Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Academic counseling is a collaborative relationship between a student and an academic advisor. The intent of this collaboration is to assist the student in developing meaningful educational goals that are consistent with personal interests, values and ability. This research applied certainty factor technique under rule-based expert systems in giving academic counseling of students. The system provided advice on student’s grade and performance, and predicted future grade. The agile system development methodology was adopted for the design of the system, and the system was implemented with Java programming language. MySQL was employed for the relational database management system to manage and store result data. The rules were defined in the knowledge base of the system, with which the system used to make inference. The system used the certainty factor to predict the academic progress of every student.


Evaluation of the paleogene litho-unit of the Ebenebe Sandstone in Ugwuoba and it environ was carried out within the Niger Delta basin with a view of deducing the depositional environment of the sediments based on lithofacies analysis and granulometry analysis. Field observations showed that lithofacies of the Ebenebe sandstone consists of fine-coarse grained sandstone, coarse-fine grained sandstone, mudstone and siltstone. Transport direction determined by the dominant large scale cross-beds indicated a north-westerly paleoflow transport direction. Six lithofacies typically of tidally-dominated shelf setting and tidal current processes characterized the Ebenebe Sandstone. The medium to coarse grained planar cross-bedded sandstone (Sxc), fine to coarse grained planar with herringbone cross-bed sandstone (Sxp), fine to medium grained cross-bedded sandstone (Sxc), fine grained planar bedded sandstone (Sxp), muddy heterolithic facies (Hm) and laminated mudstone (Mb). These lithofacies are deposits of subtidal channels and tidal point bars. The presence of Ophiomorpha isp and Skolithos isp burrows in the fine grained sandstone and laminated mudstone lithofacies are indicative of colonization by suspension feeders in the environment under low energy regime in the foreshore-shoreface shelf settings. The results of the grain size analysis showed that the mean grain size of the Ebenebe Sandstone is medium-coarse grained, moderately well sorted, coarsely skewed to near symmetrical, and the kurtosis values ranging from Platykurtic to leptokurtic. The result of Linear Discriminant Function showed that the Ebenebe Sandstone was derived from shallow marine environment.


In intelligent science, ontology is widely used as knowledge representation, and intelligent agent is used to make decision such as recommendation. Many existing microcredit model has been actively investigated for the past several years and Grameen model is used as a standard to offer unsecured small loans to the poor in Africa and beyond but the model has some limitation like control of groupings by individual which is centered on human behaviour factor, as such punishment meant for others are suffered by different people. Hence to solve these problems stated we develop an intelligent model for loan allocation and repayment using ontology algorithm. This research proposes a decision support system based on intelligent agents in Bank-2-People (B2P) Lending for borrowers. This model consist of three (3) major modules; BORROWERS, PLATFORM, and LENDER. For borrowers to access loan from the microfinance bank (Lender), he/she will register with the platform as an individual or cooperative where weekly monetary contributions are assessed for loan recommendation and disbursement. The intelligence system test conditions for loan approval using regular monetary contribution without skipping as a parameter for eligibility and recommendations. The system provides borrowers with individual risk assessment, eligibility for loan recommendation. KEYWORDS: Lender Platform, Borrowers Platform, Loan Approval and Loan Repayment


A computer, being an inanimate object could not be said to be intelligent, as it does not possess the mental ability to think. It does not have the power of learning and understanding or the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge. When intelligence is built into an inanimate object like, a computer, such intelligence is said to be Artificial and this artificial intelligent when combine with agent based model are good for determining what scenarios might occur. This paper threw more sight into loan allocation and repayment models that has been deployed to reviewed, loan problem and ways or strategies of loan repayment in some financial institution in Nigeria and across the globe. KEYWORDS: Loan Application, Loan Payment System, Allocation of Loan


Brute-force attacks are a prevalent phenomenon that is getting harder to successfully detect on a network level due to the increasing volume and encryption of network traffic and the growing ubiquity of high-speed networks. Although research in this field has advanced considerably, there still remain classes of attacks that are undetectable. Since no security measure can guarantee that an attacker will not succeed eventually, intrusion detection techniques should be applied to detect anomalous behavior early and minimize its impacts on network performance caused by the intruders. This research proposed an intrusion detection technique in which the node (server) uses a monitoring software application to monitor the traffic flow on the network and collects relevant statistics about it. By analyzing and comparing the traffic information, the administrator will be able to indicate if an attack is performed or not.


Nigeria's south east zone which is populated by the Igbo ethnic nationality or stock, is currently faced with a fundamental challenge: the manifestly debilitating absence of outstanding political leadership among the people. As a result, the people indulge in the fragmentation and dissolution of the Igbo agenda. The people are inclined to work at cross purposes and wander aimlessly in the wilderness of political choices. The consequence of poverty of leadership has been colossal in terms of cost to Igbo solidarity, interest aggregation and articulation. Consensus building and goal attainment within the Nigeria's political establishment. This paper is essentially focused on the travails of poor leadership among the current Igbo political elite class. A leader with an encompassing sense of mission and vision, a true man of the people with requisite charisma to inspire, mobilize and galvanize the people into worthy action needed in Igboland. In the same vein, this paper posits that lack of authentic leadership among the Igbo contributes to the political isolation of the zone at the national level. The research method adopted is the historical, qualitative process within the theoretical framework of transformational leadership. The study therefore recommends the emergence of a unifying Igbo political leader to serve as a rallying point for the people to restore the dignity of the zone and return the Igbo people to Nigeria's sociopolitical and economic mainstream.

