Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The ‘cone effect’ and its implication for an emerging economy: The case of Cameroon []

In order that Cameroon achieves its 2035 vision (emerge economically) and raise its citizens to middle income; there is need to reconceptualise the training in its high schools in such a way that learners are imbued with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them to assume man power roles in various sectors. By so thinking, the study was set to find out the extent to which learners assimilate the curriculum. Incumbent on the plethora of unemployed youth, other literature, and the vacancies for which there is acute shortage in STEM related occupations (World Bank, 2019), the study hypothesized that the type of learning occurring in classrooms in Cameroon is more driven by the exam syllabus than the teaching syllabus. This often leads to teaching to the test. Therefore the study established the link between classroom content in some selected High Schools in Mfoundi Division, teaching and exam syllabi. 171 cases were analysed for physics teaching content to see the link between it and; teaching and exam syllabi. The mixed design sampled teaching content in terms of assignments and classroom references as well as content analysis for sequence and integration. Purposive sampling was employed in order to meet as many teachers as possible who teach physics in high school. Firstly, sequence tests in physics were correlated with both teaching and exam syllabus using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test. Secondly, classroom content (notes) was correlated against teaching as well as examination syllabi. The results established a higher correlation between sequence tests and exam syllabus; .512 p˂ .05 (n = 171) compared to sequence tests and teaching syllabus .311p˂ .05 (n=171). Secondly, there was a higher correlation between classroom content and examination syllabus .490, p˂ .05 (n=171) compared to correlation between classroom content and teaching syllabus .400, p˂ .05. The results supported the ‘cone effect’, in which a lot of ‘meaningful’ learning is sieved out of the curriculum due to the fact that classroom behaviour is dictated by examination syllabus. This however is undesirable, given that students tend to miss out on a lot of learning experiences which likely rub them of the learning intentions; for them to be able to socioeconomically insert into society. The study therefore recommended that teachers need to reconceptualise their classroom processes to give teaching a preferential role over testing, or to prioritize the teaching over the tested curriculum. By so doing, the additional gains, although at a higher price, cannot be underestimated given the additional gains that will result from more adequate man power provisions in dire need for the emergence of Cameroon by 2035.


This study aims to find out, test, and analyze: (1) The Effect of Work Discipline on Employee Performance for employees of the Kendari City Communication and Informatics Office. (2) The influence of the work environment on employee performance for employees of the Kendari City Communication and Information Service. (3) The Effect of Education Level on Employee Performance in Kendari City Communication and Information Service employees. (4) The effect of Work Discipline, Work Environment, and Education Level simultaneously on Employee Performance for employees of the Kendari City Communication and Informatics Office. This research is explanatory research using quantitative research methods. Respondents in this study were employees of the Kendari City Communication and Informatics Service based on the saturated sample method consisting of 40 respondents. The results of the study show that: (1) Work Discipline partially has a relationship and influence on Employee Performance. (2) The work environment partially has no relationship and influence on employee performance. (3) The level of education partially has no relationship and influence on employee performance. (4) Work Discipline, Work Environment, and Education Level simultaneously have a relationship and influence on Employee Performance.


The study investigates the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2020. The study specifically, determined the relationship between foreign direct investment and real gross domestic product (proxy for economic growth) in Nigeria, and also, examined the effects of macroeconomic variables – inflation rate, exchange rate, lending interest rate and gross capital formation on real gross domestic product (proxy for economic growth) in Nigeria. The study employed multiple regression techniques and result shows a long run relationship among the variables, there exists a positive and significant relationship between previous RGDP and current year real gross domestic, a negative and insignificant relationship between foreign direct investment and real gross domestic product, a negative and insignificant relationship between inflation rates and real gross domestic product, a positive and insignificant relationship between real effective exchange rate and real gross domestic product, a positive and significant relationship between lending interest rate and real gross domestic product, and finally, a negative and insignificant relationship between gross capital formation and real gross domestic product. The following recommendations are therefore drawn from the findings of the study: Nigeria government should improve their efforts to increase foreign direct investment so as to increase economic growth; Nigeria economy should establish growth inclined inflation rate threshold that will enhance economic growth; Nigeria government should maintain effective exchange rate that will speed up her economic growth; Nigeria government should use reduced lending interest rate to improve investment and enhance economic growth; and finally, Nigeria economy needs to improve her gross capital formation so as to increase economic growth. Keywords: Foreign direct investment, inflation rate, exchange rate, lending interest rate, gross capital formation, and real gross domestic product.


