Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Nowadays, companies are starting to realize the importance of data availability in large amounts in order to make the right decisions and support their strategies. With the development of new technologies, the Internet and social networks, the production of digital data is constantly growing. The term "Big Data" refers to the heterogeneous mass of digital data produced by companies and individuals whose characteristics (large volume, different forms, speed of processing) require specific and increasingly sophisticated computer storage and analysis tools. This article intends to define the concept of Big Data, its concepts, challenges and applications, as well as the importance of Big Data Analytics by securing it with UTF base 64 algorithm in a large Business Enterprise. Mongo DB

Nutritional status of pregnant women and lactating mothers of Jhalari Pipaladi Municipality of Kanchanpur district of Nepal []

Background: Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of maternal and infant mortality, as well as low birth weight newborns (<2,500 grams) — a measure that accounts for preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus. In particular, malnutrition among women is likely to have a major impact on their own health as well as their children’s health. More than 3.5 million women and children under age five in developing countries die each year due to the underlying cause of under nutrition Objectives: The overall objectives of the study were to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women and lactating mothers Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Jhalari Pipaladi Municipality of Kanchanpur district. Wards were selected randomly and data were collected through snow ball sampling process. The total 227respondents were selected by convenience sampling. Nutritional status was measured through the MUAC tape and BMI. The association with the nutritional status and fluid intake, nutritional status and daily food intake pattern, health care visitors and nutritional status and smoking habits and nutritional status which were calculated through the Chi-Square test with the significant level of 0.05. Result: According to the BMI 33.9 % of pregnant women were normal, 47.1 percentages were under nutrition, 13.2 percentages were at risk and 5.7 percentages were overweight. According to the MUAC 35.2 percentages were normal, 27.8 percentages were at risk, 7.9 percentages were obese and 29.1 percentages were under nutrition. Thus it is seen that there is a great risk of malnutrition among the pregnant women and lactating mothers of Jhalari Pipaladi Municipality of Kanchanpur. As per as the finding 0.9 percentages respondent have poor level of knowledge, 29 percent of the respondent have good level of knowledge and 70.1 percentages have very good level of knowledge Conclusion: There seems to be need of regular monitoring of the nutritional status of the pregnant women and lactating mothers of the Jhalari Pipaladi Municipality. The identification of nutritional status and related factors allows interventions directed to the real needs of pregnant women and lactating mothers, aimed at healthy and quality of life for all. Key Words: Obesity, under nutrition, pregnant women, lactating mothers, Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) , Body Mass Index (BMI)

Nutritional Status of Under Five children and Associated factors in Shuklaphanta Municipality of KAnchanpur districts of Farwest Nepal []

Introduction: Nutrition can be defined as the substances that comprises of essential elements needed for the proper growth, functioning and development of the body.The term children refer to the human being below five years or below sixty months. Nutritional status of the children refers to the condition of the nutrition in the children. The low nutritional status in the human body leads to the malnutrition. Aims of the study: The main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of under five children in Shuklaphnata Municipality in Kanchanpur district of Far west Nepal. Methodology: Cross sectional descriptive study was applied for the present research study.The study setting was in Shuklaphanta Municipality of Kanchanpur district of Far-west Nepal. The study population was under five children and their respective mothers in the study areas. The confidence level was taken 95% and 5% of error and the sample size was 222. The sampling technique that was used in my study was random systematic sampling.The total duration of the study was four months i.e from August to November.Structured questionnaire along with MUAC tape, weighing machine and inch tape was used as a tools.The data were entered in to MS excel 2007 and those data are transferred in to SPSS 16 and analysis was done on SPSS 16 and WHO Anthro Plus software. Result: Regarding the age majority of mothers’ age was between 20 to 31 years. Most of the children were between ages 30 to 40 months. Regarding the level of knowledge 50 % were having average of nutritional knowledge, 45 percentage were having good level of knowledge and 5 percentages were having very good knowledge level. Occupation of the Parents, Having own land for cultivation, Daily food consumption patterns of the child, visiting health center regularly for immunization and regular check up were the factors that were significant associated with the nutritional status. Regarding to the MNA 74.32 percentages were normal, 14.86 percentages were having MUAC between 11.5 to 12.5 which is MAM(Moderate Acute Malnutrition) condition similarly, 10.81 percentages were less than or equal to 11.5 which is SAM(Severe Acute Malnutrition) condition. Similarly in the BMI 10.81 percentages were normal, 82.88 were under weight 0.9 percentages were overweight 2.7 percentages were class II obesity and 2.7 were having class III obesity. Key Words: Under five children, Malnutrition, Nutrition, MUAC, BMI