Design and Construction of a Single Axis Solar Tracker []

Abstract The detection of the position of the sun and analysis of this control system was carried out on a single axis solar tracking system. The tracker consists of a photovoltaic panel and moves its surface approximately to the right angle to the sun to obtain maximum possible photon energy and convert it to electrical energy. One way to increase efficiency is by implementing a solar tracking system for solar panel in such a way that the rays from the sun fall perpendicularly on the solar panel and thus ensure it capture of maximum available solar energy. The tracker periodically followed the path of the sun throughout the daytime. This research employed the method of active tracking system where the position of the sun is continuously determined by the sensors during the day. The sensor triggers the motion of motor. Active tracking is accurate with the help of sensors. The maximum output PV voltage is 5.6v. Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Active solar tracker, and Efficiency.

Cartographie des Risques d’Inondations dans la Commune d’Abomey-Calavi []

Abstract — The last decades have been characterized by cyclical floods that threaten people and property. Like the big cities of Benin, the Commune of Abomey-Calavi suffers from floods due to extreme rains and sometimes overflows from Lake Nokoué. It is therefore necessary to map the risks of rainfall flooding for better flood management in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. The methodology adopted consisted of (i) a frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for different return periods T (2 years, 5 years, 10 years, 20 years and 30 years); (ii) a hydraulic study of the propagation of extreme rainfall using the HEC-RAS software; (iii) flood risk mapping using QGIS software. The results of the simulation show that the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi is a municipality at high potential risk of flooding. The maps obtained indicate a stagnation of rainwater threatening roads, buildings, and agricultural activities at the commune level, more specifically in the districts of Godomey, Abomey-Calavi, Togba and kpanrou. The extent of the flood zones varies according to the return period, i.e. 35.13% during a pluvial flood for T=2 years against 38.36% for a pluvial flood for T=10 years. The maps of the flood zones produced constitute real tools for delimiting the zones not recommended for urbanization on the one hand and on the other hand they will help to put in place a coherent policy for the construction and maintenance of sanitation networks and rainwater drainage. Keywords: Abomey-Calavi, mapping, HEC-RAS, flooding, risk, management.

Solving N-body problems using the Barnes Hut Algorithm []

An N-body problem is the problem of predicting individual motions of a group of objects interacting with each other through physical forces. The Barnes Hut Algorithm is an effective solution to approximate physical forces a system of objects has on a given point. This paper attempts to use the Barnes Hut Algorithm to solve two N-body problems – Estimation of Newtons’ Gravitational Force at a given point using a set of live tracked satellites in a three-dimensional environment and Estimation of Coulombs’ Electrical Force at a given point using a set of charged particles on a two-dimensional plane.

Farmer's Knowledge And Perception And How It Influences Conservation Agriculture (CA) Adoption In The Bawku Municipality. []

Farmer’s knowledge is critical in studying Conservation Agriculture (CA) practices as an alternative to conventional farming methods. The study was conducted with the main objective of exploring farmers' knowledge and perception about CA and how it influences CA adoption. The study used an interpretivism qualitative research philosophical approach and a case study design. The research methods used for data collection was interviews guides and field observations. The data analysis was using content analysis. The interviews were transcribed into text boxes and the content was analysed accordingly. The study was conducted in the Bawku Municipality of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that farmers' knowledge and source of it, Farmers' worldviews and cosmovision, farmers' perceptions about CA, crop residues retention and issues of spirituality influences CA adoption in the Bawku Municipality. The study concluded that indeed, Farmers' indigenous knowledge, perceptions and source of knowledge influence the adoption of CA in the Bawku Municipality. It recommends that Promoters, practitioners, researchers and other relevant bodies should make good use of relevant farmers' knowledge, perceptions and experiences in other to increase CA adoption in the study area. KEYWORDS: Conservation Agriculture, knowledge, perception, cosmovision, spirituality.

Some geometry properties of a class of Analytic function with Gegenbauer polynomial []

A class of analytic functions involving the Gegenbauer polynomial in the unit disk was introduced and investigated . Coefficient bounds for the function of the class S(alpha, x)(z) was obtained , furthermore, upper bounds of the second and third Toeplitz determinant belongs to the class S(alpha, x)(z) were established. Various known and new result are also derived.

Effect of nitrogen fertilizer timing on yield of hybrid upland ecosystems rice (Oryza sativa L.) in main rainy season at kamash Zone of western Ethiopia []

The most important nutrient for rice (Oryza sativa L) production is nitrogen. But it lost from soil in different process. Proper nitrogen (N) management of high yielding rice varieties is crucial for obtaining their potential yield benefit. .A randomized block design with three replications was used to assess the response of upland rice Varity (Nerica 4) to N application intervals. N was investigated at six different levels or points in time. The N timing were: Applying all recommended N rate at planting, applying 50% of the N at planting and the other 50% at mid tillering, applying 50% of the N at planting and the other 50% at panicle initiation, applying 25% of the N at planting and 75% at mid tillering, applying 75% of the N at planting and 25% at panicle initiation, applying 25% of the N at planting, 25% at mid tillering and 25% at panicle initiation. The study shows that applying 50% of N at planting and the other 50% at tillering is best N management practice for the area to maximize rice yield avoiding the excess use of N fertilizer.