ABSTRACT This study was carried out to establish the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability in Gashaka Gumti National Park between 1991 and 2021. To ascertain the flora richness and abundance in the study area for the period under study, LandSat data of years 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021 were obtained from the United States Geological Survey online resource. In a similar vein, fauna richness and abundance data were obtained from the archival records for the same interval of years. They were obtained from the Park’s Head Office in Baruwa, Taraba State, Nigeria. Pearson Product Correlation Analysis was used to determine the relationship between the variables. The result shows a negative relationship between the two determining variables in ecosystem stability. Keywords: Relationship, Biodiversity, Ecosystem stability and Flora and Fauna

An Analytical paper on communication Philosophy in Research []

Communication philosophy is a pertinent aspect in scientific inquiry for effective investigation. It is not uncommon to focus on the scientific process of the inquiry which is a paramount exercise and fail to enhance the philosophical communication aspect which is equally important. The scientific facts need to be communicated with clarity to ensure that the target audience as well as the general public are well informed of the issue of concern. Such clarity births motivation and conviction to take the necessary action or adopt the recommended attitudes. This paper examines the role of philosophical communication in the scientific process and how effective communication can bridge gaps in the scientific process until the culmination of the same through effective dissemination after a close investigation of other scholars. This would ensure that research reports are not just dumped in shelves but that the recommendations are actualized. Key words: Communication, philosophy, inquiry, justification, qualitative, dissemination, writing, editing


This study aims to determine and analyze: (1) Does the Debt Equity Ratio and Fixed Asset Ratio affect Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. (2) Does the Debt Equity Ratio affect the Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. (3) Does the Fixed Asset Ratio affect the Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This study uses historical data taken during the 2016-2020 period. The type of data used in this research is secondary data. The population of this research is all manufacturing companies in the food and beverage sub-sector which are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research sample is 20 companies which are determined based on purposive sampling. Data analysis using panel data regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that: (1) Simultaneously the Debt Equity Ratio and Fixed Asset Ratio variables have a positive and significant effect on Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. (2) Partially, the Debt Equity Ratio has a negative and insignificant effect on the Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. (3) Partially the Fixed Asset Ratio has a positive and significant effect on the Return On Assets in the Food and Beverage sub-sector manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.

Is MidJourney-AI a new Anti-hero of Architectural Imagery and Creativity? []

By nature, technology such as artificial intelligence (AI) brings boon-bane situations during advancement in any field. However, AI has begun to tamper with one such field: the creative process of creating art and architectural imagery. During the mid of 2022, AI-Art tools like MidJourney and DALL-E aimed to effortlessly replicate the creative human mind by enabling digital responses based on text-based prompts. However, though this AI-Art thrives in art, the architectural field raises concerns. Research indicates that AI-Art's drawbacks are: a shallow understanding of sublimity in architecture, relevance, thoughtfulness and even job replacement. Therefore, the paper raises the question: Is MidJourney-AI a new Anti-hero of Architectural Creativity? Methods of this research are through literature review and a live and digital experiment. This paper combines a literature review and a research experiment to provide a more thoughtful interpretation of the research question to answer strategically. First, this paper clarifies AI's influence on art and architectural expression. It is also analysed how AI cuts down the authentic creation model regarding architectural thinking. This paper provides a new research investigation combining artificial intelligence and architecture. Firstly, recent investigations in architecture and AI-Art have been studied (Berg, 2022; Mello-Klein et al., 2022; Panicker, 2022). Secondly, two experiments of the creative process, i.e., the traditional and AI-induced design processes, are performed to understand and distinguish various digital and experiential factors influencing them. It finally discusses how AI can be cautiously practised without hindering the creative process. Finally, the study concludes on mindfully using AI and the importance of architectural pedagogy to teach and help such mindful usage of AI for upcoming art and architect generations. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Creativity; Architectural Representation; MidJourney; AI-Art.

Stylizing Schinkel A study of the "Berliner Konzerthaus" - History and challenges of restoration A critical viewpoint []

The Berlin concert hall, formerly known as the Schauspielhaus (Theatre hall), in the Gendarmenmarkt square in the heart of Berlin, presents a unique case of dealing with a historic building that is significant for the collective memory of its city and nation. Its reconstruction project (1979-1984) presented a dilemma that, even after the project is finished, is still argued upon till this day. Although its original function in the 19th century could not be brought back to life in the modern world, the project architects understood the cultural value of the building itself, and tried to inspire a new life cycle for it. So, was their “resurrection” successful? Culturally and economically? Another paradox is that this building is closely connected to its architect as one of his masterpieces, despite the fact that he was not able to implement his original ideas for many reasons. The final outcome of the restoration project was celebrated as much as criticized. Some considered it as “original” while others regarded it as a “fake copy”. The case of the Berlin concert house is as controversial as any restoration project can be, always trying to maintain the fine balance between Heritage and the modern world. This article is trying to look at this reconstruction project from a critical viewpoint, to extract useful lessons for the future.