Quality Control of Defective Rotary Shouldered Connections Using Statistical Quality Control: A Case Study []

This work was aimed at carrying out quality control on defective rotary shouldered connections using statistical quality control at a manufacturing company in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. In order to achieve the aim, the fractional defective of the manufactured product was ascertained, the point of maximum defect using p chart was ascertained as well as the various causes of the defects using fishbone diagram. The results of the P chart showed that the fractional defective was 0.39508, 0.30363, and 0.26877 for years 2018, 2019, and 2020 respectively. The causes of the defects included use of inherently bad materials, incorrect stock dimension, work piece vibration, and poor operator skill. It was recommended that materials should be inspected on arrival to identify signs of deterioration using liquid penetrant test and non-destructive test, carry out in-process inspection to ensure that the process is under control at every machining stage, use correct tools, feed and speeds, and to strictly follow product drawings and machining processes sheet for quality assurance.

Review of Alternative Energy Production Methods by Oxidation of Electrolysed Hydrogen in a Hydrogen Fuel Cell []

Hydrogen fuel could be utilized in a hydrogen fuel cell, and could be produced sustainably from the electrolysis of water in an electrolyzer. The various types of electrolyzers: alkaline electrolyzers, PEM electrolyzers, and solid oxide electrolyzers, have been studied in this paper. This paper focuses on the reviews of several studies that have been carried out on the use of alkaline electrolyzers and PEM electrolyzers, and the utilization of the hydrogen product in hydrogen fuel cells. Studies show the use of alkaline electrolyzers to be cost effective, of less gas purity, and offer long-term stability against PEM electrolyzers which are more expensive, of high gas purity, and offer near-term stability. Acid solutions used as electrolytes in PEM electrolyzers show high ionic conductivity and are free from carbonate formation, as compared to alkaline electrolytes. However, the acid requires the use of noble metals as electrocatalysts for OER. Furthermore, KOH is used in alkaline water electrolyzers because of its high ionic conductivity over NaOH. It was concluded that adopting a zero-gap cell configuration for the electrolyzer cell electrodes increased operating current density, while decreasing parasitic ohmic resistance.


In this paper, we present a new operator integral transform called double Laplace-Aboodh transform, some valuable properties for the transform are current. Furthermore, we use this transform for solving some linear partial differential equations


Abstract Posttraumatic stress disorder is a condition marked by the development of symptoms after exposure to traumatic life events. Following the conflict in Ethiosomali region in Ethiopia peoples are internally displaced and have been subject to mental illness. Objective – To assess the prevalence and factors associated with Post traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced people in Adama town. Method- Community based cross sectional study was employed in Adama town of four camps where internally displaced peoples are settled. The duration of study was from May 2021 to June 2021. Result - Study conducted on peoples who are displaced from Ethiosomali region and settled in Adama town a total of 623 individuals are interviewed for 96.65% respondent rates. As of among the total respondent 339[54.4%] are male and 284 [45.6%] are females. Age 19 -30 was 346 [55.5%] which are highly respondents. From the total of 623 of the respondent 475 [76.2%] them are married, 76 [12.2%] single, 36 [5.8%] Separated or divorced and additional 36 [5.8%] are widowed. Regarding educational level of the respondent 190 [30.5%] are illiterate, 325 [52.5%] grade 1-8, 88[14.1%] are 9-12 grade and only 15 [2.2%] of them are above TVET level. Concerning their daily income 469 [75.3%] of them are below 1000 Ethio birr, 129 [20.7%] are earn 1000 -3000 birr per month and only 25 [4.0%] of them earn >3000 birr per month. Conclusion -This study identified significantly higher Post traumatic stress disorder prevalence among internally displaced peoples, when compared with general population in the same town, three years after the Ethino region civil conflict. Mental health programs that are well coordinated should respond to the high prevalence of Post traumatic stress disorder in the study communities. Key words –Associated factors, internally displaced people, Post traumatic stress disorder and Prevalence

Design and Fabrication of NCAM Developed Multi-Crop Dryer []

NCAM developed multi-crop dryer is an electrical powered cross ventilated cabinet dryer it is a viable technology that is capable of drying any form of farm produces or foods. It allow the drying to take place at a desired or required temperature and airflow rate, the foods or farm produces is dried in hygienic way without losing the nutrient as well retain the original color, It’s a single phase machine which makes it suitable for industrial, domestic, office and for research activities. The construction material was locally sourced and the fabrication was carried out at NCAM fabrication workshop, the components parts are readily available in the market these makes the NCAM developed multi-crop dryer has a conical shape and also allow selection of desired temperature and airflow rate.