Aphrodisiac potential of Calotropis procera Stem aqueous extract on some reproductive markers in male albino rats []

Abstract The trade in traditional aphrodisiacs on the street of Nigeria is at all-time high. Several types are on display or advertised by vendors. One of such is Calotropis procera. The aphrodisiac potential of Calotropis procera aqueous stem extract was investigated on some reproductive markers in matured sexually active male albino rats. Phytochemical screening was performed following standard protocols, the mineral composition determination was also carried out using standard method. A total of 50 albino rats of both sexes, (25 males and 25 females) were used for this study. The rats were grouped into five (5) with five (5) rats in each group for both sexes. The aphrodisiac potential was determined following the oral administration of graded doses (200, 300 and 400mg/kg) of aqueous extract of C. procera stem to the male groups for 30 days. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water served as positive and negative controls respectively. Sexual behavioral parameters (mounting, and intromission, frequencies as well as latencies were observed on day 1, 3 and 5. The serum follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Testosterone concentration were assayed for using standard methods at the end of the study. The penile nitric oxide (NO) concentration was also determined using standard method. The results of the phytochemical screening indicated that aqueous extract of C. procera stem contains; tannin, aponin, terpenoid, alkaloid, tannin, phenol glycoside, phenol and flavonoid at varying concentrations. Also, the result of the mineral determination show presence of difference minerals at varying concentrations. Sexual performance studies indicated significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase in the mounting and intromission frequencies as well as delayed ejaculation latency. The result of the reproductive markers showed significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO), FSH and LH concentrations. The overall elevated levels significant observed in the serum LH, FSH, Testosterone and penile NO concentrations by the aqueous extract administrated may be responsible for the aphrodisiac activity of the extract. These observations may validate the acclaimed local use of C. procera stem as aphrodisiac in males. Keywords: aphrodisiacs, sexual performance study, reproductive markers, hormones.


The study examined the Nigerian State and electoral violence, particularly the violence that emanated from the 2019 presidential election in Nigeria. Election is a key criterion for democracy and good governance to flourish in any democratic state. It allows the electorates the freedom to choose or elect candidates that will fill governmental positions in the state in a free, fair, credible and peaceful atmosphere. Unfortunately, post-colonial Nigeria has neither conducted a credible nor peaceful election. Nigerian elections have always been characterized by hate speeches, media war among contenders, politically motivated killings and assassinations, intimidations, victimizations, hijack of electoral materials, destruction of campaign billboards and property. The 2019 presidential election did not fare better as the above-mentioned issues manifested before, during and after the election. Between 16th November 2018 and 23rd February 2019 that the presidential election was conducted, a total of 361 lives were lost as a result of election-related violence. The study sought to understand why the Nigerian State has been unable to abate the issue of electoral violence after 20 years of uninterrupted democratic rule in Nigeria. Against this background, documentary sources of data collection and analysis was adopted. The study also adopted the Marxist Class analysis Theoretical Framework. The rationale for the adoption of this theory was that it helped to analyze the relationship between classes within the Nigerian state, and how that relationship impacts on the dynamics of the struggle to access the power of the state. The research found out that the Nigeria State has been failing to address the root causes of electoral violence, namely, poverty and unemployment. Therefore, it has failed in its primary responsibility of ensuring the security and welfare of its citizens as enshrined in section 14 sub-section 2(b) of the 1999 constitution of Nigeria. Then, the study recommended the need for the government to sincerely tackle poverty and unemployment through educational and economic empowerment programmes that would bring about socio-economic development.

Optimum pH and pH Stability of Polyphenol Oxidase Extracted from Tubers of Three Varieties of Ipomoea batatas (Sweet Potato) Commonly Cultivated in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. []

The effect of pH on the activity and stability of polyphenol oxidase extracted from tubers of three varieties of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) namely orange flesh, purple peel and brown peel was investigated. The enzyme was assayed by monitoring the increase in absorbance for 3 minutes. pH effect was determined with 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH range between 3.0–5.5) and 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH range between 6.0–9.0). Optimum pH values for orange flesh, purple peel and brown peel were found to be 7.0, 6.5 and 7.0 respectively. The enzymes extracted from orange flesh variety of Ipomoea batatas was stable at the pH range of 6.5-7.5, while purple peel and brown peel varieties were stable at the pH range of 6.0 -7.5. Any increase or decrease of pH from these ranges would cause decrease in the activity of the enzyme, hence the use of pH can be a good way of controlling the undesirable colouration it causes it in foods.


