students, it was finding that, male students are well performed than female students of G.S Bunyenaga from S1 until S3. Based on the finding of the study, suggestion was offered with aim to guide the G.S-Bunyenga teachers, Rwandan government and local population on how to improve the female and male students’ performance at G.S-Bunyenga and others schools of Nyabitekeri sector in Nyamasheke Dist

An overview of wheat productivity, import value and consumption in Ethiopia []

Wheat is one of the major cereal crops in the Ethiopian highlands it grown on 1.8 million ha with an estimated 4.5 million farming household’s dependent on the crop and serves as both a food crop and an important source of income for Ethiopian small-holders. Given the importance of this crop, it is important to examine the production volumes, productivity and consumption trends. Secondary data from the Central statistical Authority, FAOSTAT and USDA were used for the study. The result shows wheat productivity increase from 2.4 tones (t) to about 3 tones (t) between 2014 and 2021.


Serous tumors are the most frequent epithelial smokers, and can be responsible for complications such as adnexal torsion, but most often remain asymptomatic for a long time.This work, based on a case observed in our department and a review of the literature, aims to discuss certains manifestations of Serous tumors and diagnostics assessment .We report an observation of a giant serous cystadenoma of the twisted ovary in a 53-year-old woman presented with acute pelvic pain and vomiting. An abdominopelvic ultrasound was performed showed a large multi-multilocular mass measuring 30 cm long axis. CT scan was performed confirm the presence of a large abdominopelvic mass of 28 * 30 * 32 cm thick-walled multicloisonne cystic, contact seat of the right tube with a rolled up appearance. The CT appearance strongly suggestive of a torsion of the right appendix on a giant ovarian mass .Faced with this clinical picture, a laparotomy by mid-umbilical approach was performed . The right appendix was ordered two tight turns with the presence of a large solido-cystic giant ovarian mass of blackish appearance making about 40 cm long, thick-walled reaching up to the right costal edge and weighing 4.5 kilograms .The decision was a ablation of the mass with right adnexectomy .Tumor markers requested after surgery returned negative.The histological study had concluded with a giant serous cystadenoma ordered of the right ovary.Serous cystadenomas are the most frequent epithelial tumors in the patient; usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during pelvic ultrasound, pelvic MRI is systematically performed except in emergencies to confirm the diagnosis. A gynecological examination every 6 months or every year for any woman over 35 years of age is recommended in order not to overlook asymptomatic cases.

Effect of Remittance Inflows on Economic Growth: Evidence from Ghana []

The main objective of the study is to investigate how remittance inflows affect economic growth in Ghana. The study uses time series data for 41 years (1979-2019) to analyze the trend of remittance inflows and examine the effect of remittance inflows on economic growth in Ghana. The researchers adopt an explanatory research design to analyze quantitative data obtained from secondary sources. Granger-causality, co-integration tests and the OLS regression model are employed in the study to ascertain the effect of remittance inflows on economic growth. The study establishes that Ghana’s economy does not directly (significantly) benefit from remittance inflows.

Project Resource Management and Performance of Construction Project in Rwanda []

Project Resource management is one of the most important ingredients for competitiveness and profitability in today’s construction industry. In order to control costs, equipment and labor should be utilized in the most efficient way possible. This study focused on the effect of project resource management on performance of construction companies in Rwanda with a case study of the Bakat Co Ltd with its project of Nyamata Hostel construction between 2017 and 2019. The specific objectives were to examine the effect of project team incentives, Financial resource planning and material planning on performance of Bakat Co Ltd Nyamata hostel construction Project.

Practice and challenges of integrated marketing communications: in the case of Ethiopian Airlines []