Determination of the level of assertive behaviour of undergraduate nursing students in University of Port Harcourt. []

Assertiveness is a communication style, which is considered an important behaviour for today’s professional nurse and the key to successful relationship with clients, families and colleagues and for the profession itself. The aim of the study is to determine the level of assertive behaviour of undergraduate nursing students in the University of Port Harcourt. The study was a cross sectional descriptive surrey design with an adapted structured questionnaire which contained two sections. Assertiveness schedule instrument using a four point Likert scale of strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. The population of study comprised 2nd - 5th level students at the Department of Nursing, University of Port Harcourt, who agreed to complete the questionnaire. Assertiveness level increased with the 5lh and 4th levels of study being more assertive than the lower levels of study. All statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social Science (SPSS).


Agriculture remains the only means of ensuring food sufficiency in any country. To ensure food sufficiency in Nigeria efforts must be made to improve the sector. And the only way to achieve this is to encourage commercial farming through mechanization. Agricultural mechanization is the best way to combat hunger and poverty in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. This paper examines the causes of food insecurity in Nigeria, importance of agricultural mechanization, problems of agricultural mechanization and Solution to problems of agricultural mechanization in Nigeria.

Analysis of the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility Programs on Increasing the Income of assisted SMEs Indonesian []

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is expected to benefit the company and also provide an increase in the income of the assisted SMEs. Expanding on the income growth literature of PT “X” assisted SMEs, we conceptualize the involvement of SME owners in CSR programs organized by PT “X” as a form of “SME income growth”. Companies as organizers who are involved in CSR and various forms of growth efforts to increase SME income (for example, providing credit, providing training and seminars). In Study 1 (N = 104 SMEs), we focused on 4 CSR program activities covering credit distribution, education level, marketing outreach and training. In total, our study results show that CSR programs affect the income growth of SMEs. We conclude with a guide for future research with a gender focus on SME owners. Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), fostered SMEs, and SME owners

Analysis of the repositioning of libraries in the University of Sierra Leone in support of eLearning []

The University of Sierra Leone (USL) which comprises Fourah Bay College (FBC), College of Medicine & Allied Health Sciences (COMAHS) and Institute of Public Administration & Management (IPAM) is systematically responding to the need for higher education. Its academic centre, the library, is also repositioning itself to respond to the eLearning environment. There is an evident relationship between eLearning and the library system in the University of Sierra Leone to guarantee that the Institution achieves its mission and vision.


This paper examined personal income tax administration and political officeholders’ income through a proactive and integrated approach with a view to establish adequacy of equity principles of taxation in revenue generation providence acceptable to social protection and efficacy of tax laws in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, a systemic perspective through collection of secondary data were employed. The collected data were analyzed through the use of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) – a statistical analysis tool which showed a P -value of (0.000 < 0.005) level of significance on the inadequacy of tax revenue from income of political office holders’ compared with the magnitude of their earnings. There is a sharp departure from the principle of equity in taxing political class and substantial part of their incomes are classified as undefined as (92%) of the respondents expressed dissatisfaction on the tax yields from political officeholders compared to other taxpayer’s income in the economy. Based on this, the study concludes that the equity principle of personal income tax were not adequately applied on political officeholders’ income as it applies in other tax laws, hence, the study recommends adequate reforms of PITA to facilitate a fair assessment in line with the principles of equity as a prima facie in taxation and revenue generation in developing economy. Key Words: Taxation, Tax Revenue, Political Officeholders, Equity principle, Tax Reforms.

Participatory Evaluation and Demonstration of Alternative, Fixed and Conventional Furrow Irrigation on Onion Yield and Water Use Efficiency at Mirab Badawacho Woreda []

Water saving irrigation technologies are key for crop production in arid and semi-arid lands considering the scarcity of water in these regions. Deficit irrigation is thought to be one of the promising strategies to increase water use efficiency (WUE) under scarce water resources. The experiment was conducted at Mirab Badawacho Woreda, Hawora Kebele, Goche Irrigation Scheme of SNNPR of Ethiopia. A study was carried out to investigate and demonstrate the effect of Alternate furrow irrigation (AFI), Fixed furrow irrigation (FFI) and Conventional irrigation (CFI) on yield of onion and water use efficiency. To achieve this three treatments(AFI, FFI and CFI) were laid in randomized complete block design(RCBD) with five replications. Yield and yield component data were collected and analyzed using SAS software in probability of 5% confidence level. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the treatments on plant height, bulb diameter, bulb weight, and yield of onion, but alternative and fixed furrow irrigation save 50% of irrigation water as compared to conventional furrow irrigation. The minimum water use efficiency is obtained under conventional furrow irrigation and a significant difference over alternative and fixed furrow irrigation. Therefore, For Onion, irrigation with Alternative and Fixed furrow irrigation were recommended as it gives yield very near to that under full irrigation, provides good saving water application time, energy, irrigation water and improves crop water productivity.