The rapid growth of the electric power system has in recent time resulted in an increase in the number of transmission lines and outages in Otukpo area. These lines experience various faults that lead to major disruptions and high operating costs of the transmission system. Fault location is an important task for power utility engineers as knowledge of accurate distance to fault assists in restoration of the power supply in the shortest possible time so as to avoid possible damages to consumers, property and environment. This paper proposed double-ended impedance-based algorithm for fault location using Otukpo 132kV transmission lines as a case study. The proposed algorithm measured fault current and voltage signals captured by digital fault record from both terminals of the line for estimation of the location of the fault, the lines was modeled in Matlab Simulink environment using distributed parameters of transmission lines data obtained for system operator in New Haven Substation. Five different faults namely; Single Line to Ground Fault (A-G), Double Line Fault (AB), Double Line to Ground Faults (AB-G), Three Phase Fault (ABC) and Three Phase Faults (ABC-G) were also modeled and applied one after the other on the transmission lines. The system was simulated for each faults cases at various distances namely; 50km to 120km .The simulated results system was able to detect A-G fault at 0.0219s, A-B faults at 0.024s, AB-G faults at 0.023s, ABC faults at 0.02s and ABC-G faults at 0.024s respectively, also clear the faults for A-G fault at 0.1057s, AB faults at 0.1065s, AB-G faults at 0.0125s, ABC faults at 0.185s and ABC-G faults at 0.1043s respectively. The simulation results proved the proposed algorithm to be fast, reliable, robust and accurate. The result of this work will be of huge relevance to power utility operators and other industry practitioners especially those managing transmission lines in Nigeria particularly, the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN).


Sweet lupin has several nutritional and health benefits for human. It has also important role in improving soil fertility. Thus, this study was initiated to evaluate the acceptability of blended shiro of sweet lupin and field pea at different composition. The data were collected from randomly selected 90 panelists from East Gojjam Zone. The panelist's preference on the different proportion of sweet lupin and field pea blended shiro has been examined through a five-point Hedonic scale. Descriptive statistics analysis was used and the data were presented in tables, bar graph and figure. A Mann-Whitney U-test was deployed to determine whether there is a mean difference between rural and urban dwellers on color, taste, bitterness, texture and overall acceptability of 100% sweet lupin shiro. Of the total panelists, 47.80% were rural panelists and the remaining 52.20% were urban panelists. Generally, the result showed that the sweet lupin shiro has a possibility to substitute up to 100% field pea shiro preparation if spices are carefully prepared. The finding showed that blending of sweet lupin (SL) and field pea (FP)shiro at (75%SL: 25%FP; 50%SL: 50%FP and 25%SL: 75%FP) ratio and using purely 100%SL has acceptable taste, texture, color, bitterness and overall acceptability in Hedonic scales. Therefore, it is recommended that sweet lupin can substitute field pea and other expensive legume crops which are being used to prepare shiro.


The concentration of anthropogenic radionuclide in soil samples from Kaltungo Local Government Area and its border town to Billiri, Shongom and Balanga Local Government Areas was investigated using Rigaku Energy Disperse XRF machine, GPS, analytical balance and polythene bags. Six anthropogenic radionuclides were detected with concentration ranging from 8.13ppm to 2740ppm.

The risk factors of early first sexual intercourse in young Rwandan Women []

Abstract Background: In Rwanda, sex before marriage is still a taboo in general public. Several factors may be associated to early sexual intercourse among young females which in turn lead to sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies and mental issues that seriously affect adult life. This study aims to determine the risk factors of early sexual intercourse in young Rwandan women aged 15 to 49 years old. Methods: A secondary analysis was done on data from Rwanda DHS 2019-2020 using STATA 13 statistical software package. We defined early sexual intercourse as anyone having sex at 17 years old or below. Logistic regression models were applied to establish relationship between the age of first sexual intercourse and several other variables of the study with significance level of 0.05. Results: Respondents were 10,590 women. Twenty-five percent had their first sexual intercourse at age of 17 and below, of whom 19.1% from rural area. The place of residence (p-value = 0.000), education level (p-value = 0.000), wealth index (p-value = 0.000), region (p-value = 0.03) and ever tested for AIDS (p-value = 0.000) are significantly associated with age at first sexual intercourse since their p-values are less than 0.05 significance level. It was also found that the women who had not heard about AIDS and not heard of sexually transmitted infection (STI) were more likely to have early sexual intercourse with (p-value = 0.000 < 0.05). Conclusion: The place of residence, education level, wealth index and knowledge about HIV are the factors found to be associated with early sexual intercourse. Measures and policies are needed to improve the living conditions and decrease the rates of early sexual intercourse and associated consequences. Keywords: Risk factor, Sexual intercourse, Rwandan women


The purpose of this study is to determine the learning effectiveness of Learning Management System (LMS) Course among users at workplace in the context of user experience. Specifically, to investigate the learning effectiveness through the experiences and satisfaction underwent by coming across the quality factors of LMS. Quality factors of LMS like pedagogical design, interface design, content presentation format, transfer of learning and feedback of learning were considered for finding the opinion differences of the experiences among the users. Data were collected through questionnaire from 474 banking professionals working under both public and private category. The banks chosen were those that had already been running LMS platforms for training their employees. The study found a significant difference in user’s opinion on the pedagogical design, interface design, content presentation format, transfer of learning and feedback of learning along with learner experience and learner satisfaction. It is also observed that, there was a significant difference between the male and female users of the LMS platform among all the LMS quality factors concentrated in the study.