ABSTRACT Background: Needle stick injury has become a major issue among nurses because in a heath care working environment there is risk for occupational hazards. Nurses who got a needle stick injury are always at risk of getting HBV, HCV, and HIV that may cause serious illness, or death. Aim: The present study is aimed to measure the occurrence of needle stick injuries among nurses, their behavioral practices and evaluation of knowledge regarding needle stick injuries. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design is used in this research project. A sample of 240 nurses is selected randomly from emergency and different departments of Jinnah Hospital. Students were questioned regarding exposure to needle stick injury throughout their clinical training and measures taken following the exposure. They were also asked to complete the knowledge questionnaire on NSI. Results: The study was conducted among 240 nurses of Jinnah hospital Lahore including 58.3% of 18-25 years among which 48% are diploma nurses, 43% are degree and 8% are master’s nurses of which 114/240 were those who received training in programs on prevention of needle stick injuries. Maximum NSI 58% are occurred during first year of course. It is observed that 45% nurses are injured during recapping of needles. More injuries (55%) occurred in morning shift. Conclusion: The study showed high prevalence of needle stick injuries among nurses. It is concluded that the pressure of work and fatigue are the leading causes of NSIs among nurses. Some nurses do not take needle stick injuries as a serious incidence to be reported, also they do not go for follow up tests that leads to harmful effects on their health. Recommendations: It is recommended to arrange training workshops for nurses to make them aware of the needle stick injuries protocols and hospitals policies. It is also recommended that hospital management should seek ways to reduce the workload and pressure from nurses to reduce the occurrence of needle stick injuries.


Although there is increasing evidence that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can help promote growth and development in the local community where a business is located, the case of the mining sector in Cameroon is fraught with challenges. In addition to concession fees, winning bids also have to pay other taxes, including royalty fees; which should go towards satisfying the neighbouring community’s social development and environmental needs. Mining companies are therefore expected, under the revised Mining Code of 2016, to make royalty payments to both the Mining Site and Quarry Restoration, Rehabilitation and Closure Fund; and the Special Local Capacity Building Account; both of whose purpose is to carry out rehabilitation, economic, cultural, industrial, technological and even the social development needs of the community where the concessionary is located. By collecting funds into these accounts for these related CSR purposes, the government is invariably taking away CSR responsibilities from the companies. Findings reveal that there is a disconnect between the legislation and mining contracts since mining contract agreements still contain CSR obligations and local content commitments. Indeed, mining companies are weary to engage in any further meaningful CSR endeavors once they have honored their royalty fees commitments to the State, under the Mining Code and in their con-tract agreement. Recommendations relate to the provision of better resources to enable mining inspectors under-take worthy field trips to mining communities to assess and verify CSR projects, for further training on good governance to be accelerated, better transparency and accountability on funds collected for CSR purposes, and for better synergy between the State and mining concessionaries with respect to CSR affairs.


The goal of this study is to assess the statistical effects of breaking the regression assumptions. Regression modeling was used in the study with an emphasis on testing the residual and normalcy assumptions. In this study's data analysis, we used two sets of data: one original and the other a contaminated copy of the original. Regression analysis was used to assess the study's findings in order to validate the regression assumptions, notably the residual analysis and the test for normality. The study result found that both models on the different set of data indicated that they are adequate. Further analysis revealed that the model with original values satisfied the regression assumption of normality and residual and the coefficient estimate were higher compared to the second model where the assumptions were violated. Although the model appears to be appropriate, the parameter estimates were small, and any inference made from the tainted dataset may be false. Therefore, it is crucial to validate the regression model's assumptions through empirical research because doing so could have disastrous consequences. Keywords: Model aptness, regression modeling, model assumption, statistical analysis, parsimonious model


Great diversity in local maize exists in the farmer’s field of Bangsamoro region. A total of 140 accessions were collected throughout the region. These collections were initially screened for glyphosate resistance to separate local and genetically modified maize accessions. A total of 24 native accessions were selected and used in the experiment including the check variety (USM Var 10) for characterization and assessment of the genetic diversity of local maize selections. The entries were laid out in 5x5 triple lattice design evaluating twenty-one (21) quantitative traits and 12 qualitative traits. High genetic diversity was observed in the phylogenetic analysis. Accessions were clustered into five groups based on quantitative traits using Euclidean distance, while based on qualitative traits Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustered accessions into four groups. High genetic diversity was observed in the phylogenetic analysis. The results show a wide range of variation in maize germplasm across the Bangsamoro region. The identified most divergent entries are found in Brgy. Campo 1, Municipality of Matanog, and Brgy. Pigalgan, Municipality of Sultan Kudarat.