Advertising - on Pitch Strategies []

Our advertising in the last couple of decades has made much progress in terms of technical excellence, copy and graphics. However, progress in the area of relating to the consumer is slow. There is a definite trend, both in audio-visual and print ads, to use appeals that are compatible with Indian culture.Advertising goals include information on such areas as sales, margins, or profits. Also include information on expected market share or share improvement, current and proposed market penetration. Artificial intelligence will add a totally new dimension to advertising and its planning. There will be major career opportunities for talented people in the electronic media. There will be a number of challenges unique to the coming generation and with these challenges, there will be opportunities, responsibilities and rewards that advertisers of the past could not have imagined. These objectives clearly stated the measurable end result of an advertising message or message. Usually, the objective is measured in terms of a change in awareness, preferences, convictions or other communication effects.

Environmental management and sustainable fishing activities in Rivers State, Nigeria []

Fishery production is significant to Nigerian economy in view of its roles in providing cheap source of food protein, nutrition security, income, employment and a means of foreign exchange in riparian communities. The study examined the environmental management and sustainable fishing activities in Rivers State, Nigeria. Both primary and secondary data sources were utilized for the study. Multistage sampling method was employed, whereby 5 communities were selected from 5 randomly selected LGAs. Thereafter, convenient sampling was used to select 100 fishermen/women whereby 20 each were randomly selected from each LGA. Data were presented in Tables and percentages and analyzed using SPSS 24.0. Findings revealed that environmental management measures for fishing practices are uncommon among sampled fishermen/women as majority (87.0%) were only engaged in traditional management strategies. Laws that were supposed to ensure sustainable fishing activities have been ineffective overtime. Regulation/laws to enforce fish availability (68.0%); conserve marine environment (100.0%); provide balance between supply and demand (73.0%); reduce fish deaths (88.0%); regulate type of marine transport (100.0%); ensure fish methods management (88.0%); and ecosystem management (78.0%) were unpopular environmental management measures among fishermen/women in the study area. Lack of motivation (85.0%); low budgetary allocation (89.0%)poor waste management (72.0%); over-exploitation of fishes amongst others were some of the challenges identified limiting sustainable fishing activities in the study area. The study recommended sound environmental laws and practices geared toward ensuring adequate environmental management and promoting sustainable fishing activities among fishermen/women should be the focus of the government.


Back Ground: Despite a significant decline in the new HIV infections in the general population, the risk of new HIV infections among the risky groups such as sex workers, MSM, PWID, young people, adolescents and Boda-Boda riders has remained disproportionately very high globally. In sub Saharan Africa, these key populations accounted for more than 20% of new HIV infections, and HIV prevalence among these populations is often extremely high. Objective of the study: was to investigate factors influencing the uptake of selected HIV prevention methods among Boda-Boda riders in fort portal municipality Kabarole district Uganda. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was employed because the data was collected once at the point in time. An interviewer pretested administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 296 randomly selected boda-boda riders of Fort portal Municipality Kabarole district. Data was analyzed using STATA, version 12). The predictors of the each of three selected HIV prevention methods (condom use, HTC and Safe male circumcision) were presented separately. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of the uptake of HIV prevention methods. Both unadjusted and adjusted Odds ratios were presented. Results: About 119(40.20%) of the participants were in the age range of 26-35years. More than half 185(62.50%) of the respondents were not knowledgeable on HIV prevention. 248(83.78%) were HIV negative while only 22(7.43%) were HIV positive. More than half 192(64.86%) of them discovered were circumcised. Current HIV status of Boda-Boda riders (AOR = 93.79; 95% CI =25.02-351.57), was significantly associated with the uptake of HIV testing and counselling. Religion was strongly associated with the adequate uptake of male circumcision (AOR=0.15; 95%CI=0.055-0.418). Boda-Boda riders who were unmarried (single) (AOR=4.47; 95%CI=1.24-16.15) were 4.47times were like to have adequate uptake of male circumcision compared to the married and separated. Those who were aged >35years (AOR=0.34; 95%CI=0.142-0.803), had adequate uptake of condom use. 293(98.99%) of the boda riders noted that they were heterosexuals. 178(59.46%) of the respondents agreed that male circumcision increases sexual pleasure. Majority of them had negative attitude towards condom use. Conclusion: The motorcycle taxi drivers in this study only had high HIV/AIDS awareness level but lacked sufficient knowledge to curtail the spread of this killer disease. They had negative attitude towards condom use but had positive attitudes towards safe medical male circumcision and HIV testing. Long waiting time, services unavailability, lack of confidentiality and privacy, greatly inconvenienced the uptake of HIV prevention methods.