Exclusive breastfeeding in Kinshasa: knowledge of 103 pregnant women received at the prenatal consultation of the Ngondo Maria hospital center []

The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of pregnant women on exclusive breastfeeding at CH Ngondo Maria. This is a quantitative cross-sectional study with a descriptive aim carried out with 103 pregnant women received in CPN from CH Ngondo Maria in June 2019. The data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed on SPSS 21. The results show that 77.3% had knowledge about the practice of exclusive breastfeeding; 71.8% had already expected to talk about it and only 32.5% knew the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Overall, the level of knowledge of pregnant women on exclusive breastfeeding was 60.5% at the CH Ngondo Maria. In conclusion, the knowledge of pregnant women on exclusive breastfeeding remains to be desired. An awareness campaign on the advantages of the AME would allow the latter to raise their level in this matter.


The aim of this paper is to explain the particular characteristics of the corporate governance of banks and its role for good bank performance. In order to do that, it reviews the existing literature on this issue trying to answer three main questions: i. Why are banks different? Existing research points at diverse features, such as, regulation, supervision, capital structure, risk, fiduciary relationships, ownership, and deposit insurance that would make banks special and thereby influence their corporate governance. ii. What is different about bank governance? According to past studies, banks’ boards of directors are larger, more independent, have a superior number of committees and meet more often, but seem to play a weaker disciplinary role. Executive compensation would be higher in banking, but pay-performance sensitivity appears lower. iii. What works for banks? Larger boards, more concentrated ownership structures and certain levels of managerial shareholdings are the principal factors suggested by the empirical evidence to date that seem to lead banks to higher performance. This research paper, additionally examines the corporate governance practices in two banking institutions in the country, and the survey have shown the existence of greater awareness of corporate governance practices. It is hoped that the findings relating to our sample size can be used as a purveyor to draw inferences on the banking industry in our jurisdiction. The paper has further illustrated the need to strengthen these practices because of the special nature of the banking industry in economic management and the diversity of stakeholder expectations. The empirical findings of this study are glaringly consistent with the guidelines developed by capital markets’ prudential guidelines issued by the central bank. The findings also fall in line with practices recommended by other jurisdictions outside of Sierra Leone like the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the guidelines by the Commonwealth association for corporate governance and the organization for economic cooperation and development of the United Nation. KEYWORDS: Capital Structure, Risk, Fiduciary, Compensation, Pay-performance

Method of Equilibrium spinning []

The aim is to simulate the movement of time at rest position, and then study the relation between position of electron in H atom and its wavelength


Corporate governance is a process of aligning the interests of management with those of shareholders and ensuring compliance with all applicable laws, rules, regulations, standards, and best practices to create shareholder value. It, therefore, outlines the morphology through which organizations achieve their financial goals. This study in examining these corporate governance processes in the banking sector seeks to investigate the effect of corporate governance on the performance of banks in the Bono East Region of Ghana. The study was quantitative and adopted the explanatory research designs. The population consisted of employees in the banking sector of the Bono East Region of Ghana. A sample of 98 respondents was considered and questionnaires were adopted as the research instrument for the study. The results indicated that corporate governance policies were moderately observed in the banking sector in the Bono East Region. This could be the reason for the average performance recorded in the study. The study found a positive correlation between performance and board independence as well as performance and female representation. There was, however, a negative and significant correlation between performance and board size. Corporate governance was found to predict a 15.5% increment of performance in the selected banks. Since corporate governance predicted performance, it is recommended that management adopt proactive measures to ensure the policies and procedures governing corporate governance are strictly adhered to.

Design and implementation of memory cells in digital electronics []

CMOS technology feature size and threshold voltage have been declining for decades to achieve high density and high performance. Increased chip density and operating frequency have made power consumption a major concern for the VLSI design. This paper provides Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) frameworks for low power dissipation with 6T AND 8T SRAM, Random Access Memory (DRAM) flexible and Filp-flop. Powerful random access memory is one of the most important components of a computer program, and today thanks to technological advances in many other programs. The development of this memory is very important because its development affects the performance of the programs in which it is used, and that is one of the main reasons why it should be analyzed and studied. Flip flop has minimal space and low power consumption which can be used in various systems such as VLSI digital clock system, baths, registers, microprocessors etc.

Challenges and Opportunities in converting existing Intermittent Water Supply System to Continuous Water Supply System: A study of Khumaltar Service Area with Demand Side Management Perspectives []

There are many problems in existing water distribution system of Kathmandu Valley which includes insufficient water supply, high leakage from old age existing pipes, illegal service connection and water contamination. Hydraulic capacity of old existing and new distribution network of Patan area was evaluated by using EPANET software. The EPANET analysis shows, negative pressures in 88.89 % of nodes in old distribution network for Melamchi first phase water supply while in new distribution network resulting pressures at all the nodes and the flows with their velocities at all pipes are enough to provide water to the area for the Melamchi second phase water supply. The water demand can be reduced by using water efficient fixtures from 192.45 Liters/capita/day (water use by old inefficient fixtures) to about 96 Liters/capita/day.29.7 MLD of water supplied by Melamchi First phase water supply will not sufficient to meet the average demand of 96 Liters/capita/day even if there will be the implementation of demand side strategies (using water efficient fixtures). It is projected that available water from the second phase Melamchi water supply (78MLD for Khumaltar area) will meet the average demand of year 2049 ,2047,2046,2044 and 2043 for maintaining 5%, 10%,15%,20% and 25% of loss of water respectively implementing demand side strategies using water efficient fixtures.

