Volume 11, Issue 1, January 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Effect of schedule management on performance of construction project in Rwanda. A case of construction of Norrsken House Kigali, 2021-June 2022. []

This research paper entitled “effect of schedule management on performance of construction project in Rwanda, a case of construction of Norrsken House Kigali, 2021-June 2022” whose purpose was to highlight the effect of schedule management on project performance in construction projects. It was guided by three objectives which were to examine effect of inventory management of resource on performance of construction projects, to examine effect of project progress feedback on performance of construction projects and to assess effect of delivery time on performance of construction projects. The research design that was used in this study was descriptive research design and analytical research design. The population of the study was 90 employees of Norrsken House Kigali Project. The study used primary data by using questionnaires and secondary data using documentary review as method of data collection and the study will use descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis as method of data analysis. The dissertation concluded that schedule management had significant influence on project performance. This was explained by the data findings where it showed a positive and significant relationship between dependent and independent variables. The findings showed that resource scheduling had significant effect on project performance, this was explained by the value of 0.36569 at the probability value less than 0.05.Secondly, there was a positive significant relationship between duration establishment and project performance, this was explained by the correlation analysis of 0.21824 and the probability of less than 0.05.Thirdly, there was a positive and significant relationship between schedule execution and project performance, this was explained by the correlation analysis of 0.12171 and the probability value less than 0.05. Thus, there was a project financing on project performance based on the result findings. The findings also revealed that if schedule management was maintained properly, the performance would be increased by 76.52%. Results revealed that there was a positive between resource scheduling and project performance this was explained by the value of 0.3825 at the probability value less than 0.05, this implies that a unit increase of resource scheduling of 39.825% on project performance. There was a positive significant relationship between duration establishment and project performance, this was explained by the correlation analysis of 0.3642 and the probability of less than 0.05. This implies that a unit increase in duration establishment increases project performance 36.42%. This implies a unit of scheduling execution increase the project performance by 55.42% with its coefficient of 0.5542. These findings suggest that, once respected, management of these approaches can have a considerable impact on the success of project performance.


Le présent article analyse les effets des réformes financières en République Démocratique du Congo et identifie les déterminants de l’efficient des banques commerciales au cours de la période de 2008 à 2018. Grace à la méthode paramétrique basée sur une fonction transcendantale logarithmique, Translog, les résultats obtenus à travers la fonction de coût, indique que les coefficients des outputs « dépôts à vue » (Y1), « dépôts à terme » (Y2) et « dépôts d’épargne » (Y3) sont statistiquement significatifs, avec des signes négatifs pour les deux premiers et positif pour le dernier. Ces signes paraissent cohérent par rapport à la théorie, ils correspondent bien à la réalité des banques congolaises. L’activité de collecte de dépôts est la plus importante comparativement à d’autres activités d’intermédiation. Ainsi, une relation négative entre les dépôts à vue et les dépôts à terme et le coût total révèle le faible poids de la rémunération des dépôts mais un poids élevés de la main-d’œuvre employée à cet effet. L’étude révèle aussi que l’efficience technique des banques congolaises est fortement influencée par le taux de transformation de dépôts aux prêts, le rendement sur actif et du ratio des fonds propres. Enfin, l’étude révèle que ces banques sont caractérisées par une plus grande sensibilité de leur coût total aux variations des prix de facteurs de production. Les réformes menées ont favorisées les économies d’échelle croissante au sein du secteur bancaire congolais.


Abstract More than ninety percent of cassava production in Nigeria was processed into food for human consumption, thereby, leaving a significant industrial demand for the output as raw materials. This has made the country a major importer of cassava derivatives in spite of her arable lands. The challenge is not unconnected to inefficient use of improved technologies and poor participation in agricultural cooperatives which appears to be exacerbated by COVID-19 pandemic induced food crisis. This paper examines improved cooperative participation as the panacea for technical efficiency of cassava farmers in post-COVID era in Ogun State, Nigeria. This paper was guided by Agriculture Development Theory (ADT). Ex-post facto research design which was based on documented evidences was used. The results showed that since COVID-19 pandemic the Nigeria State is experiencing food shortage. It also revealed that majority of cassava farmers were not into agricultural cooperatives and as a result were bereft of ideas on improved cassava production technologies. This paper also established a nexus between cooperative societies and technical efficiency of cassava farmers. The paper concluded that through effective cooperative membership and patronage of cooperative services, technical efficiency of cassava farmers may not only be enhanced but their productivity would improve. It recommended among others that the government should encourage farmers to join agricultural cooperative societies. This is to enable them learn new techniques of farming and pull resources together to solve challenges that ordinarily they could not individually. Keywords: Cassava farmers, cooperative participation, technical efficiency, post-COVID.