Audio-Video Learning Resources and The Students English Pronunciation Skills Quasi-Experimental Study []

Learning is a never-ending task. The same may be said for many learning approaches, strategies, and procedures. With the passage of time, educators have been attempting to devise methods for presenting courses in a way that is more easily absorbed by pupils and other individuals. In this current era, where technology pervades everyone's lives, new approaches have emerged and been developed that focus on learning not just in the old-fashioned or traditional ways, but also in innovative, functional, and engaging ways. The key to attaining this is comprehension. Our goal is to see if employing audio-visual tactics to help students learn to pronounce words makes a difference in their learning. The purpose of this study was to find out how well Grade 8 students at Calinog National Comprehensive High School A.Y. 2019-2020. The current study used a quasi-experimental design, which is a sort of evaluation that seeks to evaluate whether a program or intervention has the expected effect on participants using an experimental method. Quasi-experimental studies can take many forms, but they are best defined as investigations that lack critical elements of a true experiment. There is no strong evidence that traditional and audio-video approaches differ significantly. It also can't say whether one way is superior than the other. Otherwise, it's reasonable to conclude that both methods are statistically equivalent. This means that the English teacher's innovative teaching increases students' performance greatly when compared to the traditional and audio-visual methods of teaching vowel sounds to students. Despite the teacher's efforts to improve students' pronunciation drills, there is no convincing evidence to recommend the traditional method over the audio-visual method. Keywords: traditional teaching method, audio-visual materials, quasi-experimental study, pronunciation skill


ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to look into the morphological transformations that students use nowadays. These technological breakthroughs, particularly the Covid-19 pandemic, have shaped humanity. Through social media, language evolution has had a noticeable impact on how we think about or view the world around us. Human beings do not exist in the objective world alone or in the world of social interaction as is commonly assumed, but are very much at the mercy of the unique language that has become the medium of expression for their society, particularly those who are unable to socialize outside. Younger generations use a variety of morphological transformations. The study employs a qualitative method based on textual analysis and qualitative explanations based on commonly posted words found on any social media platform. Several words written by college students specializing in Criminology have been posted on social media platforms such as Facebook and Messenger as platform used by teachers. Clearly, the morphological pattern of words is gradually routing, owing to new, emerging words that are clearly adapted and exploited by language users. Morphological processes included non-concatenative, stress placement and tone, incorporation and suppletion and morphological transformations included blending eponym, acronym, mixed languages and reversion. It implies that the world of communication is impacted by the standardization of the English language. It is recommended that criminology students study their morphological transformations in order to communicate with millennials more quickly and effectively. Keywords: Criminology, Morphological Transformation, Social Media Posts


Les structures sanitaires de la ville d'Isiro doivent comprendre que la stratégie de la distribution gratuite dès moustiquaires imprégnées d'insecticides est la bonne pour la lutte contre le paludisme mais elle n'est pas efficace lorsqu'elle n'est pas accompagnée de la sensibilisation. le résultat de cette étude en est la preuve.


Signal fading and attenuation are key issues in optical transmission over long distances (usually >100km). For example, a transmission link with a length of more than 100 kilometres on a fibre optic cable will experience significant packet loss, detectable dropouts, and fluctuating attenuation. In essence, this will result in an unreliable and unusable transmission link. From the input, the optical signal passes through an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA). With a Wavelength Division Multiplexer, the 1550nm signal is coupled with a 980nm pump laser. The signal and pump laser passes through a length of Erbium-doped fibre, and the EDFA uses the erbium-doped fibre as an optical amplification medium. The interaction with the doping Erbium ions amplifies the 1550nm signal. The interactions enhance the signal intensity by amplifying the weak optical signal to a higher power. The signal booster described above can only send signals for a distance of 100 kilometres. This research looked into the issues of massive packet drop and loss, as well as attenuation on the transmission path. The optical transmission signal was improved above 100km using the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing approach with the help of the Raman pump. This method helps to reduce transmission losses and boost signal intensity from one location to another. The optical transmission efficiency and performance were measured using BER. (Bit error rate, Optical Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), Network Monitoring System (NMS) and, signal to noise ratio (SNR) tests to confirm the optical strength of the transmission link.