Fruit production of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) (Ndjansang): Influence of nearest neighbour’s dendrometric descriptors in forest and agroforestry systems []

Description of the subject. Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) is a fruit species who’s economic and ecological interests have been proven today and which has been the subject of several research projects. However, little is known about its productive potential and the influence of certain competitive factors on the fruit production of this species. Objectives. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of dendrometric descriptors of R. heudelotii close neighbours on their fruit production potential in forest and agroforestry systems. Methods. Data were collected from adult individuals of DBH ≥ 20 cm in selected 15 m radius circular plots each centered on a R. heudelotii individual. To evaluate the fruit production, a periodic collection and counting of the fruits fallen under the tree was done on a periodic basis of 10 days during three (03) consecutive years (August, September and October). The variation of fruit production according to dendrometric parameters was assessed through correlations determined by one and multi-factor analyses of variance. Results. The results obtained show that the height of individuals (individuals and close neighbours) has a greater influence on fruit production than the other dendrometric descriptors. Thus, from the allometric combinations by simple and multiple linear regressions, the variability of the fruiting potential of R. heudelotii was established. Three combinations were thus retained from the low values of the Aïkkake information criterion. These three combinations could therefore be used to predict the fruit yields of R. heudelotii from the dendrometric descriptors. Conclusion. The present study evaluated the fruiting potential of R. heudelotii and also assessed its variability according to dendrometric descriptors in two land use types. It established that the height of individuals (subjects and close neighbors) has a greater influence on fruit production compared to other dendrometric descriptors.

Status of the learning organization practices in the pharmaceutical industries of Nepal []

A learning organization is a place where people learn how they shape reality and how they can change it on a regular basis. As a result, businesses must learn to adapt their actions in order to achieve unexpected results. Employee learning is a pre-requisite for organizational learning because an organization's learning ability is buried in its people. From a practical perspective, the findings of this study will be useful to top management, functional and HRM managers to design their learning organization practices within a strategic condition at the micro or macro organizational level in order to improve future organizational performance. The study is follow quantitative methods; Quantitative research involves the use of methodological techniques that represent the human experience in alpha-numerical categories and qualitative research provides detailed description and analysis of the quality, or the substance, of the human experience. This article begins by seeing at the state of learning organization methods in Nepal's pharmaceutical industry.


This thesis is an attempt to put into application the philosophical knowledge that I have acquired from studies, for the purpose of transforming the society, founded on a proper and viable theory of respect for human dignity. It goes without saying that in our search for knowledge we really obtain a lot from different philosophical viewpoints, yet philosophy has hardly issues to the concrete situation of the people but has in most of the cases remained in theory. With sincerity of hope and purpose, a good analysis of Gabriel Marcel’s Philosophy of Being and Having can be a good instrument in promoting the human worth or dignity, simply because there can hardly be such a worth where human beings are exploited and treated as means to achieving ends rather than ends in themselves. After considering most of the existing philosophies that talk about human dignity, I discovered that Marcel’s thought fitted very well with regards to how humans ought to treat each other with respect and dignity. Just as existentialist thinkers maintain that existence precedes essence. I therefore took up the fact that ‘being’ is superior to ‘having’. In a way, this could be a foundation of a universal theory founded on that human beings are in themselves. Most of the theories in place have not shown very clearly how the respect for fundamental principles of human life, for instance, relationships, availability, communion and others. This has mostly led to disastrous consequences of exploiting fellow humans. The present thesis proceeds from the concept of man according to Gabriel Marcel with regard to being and having and both are shown to have a mutual relationship yet “being” is superior to “having”. His argument is that human beings must be rated with the worth due to them, as ends in themselves. Other things or possessions should be seen as enhancing this worth of being human, hence, they get to be the end that people seek, which is happiness. They do not bring happiness in themselves but when used well, they promote human dignity.

Design of Dynamic range compression algorithm for Image and Video Processing for 60fps []

This study presents a cost-efficient and high-performance field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware implementation of a contrast-preserving image dynamic range compression algorithm, which is an important function used in modern digital video cameras and displays to improve visual quality of standard dynamic range color images (10 bits/channel).Digital image processing is an area characterized by the need of extensive experimental to establish the viability of proposed solutions for a given problem.

Evaluating Rhizobium Strains and inorganic fertilizers for Fababean (Vicia faba L.) production at Arbegona and Hulla wereda in Sidama zone []

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) has great importance as a non-polluting and cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. This study is aimed to investigate the symbiotic effectiveness of three Rhizobium strains, FB1017, FB1035, and EAL110 in 2016 and 2017 at Arbegona and Hulla woredas. A total of eight experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The current study revealed that there was no significant difference in grain yield between all strain treatments and the control at Arbegona. At Hulla woreda significantly higher (2132 kg/ha) yield was obtained from plots treated by FB1035 + 9 kg N + 10 kg P compared to NP alone and the control. The dominance analysis showed that except treatments 4 and 5 all strain treatments and the recommended NP fertilizer were dominated by the treatment with low TVC. The highest net benefit (33817.8 ETB/ha) was obtained from plots treated by FB1035 + 9 kg N + 10 kg P/ha followed by FB1035 + 10 kg P/ha. Therefore, these treatments are recommended for fababean producers around Hulla. Keyword: Fababean, yield, Rhizobium strains, nitrogen fixation