The agricultural sector still plays an important role in the overall economy of Sindangsari Village. The adoption of agricultural tools and machinery is one way to increase the productivity and efficiency of farming, improve product quality and added value, and empower farmers. However, based on data from the Head of the Section for People's Welfare of the Sindangsari Village Government, shows the increase in cases of work accidents adopting agricultural tools and machinery in Sindangsari Village. This study aims to understand further the need of empowering farmers in the adoption of agricultural equipment and machinery and occupational health and safety aspects. Research will be conducted in a descriptive qualitative approach. This study uses ATLAS.ti 8 Software as a tool in the qualitative data analysis process and triangulation with sources as a validity method. The application of this paper will establish the need for farmers empowerment in adoption of agricultural equipment and machinery and occupational health and safety aspects in Sindangsari Village.

Carbon stocks of trees in Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration system face to Climate Change in Sahelian zones of Tieneguebougou, Farako, Guemou and Bienkolobougou, in Mali. []

Climate change is global problem and presents enormous challenges for cereal production and food security in sub-Saharan Africa where 60% of the workforce are farmers. Climate change poses a great potential threat to the environment and sustainable development of the world. In Mali, poor populations are the most vulnerable because of their low adaptive capacities and their heavy dependence on climate-sensitive resources such as water resources, trees and agricultural production systems. However, Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) is a climate-smart technology that increases the density of trees populations in agroforestry parks in order to mitigate global warming throw carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to assess the quantity of carbon sequestered by woody trees in FMNR system, face to climate change in Sahelian zones of Mali. To achieve this, forest inventory works were carried out in four village lands (Tieneguebougou, Farako, Guemou and Bienkolobougou) over a total area of 20 hectares. The inventory plots were implemented every 500 meters during transects in different management units, namely hut fields, bush fields and fallow fields. The size of an experimental plot was 10,000 m² (100 mx 100 m) in order to cover the most woody trees. The dendrometric measurements were related to the height of the woody trees, the diameter of the trunk at breast height at 1.30 m and the diameter of the crown (the length and width of the crown). The density of woody trees was 29 trees ha-1 in the village of Tieneguebougou, 91 trees ha-1 in Farako, 32 trees ha-1 in Guemou and 21 trees ha-1 in Bignekolobougou. The quantity of carbon balance varies depending on the study sites. There was 37.208 tons of carbon per hectare stored in the above and below biomass of woody trees in Farako, 6.139 tons of carbon per hectare in Guemou, 5.827 tons of carbon per hectare in Tieneguebougou and 2.531 tons of carbon per hectare in Bignekolobougou. The carbon stock variation depends on trees diameter, natural factors (woody trees biology, pluviometry, types of soil, etc.), climate change and anthropogenic pression. Keywords: Carbon stocks, Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration, Climate Change, Sahel, Mali.


Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a central role in the growth and development strategies of countries. Governments often implement policies to support these businesses and create a conducive environment for their creation and development. However, SMEs can face difficulty in accessing financing, even though the share of medium-term loans provided by banks has increased. This study aimed to examine the differences between national SMEs and exclusively exporting SMEs in terms of their financing choices. The study was conducted on a sample of 40 SMEs, divided equally between national and exporting SMEs, across different sectors. The results showed that there are no differences between national and exporting SMEs in their use of bank loans, and that the main reasons for considering this source of financing are the attractiveness of financing conditions and the need to reduce liquidity pressure. However, the study has limitations, including its exploratory nature and its small and heterogeneous sample of companies. It serves as a starting point for further research on the financing of national and exporting SMEs.

Impact of family-work conflict on an employee's job performance (A case study of DAVCON Group Ltd) []

While growing income and family requirements are not similar, they usually produce friction among family members. In the study, job satisfaction is also revealed to be adversely associated to family-work difficulties. Family conflict regularly spilled over into the job, potentially harming the person's performance. Family conflict also influences the perceived rising onerous workload, which can lead to workplace stress, and so affects employee performance indirectly through job stress. The goal of this research is to look into and assess the effects of family conflict and job stress on employee performance. The study was conducted at DAVCON GROUP Ltd in Accra, Ghana.