Integration of Law and Business in Light of Legal Institutions’ Economic Impact []

Abstract Purpose – To explore the law as its economic effects in the long run. Design/methodology/approach – This paper includes the integration of law and business in light of legal institutions’ economic impact using various scholarly documents following a desk based research method with the analysis of secondary data. Findings – It presents that the relevant legal institutional changes did not occur at a specific point in time. The introduction of specific legal institutions and their economic effects have been particularly challenging for the legal origins-narrative. To what extent law can be made responsible for the economic success of a company and its capacity to act. Research implications/limitations – The main limitation is that there may have the chance that some important research might have remained untraced even after the rigorous search of the literature. Besides, some time constraints are also included. Practical implications – The findings contribute to the knowledge of law and business both for the academicians and practitioners. Originality/value – This paper is very unique among the existing handful papers on this field that represents the cross-disciplinary approach. Keywords – Law and Business, Economic Effects, Legal System, Interdisciplinary Research, Cross-disciplinary Approach, Paper type – Analytical paper

Baboon-Human Conflict (BHC), an emerging crisis faced by the residents of Munyati Power Station in Zimbabwe. []

Munyati Power Station is a small area with a small community that offers residential area to 149 workers that make up the high density, medium and low density of the residential area. The station consists of about 150 households that are faced with a crisis of Baboon-Human Conflict where the safety of women and children is endangered. The Baboon-Human Conflcit aslo results in their crops, fields, infrastructure and livestock being destroyed. The area is surrounded by riverine area and dense vegetation marked by intermittent farmlands and is home to Baboons (Papio cynocephalus) which pose a threat to human livelihoods and endangers the safety and lives of young children and women. The data were obtained from the Human-Wildlife Conflict reports submitted to the Zimbabwe National Parks central region office that deals with Problem Animal Control (PAC). These reports on Human-Wildlife Conflict incidences were collected and collated on an ad libitum basis. The implications of Baboon-Human Conflict on food security and livelihoods of the Munyati Power Station residents were highlighted and Human-Wildlife Conflict mitigation Strategy was proposed and must be incorporated in the promulgation of mitigation strategies. It can be concluded that the Human-Wildlife Conflicct at Munyati Power Station presents a precarious situation which requires urgent attention and requisite policies promulgated and mitigation strategies employed to curb a potentially catastrophic situation. It is quite clear that a holistic approach in addressing this scenario is critical as both the animal and ecosystems need the appropriate management that will then ultimately bring a balance which will ensure that the lives and livelihoods of the humans are secured in conserving wildlife to bring a peaceful co-existence to the Munyati Power Station residents and wildlife.


The hydraulic ram pump is a tool used to raise water from a low place to a higher place using the water hammer principle. The hydraulic ram pump has several advantages, namely it does not require electrical energy or fuel, does not require lubrication, is relatively inexpensive to manufacture and maintain, and is easy to construct. In its application, the efficiency of the hydraulic ram pump still needs to be improved because more water is wasted than the air produced. Therefore, it is necessary to do research to design an effective and efficient hydraulic ram pump. In this study, experiments were carried out to test by varying the length of the input pipe and the diameter of the valve hole on the performance of the hydraulic ram pump. In this research the height of the sink (H) from the water source to the position of the pump holder is 2 meters while the output height (h) 5 meters. The size of a 1 ½-inch hydramm pump designed by the researcher. Diameter input pipe 1 ½ inch, and output ½ inch, while for air tube diameter 3 inch with height 60 cm. As for the length of the input pipe varies from 2 meters, 4 meters, 6 meters, and 8 meters. In this research also used variation of the diameter of the valve sewage hole, ie from ½ inch, ¾ inch, and 1 inch with a step step valve waste 1.5 centimeters. The results of the research showed the largest output discharge at the length of the input pipe 6 meters and 8 meters with the diameter of the 1-inch waste valve hole, while the output discharge was mined to the length of the 2 meter input pipe with the diameter of the ½ inch waste valve. The best efficiency is 57.3% on the length of the 8 meter input pipe with the diameter of the 1-inch waste valve hole, while for the worst efficiency of 17.27% on the length of the 2 meter input pipe with the diameter of the ½ inch waste valve.