Despite popular sentiment about how the days of the brick-and-mortar bookshops are numbered, independent (SME) bookshops across the world are seeing a resurgence. However, bookshop owners tend to face challenges in managing oper-ating costs, generating sales, and knowing what kind of people to hire to drive performance. This paper examines the possi-ble relationship between employee profiles in bookshops in Muscat, the customer satisfaction at these bookshops, and the reported operational and financial performance at the bookshops. Methodology: The paper relies on structured interviews with 4 bookshop owners in Muscat, paired with a 30-question ECSI questionnaire to measure the customer satisfaction of 60 customers at 3 of the 4 bookshops. Finally, the paper examines possible trends between the operational performance, the customer satisfaction, and the preferred behavioral competencies the bookshop owners tend to seek out in hires. Findings: The customers reported significantly higher expectations in areas which are influenced by employees' marketing and sales competencies including friendliness, speed of assistance, and the ability to hold an interesting conversation. Similarly, the bookshop which reported a preference to hire sales-competent employees was able to demonstrate more consistent customer satisfaction and overall better financial performance. Conclusion: There is a relationship between employee profiles and customer satisfaction at Omani bookshops. However, the relationship between customer satisfaction and financial perfor-mance is less clear. Recommendations: Bookshops are recommended to hire readers between 23-27 years old with market-ing backgrounds and specific face-to-face sales competencies. It is a plus if the employees tend to read the same genre the bookshop specializes in, though this should be researched further.

customer relationship management implementation and its implication to customer loyalty in hospitality industry in nepal []

the main aim of this paper is to identify impact of customer relationship management and customer loyalty in hotel industry. this research is descriptive and primary data base research report. from the research it is analyzed that gender has no idea significant effect on customer loyalty towards hotel industry. likewise, occupation has significant effect on customer loyalty towards hotel industry but education has no significant effect on customer loyalty towards hotel industry. it is found that there is a significant positive relationship between customer staff relationship, customer retention, customer convenience and technology-based CRM with customer loyalty towards hotel industry with positive correlation.

Modeling Nigeria Exchange Rate using the GARCH model []

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to modeled Nigeria exchange rate using the GARCH model with three distributions, the normal distribution, student-t distribution and the generalized error distribution with a view of comparing their ability to capture excess kurtosis in proximity to the theoretical value of kurtosis. The data employed in this study comprised of Nigeria exchange rate, Naira to Euro from 2000 to 2020, comprising of 252 observations. The result obtained from the analysis revealed that GARCH (1, 1)-std, was selected as the best models for naira to euro return series respectively. The selection was based on minimum information criteria and the ability to capture excess kurtosis in proximity to the theoretical value of kurtosis. The results of the fitted model indicate that the parameters were significant and that volatility was quite persistent. Diagnostic analysis of the selected model reviewed that the model was correctly specify with no ARCH effect and autocorrelation in the residuals of the models. Our study has established that the GARCH model with respect to student distribution perform better in terms of capturing excess kurtosis in proximity to the theoretical value of kurtosis. Keywords: GARCH, ARCH, Kurtosis, Model, Diagnostic, Nigeria, Volatility