The choice of container for fermentation of locust bean (Iru) has been of contention by local processors having preference for some materials over others. Calabash gourd, high density polyethylene (plastic) and stainless steel were used as containers to ferment locust bean for a threshold of 72 hrs. PH of significant difference p<0.005 was obtained for calabash gourd 6.02, plastic 5.95, and stainless steel 5.8. Insignificant differences were obtained in bulk density, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity for the same experiment. For the proximate analysis, moisture content of significant difference p<0.005 was obtained in plastic 6.31%, calabash 5.90% and stainless steel 5.36%. Furthermore, significant difference were obtained in crude fat, ash and carbohydrate contents with calabash having 35.07%, plastic 34.10%, and stainless steel 33.81%for crude fat while ash content was 2.42% for stainless steel, 2.35% respectively for calabash and plastic. Carbohydrate was 13.67% for stainless steel, 13.45% for plastic and 11.65% for calabash. Protein and fiber had insignificant mean difference. The three respective containers have low thermal and electrical conductivities. Calabash, a polymer of lignin fused with cellulose has the lowest thermal and electrical conductivities of 0.163W/moK and 0.01 W/moK at 2980K followed by plastic, a polymer of polyethylene with 0.4W/moK and 0.44W/moat 298 oK and stainless steel an alloy of Iron, Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen having the highest values of 15 W/moK and 16W/moK at 298oK respectively. The insulating capacity and ability to retain and sustain heat in a closed system is inversely proportional to both thermal and electrical conductivities.


The present study is aimed at investigating the proximate composition and mineral element composition of ethanol extract of S. jollyanum in Wistar albino rats. In proximate analysis, moisture. Ash, crude fibre, carbohydrates, crude fats and crude protein were determined. And for mineral analysis, potassium, sodium was determined using Flame Photometer, while calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium and chromium were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Proximate composition of S. jollyanum indicated the presence of crude protein (1.05%), moisture (4.93%), crude lipid (2.78%), ash (1.25%) with high content of fiber (6.59%) and carbohydrates (83.4%). The results also showed low levels of minerals in Na(1,72mg/kg), Cr(4.87mg/kg), Mg(5.1mg/kg), Zn(3.42mg/kg), and Ca(8.98mg/kg) with high levels of minerals in K(62.62mg/kg), and Fe (31.06mg/kg). The results of this study concluded that the root extract of S. jollyanum contained high amount of nutritional, energy values and minerals which suggest its folkloric uses as an ergogenic aid and could be beneficial to enhance the performance of athletes in sporting events.

Evaluation and promotion of Vermicompost technology for Potato production in Wondogenet, Sidama Region []

In the vermicompost process, energy-rich and complex organic substances have been bio-oxidized and transformed into stabilized products by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms, hence earthworms play a considerable role by fragmenting and altering all biological activity of the waste. Therefore the aim of the present study were to explore the suitability and potential use of an epigeic earthworm species, Eisenia Andrei in vermicompost and its effect on the cultivation of potato. The experiment was studied for two consecutive years on potato production. A total of six treatments compared for the experiment on farmers field: (1) control (no vermicompost and no chemical fertilizer), (2) NPS(354kg NPS/ha +207kgurea/ha), (3) 3 ton VC/ha, 4.5 ton VC/ha, (4) 1.5 t/ha VC+177kg NPS/ha+103kg urea/ha and (5) 2.25t VC/ha+88.5kg NPS/ha +51.75kg urea/ha. The experiment was laid out in RCBD design and replicated three times on each farm. Besides crop data, which were statistically analyzed using SAS software economic analysis was also performed to see the feasibility of fertilizer treatments for Potato production in the area. The highest yield (34.16 t/ha) of the crop was recorded at the rate of 3 t/ha. Whereas, the lower yield was measured from the control (no fertilizer). The economic analysis also showed that treatment 3t/ha gave the highest benefit with acceptable MRR suggested by CIMMYT. Therefore partial budget analysis result imply that 3 ton /ha rate vermicompost is recommended for farmer use for cultivation of potato. Keyword: vermicompost, potato, yield


This study used a quantitative research design employing descriptive survey research method. It sought to determine the needs of Grade 6 Completers in Mathematics competencies. The respondents of this study were the 384 Grade 6 completers who are officially enrolled in Nieves Villarica National High School. The statistical tools used in this study were the frequency and percentage. It was indicated in the study the five (5) most learned competencies; and the five (5) least learned competencies which are also the needs of the students. Based on the result, the researchers recommended that the teachers should give more emphasis on teaching the least learned competencies. This study offers pedagogical implications that can benefit especially the students and the Mathematics teachers of every school.