School Environmental Factors and Students’ Academic Performance in Twelve Years Basic Education in Rwanda: A Case of Rwamagana District []

This study determined how the school environment influences students' academic success in 12YBE schools, mainly secondary level in Rwamagana District. Specifically, the study identified the environmental factors associated with students learning in twelve years basic education schools of Rwamagana district, assessed the students’ academic performance in twelve years basic education schools of Rwamagana district, and ascertained the relationship between school environment and students’ academic performance, which was carried out through descriptive study design. Statistical package for social sciences was used to determine levels of the school environment and students’ academic performance. Averages and percentages were also used to identify the classes of objects for measuring the impact of the school situation and facilities on school performance of students in Rwanda, Rwamagana District. From the present study, the way school environmental factors like school location, school facilities, school discipline and school community influencing academic performance of the secondary level of 12YBE Schools in Rwamagana district has been established. The correlation between school location, school facilities and academic performance has given that relationships were all positive and statistically significant; It is highly recommended that the district should ensure more quality delivered in schools through proper inspection and supervision of teachers’ methods of curriculum delivery and school administration as a key of school performance.

Distribution of ABO Blood Groups and Rhesus Factor in Fayoum City, Egypt []

Blood transfusion is a life-saving procedure, and deficiency of blood groups for transfusion in critically ill patients can be life threatening. This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors and recipients and their associated transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at Fayoum University Blood Bank and Hospital, Egypt. Thus, the demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that endangering patients lives due to lack of a particular blood group could be overcame. Also, screening of blood products is considered a mandatory protocol implemented in health care facilities in order to reduce the onset of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Subjects and methods: The study included blood grouping of total population of 16,972 donors and recipients attending Fayoum University Hospital Blood Bankduring a period of one year from December 2018 to December 2019. Analysis of ABO and Rh-D blood groups was performed by using column-gel agglutination technique for all samples. The blood samples were also screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody, human immunodeficiency viruses antibody (HIV), and for syphilis by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method; performed on ARCHITECT i1000SRImmunoassay System (AbbottTM, Abbott Park, Illinois, U.S.A.).Conclusion: This study provides the prevalence of ABO and Rh blood group among blood donors and recipients and also their associated transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at Fayoum University Blood Bank and Hospital, Egypt. The results showed that blood type (A) had the highest frequency of (37.91%), followed by blood type (O) with a rate of 27.43%. Blood type (B) with a percentage of (24.12%) and the lowest frequency is blood type (AB) with a percentage of (10.54%). Moreover, the frequency of Rh negative was significantly lower compared to that of Rh positive. Collectively, our findings revealed the fact that certain blood groups lack behind the actual needs of recipients. In acute settings and emergencies, this could jeopardize recipient s lives, if suitable blood is not available on time to suffice patient clinical needs, and to prevent disabilities or even death. The results also showed that the serological tests were positive in the donors and it was found that 5.39% of them were 1.37% positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 3.89% for hepatitis C virus, 0.02% were positive for HIV and 0.11% were positive for syphilis. KeywordsABO, Rh, Blood Group, TTI, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis

Effect of Female Education and Fertility on Economic Growth in Nigeria []

This study investigated the impact of female education and fertility on economic growth in Nigeria between 1990 and 2018. Other specific objectives were to analyze the trend of fertility, education and female population in Nigeria and to analyze the effect of fertility, female and population on economic growth in Nigeria. The Johenson co-integration methodology was used , the ARDL co-integration test and bound test were also used to test for long run relationship of variables. The result suggest that the determinants of growth used in this study, female population (FP), Female education (FE) and fertility (FE) have a significant relationship with the dependent variable economic growth (GDP). The unit root test carried out on variables showed that some variables were significant at levels and other at first difference, the bound test showed that variables have a long run relationship. The findings of this study showed that only female education (FE) showed a positive relationship with economic growth , while female population (FP) and female fertility (FR) showed a negative relationship with economic growth . The study therefore suggests that government needs to subsidize education, implement policies that makes education cheap in rural areas, massive investment in creating job opportunity and finally see to effective implementation of these policies.

ICP-MS determination of toxic heavy metals from Lotsane river and nearby boreholes in Botswana []

The study was performed on water samples along Lotsane river and nearby boreholes close to Palapye in the central district of Botswana which provide drinking water for some inhabitants. The concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to determine the quality of water from this area. The mean toxic heavy metal concentrations for water samples in mg/L from the various locations presented in descending order are Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Co > As. The ranges of these toxic heavy metals in mg/L were: Zn (0.036 to 5.271, averaging 0.871); Cu (0.031 to 1.362, averaging 0.451); Ni (0.001 to 0.212, averaging 0.056); Pb (0.001 to 0.083, averaging 0.029); Cr (0.000 to 0.025, averaging 0.006); Co (0.000 to 0.004, averaging 0.002); As (0.000 to 0.002, averaging of 0.001) respectively. The average As, Cr, Cu, Co and Ni drinking water concentrations were lower than the recommended international limits while Pb and Zn had higher values than the recommended international limits. The high concentrations of toxic heavy metals Pb and Zn might be attributed to elevated levels of acid mine drainage from the study [Winde et al., 2004]. This pilot study will provide drinking water quality awareness to residents in the area.