ABSTRACT Today, integrated marketing communications is becoming a necessary condition for the existence of an organization. Many organizations in the world make out its great value, which is why they have been practicing their marketing communication purposes. The purpose of this research is to explore the IMC practice and challenges in Ethiopian Airlines. Mixed research methods were adopted to achieve the stated objectives of the study. Questionnaires, in-depth interview, document analysis and observation were used as the main data collection tools. Purposive sampling was used for in-depth interview and questionnaires respondents. The results of this study show that employees have a positive attitude towards the implementation of Ethiopian Airlines integrated marketing communications; they agree that IMC has many benefits in terms of saving resources, establishing a working relationship relaxed and building integrity with various stakeholders. On the other hand according to marketing communication instruments utilization the research finding shows, Ethiopian Airlines uses these marketing communication instruments depending on the company’s communication contexts like time and other related issues. Some marketing communication tools are used frequently, while others are also used occasionally. According to the research results, digital marketing is the most widespread and used marketing communication tool by Ethiopian Airlines. Customers are in high demand for the use of social media, they are actively using it and have achieved an amazing development in the use of Ethiopian Airlines. Regarding obstacles to the practice of IMC, bluntly mentioned lack of a marketing communication plan and delivery cycle, the existence of technical terminology, and the lack of technical training. Finally, the study suggested that all integrated marketing communication activities should be carried out on the basis of a comprehensive plan and to improve structural defects. In addition, the customer's marketing communication activities need to be evaluated frequently. Moreover, the researcher suggest more research on the effectiveness of marketing communication tools and integrated marketing communication for employee Should be conducted.

Improved GraphQl Model Query Processing of Distributed Databases []

There are numerous means to access multiple databases in a distributed environment. The relational query language SQL usually acts as a language to access data. The performance of a relational databases drops as the datasets increase. Problems arise in relational databases when it is required to create multiple relationships between data saved in computer storage. The large datasets involves multiples tables and multiple joins and querying such database becomes a complex operation. Graph databases on the other hand are better in managing datasets that contain many links. Application programming interfaces (API’s) simplifies the job of the web developers when developing applications for they enable interaction of softwares among themselves. This research work is based on designing a GraphQL Model to query a graph database. Querying graph database with GraphQl improves query result. GraphQL presents a profound transformation in how API providers enable access to their data, and can bring a lot of useful advantage to organizations. Keywords: GraphQl, REST, Relational Database, Graph Database, Query Processing, Application Programme Interface

Perception and Barriers of COVID-19 Vaccination Among Mothers in Lake Sebu,South Cotabato []

ABSTRACT Background: For about one (1) year of facing the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines all over the world are now gradually rolled out. The challenge in implementation of vaccination program is to increase the uptake of vaccines and restoring the public’s confidence in vaccines. Objective: To determine the perception of individuals regarding COVID-19 vaccination and what are the barriers needed to be addressed. Method: A quantitative research design was used and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato on March 15 – April 16, 2021. The participants will include mothers ages 18 years old and above. Random sampling method was used in selecting the respondents. Results: The findings revealed that most of the respondents have a negative perception on COVID-19 vaccination regardless of their demographics. Perceived barriers to vaccination mostly include concern for safety and efficacy, rapid development, and reliability of studies about COVID-19 vaccines. To address these, findings showed that sufficient data on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines must be provided. Conclusion: Thus, healthcare workers should raise awareness of the necessity, safety, and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccination, Barriers of Vaccination, Perception on Vaccination, Mothers, Lake Sebu, South Cotabato

Influence of Project Planning Process on Performance of Food Sustainable Initiative Project in Rwanda []

The concern of this study was to explore the influence of project planning process on performance of food sustainable initiative project in Rwanda. The specific objectives of the study included determining how schedule influences performance of food sustainable initiative project in Rwanda, to examine the influence of project execution on performance of food sustainable initiative project in Rwanda and to assess the influence of budget on performance of food sustainable initiative project in Rwanda. This study is paramount to different stakeholders including the researcher, future researchers, and sustainable food initiative project, other projects and the government of Rwanda. The study adopted descriptive research design using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The population involved in this study was 6 technical staff from the FSIP and 80 beneficiaries that were taken as target population. To sample respondents, stratified random and non-probability sampling techniques were used, with a sample size of 86 respondents. To acquire primary data, structured questionnaires and interview procedures were used. Using IBM SPSS version 20, descriptive and inferential analysis such as frequencies, percentages, and correlation were employed to provide quantitative data in the form of tables. Results from findings indicated that there was an agreement on how schedule influences performance of the project as 45% of respondents strongly agreed and 38% agreed that the schedule change affects the project to reach its completion with a mean 3.9767 and standard deviation of 0.34220. Besides, the results also revealed that the project execution influences the Performance of the project where 81% of the respondents agreed and 9% strongly agreed with a mean of 3.4884 and standard deviation of 0.68159. Further, the study also indicated that the project budget influences the Performance of the project as 84% of the respondents agreed with a mean of 4.0000 and standard deviation of 3.7573. Besides, the study found that there is insignificant negative correlation of r=-0.681 and p value=0.000 between variables statistically correlated given the p value is <0.005. Finally, the study recommended that to ensure effective Planning of all project activities, emphasis should be put on Work Break Structure in order to develop a project schedule, as it defines all the work that needs to be completed to achieve the goals and objectives of the project.