This study examined the relationship between Perceived Attitude toward Study Habit and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Yobe State University, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey research designed and the population of the study consist of all undergraduate students of Yobe State University Damaturu with the total population of Nine thousand six hundred and ten (9,610) students for 2020/2021 academic session out of which a sample size of three hundred and sixty-four (364) students were drawn through multi-stage sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection were adapted questionnaire titled Study Habit Questionnaire with internal consistency coefficient of 0.91 and reliability index of 0.78 and a Proforma. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics of Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and ANOVA to test the hypotheses. From the analysis of the data, it was found out that there is significant relationship between perceived attitude of students toward study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students in Yobe State University Damaturu Nigeria (r=.448, p=.000, p<.05); there is significant difference in the perceived attitude of students study habit and academic performance based on gender (F=28.672, p=.000, p<.05) and there is no significant difference in the perceived attitude of students study habit and academic performance according age (F=.611, p=.435, p>.05). It was concluded that achievements can be attributed to the students’ attitude towards the study habit. Therefore, it was recommended that school counsellors should give orientation to newly admitted student on effective study habit to improve their academic performance. Similarly, counsellors, parents, and significant others should show appreciation for student strong points and identify their weaker area, then initiate corrective practices such as improvement of organizing time for study, time management, visiting library, controlling of exam phobia as these would boost their morale.

Assessment of sulfate resistance of supplementary Cementitious material []

Degradation of concrete due to sulphate attack is a serious challenge for concrete exposed to sulfate ions. The literature reviewed reflects that a unique mechanism of sulfate attack does not exist and states that sulfate attack can occur in different ways depending upon the exposure conditions and the nature of sulfate ions present in surroundings or inside the concrete mass. The field test of sulfate attack takes 15 to 40 years which is inadequate for research work. This research focuses on the evaluation of sulfate resistance of supplementary cementitious materials. For this purpose, the experimental work was done on basis of partial replacement of sulfate resisting cement with fly ash and bentonite, and American Standard for Testing and Material (ASTM) standard cylinders for strength assessment. 50x50x250 mm3 mortar bars were prepared to assess the expansion of mortar exposed to very sever sulfate environment (50g/L solution of Na2SO4), 50x50x50 mm3 for assessment of microstructures investigation were prepared. For both cylinders and mortars, four type of samples (100% sulfate resistant cement, 30% replacement of sulfate resistant cement with fly ash, 30% replacement of sulfate resistant cement with bentonite, replacement of 15% fly ash and 15% bentonite with sulfate resistant cement), 50% of cylinders were cured in fresh water, while other 50% were cured in 50g/L solution of Na2SO4. The results showed that replacement of fly ash with sulfate resistant cement is very effective from both strength and durability point of view, whereas replacement of bentonite results in a poorer strength and durability. It can be concluded from the research that supplementary cementitious material can mitigate sulfate attack and also reduce the demand of cement production which is a highly exothermic and CO2 emissive process.


This Research and Development (R&D) is an innovation in the field of Electronic Engineering Technology in Tagoloan Community College. It showcases the Megatronic Trainer (MT) in a robotic configuration for risk reduction disaster preparedness response. It is a combination of the existing analog and digital electronic trainer that can detect and respond the environmental stimulus such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fire, water, wind, and smoke stimulus. Thus, this Research and Development (R&D) is designed with analog and digital components. In the project R&D, the developer designed, developed, and test the accuracy of the trainer for a patent. It is expected that the environment would be resilient to natural and man-made hazards and making the home of mankind in the Pacific region a better place to live. This MT interfaces the electronic variables using analog and digital components, modules, and computers. The functions of this MT can be tested with its content parameters. Thus, MT is operated optimally in a high level of magnitude frequency and hone the theoretical learning of the Electronics Engineering Technology learners in real-world landscaping the geographic prone areas on risk reduction management.

Design of Decision Support System for Sustainable Energy Storage []

Businesses have been seeing an ever-increasing rise in the need for sustainable decision making processes. Procurement function is not exception to scope of sustainable practises. Usually seen as the first business process that interacts with the tiers of supplier base, procurement is often considered the setting stone for sustainable business development. This paper focusses on the designing a Decision Support System(DSS) to aid the decision making for the procurement of Energy Storage systems for Rail Infrastructure Provider in the UK. An Analytical Hierarchy Processing (AHP) based DSS was designed with the consultation of various stakeholders and subject matter experts, backed by academic literature that evaluated 4 alternatives on various criterion.


Urea is the main source of N applied to legume crops grown in Ethiopia, but it is very expensive. In order to substitute the use of chemical fertilizers in legume production, there is a need to produce rhizobial inoculates, which are capable of fixing N and, thus, can be used as bio-fertilizers. To achieve this, an experiment was conducted on farmer’s field in Hawassa Zuria district for two consecutive years using three types of strains combined with TSP fertilizer and soybean variety Hawassa 95. Five treatments, including control (no fertilizer and inoculate), recommended N (46 kg ha-1), SB 12 + 50 kg TSP, SB MAR 1495 + 50 kg ha-1 TSP and SB 14 + 50kg/ha TSP, were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. It was observed that higher yield was obtained from the rhizobium strains combined with TSP, compared to the control and recommended N. Strain SB 12 + 50 kg TSP gave the highest yield (2303.3 kg ha-1), while the lowest yield was recorded for the untreated plot. Hence application of rhizobial inoculates can be an option for farmers producing soybean in the area. The highest net benefits with acceptable marginal rate of returns were obtained from the plots treated with rhizobium strains. Therefore, these strains could be recommended as alternative options for soybean production around Hawassa zuria district. However, as the experiment was carried out only in one region, similar undertakings should be carried out over years at different region to determine the long-term effect of rhizobium strains on the soil and the crop. Key words: Rhizobium strains, Soybean, Nodule, Economic benefit, Yield