ABSTRACT The study identified poor infrastructures, loan assessment schemes, inappropriate technology, poor marketing system as the problems faced by the Nigerian agricultural sector to improve its food production in Nigeria. In view of these, the research sought to quantify the nature of relationship between Loan Assessment and Food Security in Nigeria. The study was anchored on Structural Change Theory in 1954 by Lewis Arthur, descriptive research and correlational survey design were employed in the study while time series data between the period of 1990 – 2018. The study used only secondary data while the data analysis techniques adopted for this study consist of multiple regression using the Ordinary Least Square method of estimation (OLS). The findings of the study showed that there was a significant positive relationship between Loan Assessment and Food Security in Nigeria and concluded that easy access of agricultural credit through loans and subsidies greatly improves food production through food availability, food assess and food utilization in Nigeria. The study recommended that more loan facilities and grants should be extended to the agricultural sector by the federal government, state government, various agricultural institutions in Nigeria. Keywords: Agricultural Credit, Food Production, Food Security, Loan Assessment, Structural Change Theory.


This research assesses the household and community coping/adaptation Mechanisms to hazards of the informal waterfront settlements in Rivers State. A questionnaire survey was administered and analysed from the data retrieved. From the analysis, living close to family or friends, proximity to work, livelihood opportunities, nearness to children school, low rents and low costs of living, commuting cost and Nearness to market were found to be significantly related with residential location choices in waterfront settlement. Also, the coping and adaptation mechanisms to hazards of informal settlements include, raising of building at foundation, construction of wooden bridges and construction of levees by the river banks among others. It is therefore recommended that redevelopment of waterfront informal settlements in the study area should be done in phases; Relevant authorities should develop and implement effective disaster preparedness plan, which should be regularly practiced; establish a dedicated disaster response organization at local levels, furnished with state-of-the art emergency response equipment; tackle poverty and create jobs, enhance local warning and communication systems for predictable hazardous events/disaster.

Prévalence des bactéries pathogènes chez le poisson Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) exploité dans le lac de Sélingué au Mali []

La présente étude a pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence des bactéries pathogènes chez Coptodon zillii pêché dans le lac de Sélingué. A cet effet, 100 échantillons de poissons, dans les conditions aseptiques, ont été prélevés de novembre à décembre 2021 dans deux débarcadères (Faraba et Carrière). La flore pathogène a été recherchée par des méthodes classiques de microbiologie. Des dilutions d’échantillons de poissons constituées de peau, de chair, d’intestin et de branchies ont été ensemencées. Les Staphylocoques, les Pseudomonas, les Anaérobies Sulfito-Réducteurs, les Vibrio ont été respectivement dénombrés sur les milieux Chapman, King A et King B, TSN, TCBS. Les Salmonelles ont été recherchées sur les milieux Eau peptonée tamponnée, Sélénite Cystéine, SS et TSI. Les microorganismes ont été incubés à des températures appropriées pendant 48 heures. Les résultats montrent que les échantillons de Coptodon zillii étaient contaminés par des bactéries pathogènes très souvent à des concentrations supérieures aux normes. Les bactéries apparaissent avec des prévalences de 85% pour les anaérobies sulfito-réducteurs (ASR), 49% pour les Pseudomonas, 39% pour les staphylocoques et 7% pour les Vibrio. Les Salmonelles n’ont pas été retrouvées dans les échantillons analysés. L’occurrence et la charge de Staphylococcus aureus, de Pseudomonas sp et de Vibrio sp ont varié chez les poissons suivant les débarcadères et la période de prélèvement. Les poissons ont hébergé des bactéries pathogènes productrices d’histamines et de toxines. Ces résultats témoignent d’une insuffisance d’hygiène dans la chaine de production de Coptodon zillii, présentant un risque sanitaire pour le consommateur. Les marchés de distribution du poisson devront être couverts par l’étude.


Abstract The physical parameter of a methanol dye extract of sorghum bicolour sheaths was analyzed by using standard method. A 24% yield was obtained with a melting point of 246 0C. The colour was maroon, and was found to be ionic in nature as seen in its inability to dissolve in nonpolar solvent. The λmax was found to be 430 nm. It is acidic in nature with a pH value of (4.47), and the crude extract was used to dye 100 % cotton in three dye-baths of 3 %, 4 % and 5 %.Percentage exhaustions of 67.8 %, 50.1 % and 25.1 % were observed on the dye-baths respectively. It has a moderate fastness and excellent stain fastness ability and therefore can be developed as an agent.