Firm structure and Business performance among Nigerian quoted firms []

The abstract is also contained in the research paper attached.


This study used longitudinal research design, with GIS analysis and remotely sensed data, to assess the encroachment of buildings on the medium voltage overhead powerline right-of-way in Yenagoa. The Global Positioning System was used to acquire the coordinate of each pole holding the medium voltage (11kv and 33kv) powerlines. These coordinates were imported into ArcGIS environment and this aided the production of the medium voltage overhead powerline map of the study area. This map shows the route of lining of the powerline as it runs across the study area. The ArcGIS software was used to create 11m buffer on the powerline (which is the stipulated setback by the Nigerian Electricity Supply and Installation Standard Regulation, 2015), and 4% of the buildings in the study area was captured as encroaching on the powerline right-of-way. The empirical analysis showed that 69% of the respondents are married with household size of 3-4 (37%). Also, 56% of the respondents are indigenes who are mostly secondary school graduates (50%) and hence ignorant of the possible powerline hazards. About 81% are traders and artisans, whose average monthly income is less than 30,000. Furthermore, 73% of these buildings are rooming/face-to-face and 47% are used for commercial purposes. Also, 91% of these buildings are made of concrete while 49% are worth more than one million naira. About 61% of the property owners built on the powerline rights-of-way because they wanted to make more money in other to improve their living standards. Based on these findings, this paper recommended demolition of the encroached buildings while relocating the inhabitants and sensitizing them on the hazards associated with powerlines. It also suggested passing rights-of-way into law and ensuring its compliance. This paper has showcased the usefulness of GIS in developmental planning, monitoring and regulation.


This study investigated ergogenic and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extracts of Sphenocentrum jollyanum on wistar rats. A total of 40 wistar rats were used in the study the rats were allocated on the basis of weight to eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each and administered extracts as follows: group 1 served as control while groups 2-8 were administered as follows: group 2-500g/kgbw, group 3-1000g/kgbw, group 4-1500g/kgbw, group 5-2000g/kgbw, group 6-2500g/kgbw, group 7-3000g/kgbw and group 8-3500g/kgbw. The rats were housed in cages according to groups with facilities for food and water given ad libitum. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were determined by kinetic method, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined using Randox kits, total protein (TP), serum albumin and total bilirubin were determined by standard methods. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in both muscle and serum LDH concentration in some of the treated groups when compared with the control but however, there was no significant (p<0.05) difference in both muscle and serum CK levels. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in ALT activity between the experimental groups and control; ALP and AST also showed no significant (p<0.05) difference when the treated groups was compared to the control. However, the levels of TP, ALB and TBIL of some of the treated groups shows significant (p<0.05) reduction when compared to the control group. S. jollyanum has been shown to be a very potent herbal ergogenic aid and also exhibited significant hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats as acclaimed by folklore medicine.


Hazard assessment of selected engineering projects in the Niger Delta region of Nigerian was carried out in this work. The approach adopted in this research was both descriptive and analytical survey design. The study attempts to estimate the hazard levels / consequence levels of various hazard factors which are often associated with selected engineering projects in construction, oil and gas companies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The instruments for data collection employed involve the administration of questionnaires, interviews and observations. Engineering departments in engineering organizations in Rivers, Bayelsa and Delta States constitute bulk of the area of survey. Total of Sixty (60) practitioners in engineering projects with varied years of experience in the industry were selected to respond to questionnaires. Descriptive data analysis technique was used as an approach to explain the results obtained. From total of sixty questionnaires (60) sent out to engineering practitioners forty-two (42) were returned at the time of this analysis. The investigation shows hazard assessment in engineering projects as a complex and difficult process. The study identified that hazard varies from one organization to the other. Out of six hazard factors identified, economic and financial hazards, technical hazards and commercial hazards were the most potent with hazard levels of (87.25%), (85.50%) and (78.75%) respectively. The study revealed that hazard assessment should be viewed as an ongoing process, which needs continual monitoring, planning and modification as the needs evolve.