Détermination de la production ligneuse du cercle de Kolondiéba au Mali []

La présente étude traite la détermination de la production ligneuse du cercle de Kolondiéba. L’objectif du travail est d’améliorer les connaissances sur le potentiel ligneux du dit cercle. L’étude consiste à déterminer le potentiel ligneux en termes de volume de bois exprimé en m3 et de carbone séquestré exprimé en tonne. Ces valeurs ont été déterminées en fonction des paramètres du milieu d’étude tels que le type de formation végétale, la structure du sol et la zone bioclimatique. Au terme de cette étude, la superficie totale boisée du cercle en 2014 a été estimée à 793 498 hectares. La production ligneuse totale quant à elle est estimée à 43 794 568 m3 de bois sur pieds, ce qui équivaut à 11 824 533 tonnes de carbone séquestré, soit 43 360 562,51 tonnes de C02 en émission évitée. Dans le cercle, la savane boisée est la formation végétale la plus importante en termes de superficie boisée avec 536 080 hectares, de production ligneuse pour un volume de 33 024 992 m3 et de séquestration de carbone avec 8 916 748 tonnes. Toutes les potentialités ligneuses du cercle en termes de superficie boisée, de production de bois et de carbone séquestré se trouvent dans la zone bioclimatique guinéenne-nord.


The economic phenomenon of transformation: thinking beyond the drawback to societal change in Mindanao brings economic trauma and believes to be critical as it seems in the economy which will require the government to take an initiative in finding a tactical solution. A plan of action that makes the economic mobility that will lead to success despite facing different challenges in adjusting the new chapter of manpower dealings. As inflation pave the way in the economy that causes unending price disturbances, results in unfavorable economic flow that needs a thorough brainstorming aimed at achieving and reshaping the image of the macroeconomics perspective. The income inequalities are not an excuse for being experienced during the pace of economic transformation, hence, require an effective government intervention to prevent the increasing poverty level. The government focuses a lot on societal well-being and it is a must to employ some modifications that will supplement the capacity and security requirements. The economic transformation believe to alleviate lives, in the aspect of educating those low-income earners situated in far-flung areas requires tedious and tremendous efforts from the government reaching them by mobilizing the government hierarchy since they fear that the economic levels they are in today may come to worsen the situation due to different underlying factors. Common predicaments on the part of the business sector concerning income degradation suggest that to ensure employment continuity amidst this uncertain time, the government should find some remedial action in helping the huge number of displaced workers who experience income degradation to transform the economic landscape as we work towards recovery and stability. Helping in finding ways for business sectors in maintaining their operations is one way of reciprocating government and the economy by providing labor allocations that help in building and reshaping the economy back to its antagonistic stage.


Cutaneous leishmaniasis transmitted by sand fly is a public health concern. This study was carried out to determine the species composition of phlebotomine sand fly and knowledge, attitude, and practice towards sandfly and cutaneous leishmaniasis among respondents in Ikeduru L.G.A of Imo State Nigeria between March and September 2019. Structured questionnaires eliciting responses on the subject matter were self-administered to 183 selected heads of households. Standard procedure was used for the collection of sand fly which was morphologically identified, dissected, and assessed with a microscope for infection. Simple percentages and chi-square were used in the analysis of data. The result showed that 61.7h% and 55.7% of the respondents were able to identify sand fly and their breeding sites respectively, with 110(60.1%) persons mentioning the correct control measures. Seventy-three (40.0%) respondents were aware of the disease through different media outlets, but only 40% of them were able to criminate sandfly as its vector. Sixty three (34.4%) respondents wrongly stated that the disease could be transmitted person to person, however, 113(61.7%) persons agreed that it is curable. Several correct patient cure practices and precautionary measures were advocated. The result identified two species of Phlebotomus sand fly namely P. perniculosis and P. longicuspis with a relative abundance of 56.3% and 43.7% respectively. Female species were more predominant and the village sex-related profile of occurrence was not significantly different. This result could be harnessed to implement a sandfly control program and public health enlightenment on cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area. Keywords: Sandflies, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Environmental changes, Nigeria