Perception and Attitude on Antibiotic Use during COVID-19 Pandemic in Koronadal City, South Cotabato []

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on health systems, and there is fear that widespread irrational and inappropriate use could lead to antimicrobial resistance spreading. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude and perception of the participants about antibiotic use during COVID-19. A descriptive, cross-sectional quantitative research design through an online Google form survey was used to conduct this study and the data gathered was analyzed using the IBM SPSS 25, inferential statistics to to assess differences between groups based on certain demographic variables as well as, to determine the levels of perception and attitude of the respondents and one-way ANOVA to check if the means of two or more groups are significantly different from each other. Results of the statistical analysis revealed that there there is an existing significant difference (p<0.05) in the level of perception and attitudes among respondents in taking antibiotics in terms of the amount spent purchased per month of respondents (p value= 0.014). This signifies that there are respondents who may fully take the medication as prescribed due to monetary issues and economic status. On the other hand, there is no significant difference in the level of perception and attitudes among the respondents in taking antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of age bracket (p value= 0.077), gender (p value= 0.441), and health conditions (p value= 0.331). This study provides an understanding on the perception and attitude of the participants in Koronadal City, South Cotabato toward antibiotics use during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings reveal that there are misconceptions about antibiotics even with a high level of perception and attitude. It shows that majority of the respondents do not practice what they know and that respondents failed to effectively assess which condition must merit the use of antibiotics and thus pharmacists and physician’s advice must strengthen patient understanding of antibiotics to ensure that patients are taking the correct antibiotic at the right time and dosage.

GGE Biplot Analysis of Genotype by Environment Interaction and Yield Stability Analysis of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica l.) Diallel Genotypes in South Western Ethiopia []

Coffee is the major source of income earner or a significant cash crop for both producing and consuming-countries. In order to increase production and productivity of coffee, identification of adaptable, stable and high yielding genotypes under different environmental conditions prior to release as a variety is the first steps in plant breeding. Half diallel crosses among limmu coffee (Coffea arabica L.) comprising 17 including genotypes conducted for the objectives to determine the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) and identify the stable genotype among diallel coffee genotypes by using GGE biplot analysis. The genotypes were evaluated for bean yield across three environments for two years (2016/17-2017/18) using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among environments, G × E interaction effects and genotypes for all the bean yield. The environment and GEI were found to be the most significant causes of yield accounted 69.4% and 10.5% of overall variation, respectively. The GGE biplot analyses identified promising genotype C45 (L55/01 x L45/01) which possess both highest average bean yield and stability across the environments as compared to other genotypes. Therefore, this genotypes should be used in breeding programs new hybrid variety development after further testing its repeatability.


Le présent article se focalise plus sur l’« Apport des Institutions de Breton Woods sur la politique économique en RDC : « Analyse rudimentaire juridique ». Cette étude se dégage d’une part sur l’ensemble de l’Afrique mais d’autre part et d’une façon spécifique en RDC qui est bien le lieu de cogitation de tous maux de l’instabilité économique où les accords qui sont conclus entre parties demeurent inopérants ; Les scandaleux apports desdites institutions ne sont que des récents symptômes. Il suffit de faire appel à ses souvenirs afin de constater que depuis 1960, la RDC vogue de crise économique pour arriver à la débâcle présente. Il appert que les institutions de breton Woodspar leurs œuvres philanthropiques autrement caritatives viennent en rescousse des pays en voie de développement afin que lesdits pays en quête de décollage un jour soient en même susceptibles de voler sans aucun appui.Tels sont les objectifs de ces institutions avec une vocation purement unilatérale ; Il ressort que les assignations qu’ont prises ces dernières ne sont plus dans son ossature d’antan mais plutôt transformées à une pratique littéralement connue sous « l’opération retour » laquelle pratique oblige le pays bénéficiaire d’un don de ces institutions à la restitution de la moitié dudit donet avec un esprit démesuré comme quoi il faille officieusement donné un lopin important des terres pour extraire si pas les minerais mais exploiter la forêt. C’est cette pratique qui ne cesse d’augmenter le taux de paupérisation des pays africains et de la RDC par ricochet bien qu’elle a un bon nombre des richesses surtout gigantesques mais, confronter par le principe connu de tous « la suprématie des mains qui donnent sur celles qui reçoivent » impossible de renier à ce type de don qui biaise son caractère juridique qui n’est qu’un acte de bienfaisance et unilatéral qui n’attend que le consentement du bénéficiaire. Les substantifs clés dans cet article seraient : Politiques et économiques