Nowadays, the urban areas and cities of the country are developed rapidly. The domestic houses and commercial building are constructed and are equipped with many devices, either electrical or electronics appliances. Those devices are mostly controlled manually using switches or any other manual mechanism. They consume electrical energy. Sometimes the owner’s of the houses forget to switch off them and energy is lost. The ICT technologies are mainly used to link the physical objects to accumulate and exchange data with the interconnectivity of wireless protocols. The techniques and technological methods can be used to know the abnormal state of operation of apparatus located inside the building and household services with the purpose of decreasing power utilization and provide to owner’s home the best way of managing of the assets set. The easy control and monitoring of all appliances used inside the house and management of energy they consume can be achieved by the use of IOT technologies. The IOT technologies work properly with different sensors for controlling the switching of ON/OFF of LEDs and socket outlets, regulating of temperature, humidity, heating and illumination, monitoring of security around and inside the homes, temperature metering. This project describes the easy method for controlling and monitoring the electromechanical appliances installed at home and create the comfortable life of owner’s home to get best efficiency of energy management. The control and monitoring are obtained by using of smart mobile hand set through GSM module and Bluetooth module interconnected wirelessly by cloud internet. The project is made by microcontroller Arduino Uno used to run the point lights and other appliances and equipment connected to the Arduino via relays. That microcontroller board is interfaced to GSM module and an HC-05 Bluetooth to match up with the smart mobile hand set. It was clearly that GSM had high range from the electromechanical and electronics appliances to be remotely controlled, but with low data rate comparatively to Bluetooth which has high data rate and small range distance from the home equipping the devices. This system has an advantage of using both GSM and Bluetooth technology which thereby eliminates the cost of network usage to a great extent by using Bluetooth when in the range of few meters with the devices. The system has its application in situations where the amount of data to be transferred is not tremendous. The results and outputs of the project of the proposed system of remote control of smart home using GSM and Bluetooth connected together, have shown that, the old manual control of many buildings has to be changed into smart home automation to get the comfort life of owner’s home during the control of different assets. The automation of industry and power plants is recommended where personal technicians are not allowed to enter in due to harmful electromagnetic waves. The growing of sensors, automation of apparatus of factories, notifications to operators of machinery in industry, and implementation and testing of real situation of our simulated project must be applied. Key words: ICTs, IOT (Internet of Things), sensors, Smart Home, Interconnection of smart home, smart phones, home automation, Smart home energy management, Smart thermostat, Thermal comfort control, Smart energy control, Smart home energy management system opportunity, Wireless Sensor Networks


Toxoplasmosis being a cosmopolitan parasitic infection, has been reported from all around the world. However, majority of the farmers doesn’t not know what is toxoplasmosis? The current study was carried out to compile and review the published data available at various electronic databases such as Google Scholars, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Research Gate. The studies containing information related with toxoplasmosis in food animals, commensals and humans of Pakistan from 1990 to 2017 were included in the present review. The overall T. gondii infection rates ranged between 0% and 53.8% animals. The results indicated that toxoplasmosis was found 2.5% to 45% in sheep, 19% to 57.1% in goats, 19% to 22% in cattle, 15% to 22% in buffaloes, 10% camels, 26.43 to 63% in cats, 28% to 50% in dogs, 36% to 58% in mice; and in humans 27.7% to 63%. Furthermore, the results from different studies showed the variation in the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii infections with time and space. The present study suggested that toxoplasmosis is overall increasing in Pakistan with the passage of time. The current report would provide an insight for the future research on toxoplasmosis in Pakistan.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resource planning practices on performance of projects in Rwanda a case of the upgrade of Kigali international airport (UKIA) project of Rwanda civil aviation authority. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of resource planning practices on performance of projects in Rwanda with reference to the upgrade of Kigali international airport. The specific objective was to determine the importance of planning on the performance of projects in Rwanda, To determine the effects human resource planning practices on the performance of projects in Rwanda, To analyze the effects of financial planning practices on the performance of projects in Rwanda, To identify the effects of material and equipment planning practices on the performance of projects in Rwanda. The goal of the study was to ascertain how resource planning practices will affect the upgrade of the international airport in Kigali. Target population for the study was 82 project members within RCAA. There was no sampling since the number of respondents was small. The position and authority of members were considered for inclusion into the study because there were thought to have sufficient knowledge on the operations and management of the project. Such knowledge was necessary for correctly responding to the questionnaire. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data, which was later analysed using SPSS. The study revealed Correlation analysis between human resource planning practices and project performance indicated positive and yet significant relationship between teamwork, training of the project team members and project performance. The study revealed that there existed teamwork in the project and that project members were trained. Financial resource planning practices were found to influence the project performance. Practices such as budgeting, forecasting, and having plans for money generation were found to exist in the project. Correlation analysis between financial resource planning practices and project performance indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between budgeting, forecasting, plans for money generation and project performance. Order placement, monitoring of placed orders, and planned procurement practices were found to exist within the project. Correlation between material resource planning practices namely; order placement, monitoring of placed orders, planned procurement and project performance gave evidence that this practices had influence on the project performance. Procurement of required material was found to be done within the project budget. Project members were provided with the right quantity of material in the right time.


A 65 years old female patient was admitted to a public tertiary care hospital, corona isolation ward. The patient was having 80% SPO2  on 12 litres of oxygen. The patient was having bilateral lung pneumonia; however, the patient was active and able to talk. The patient told the nurse that kindly allows my son to meet me I am having palpitations but the nurse did not consider her request because of the strict visitor restriction policy and her son already had a visit half an hour ago. After some time, the patients condition deteriorated and developed severe shortness of breath and cough. The saturation of the patient dropped below 40%, staff and doctors tried their level best to stabilize the patient but they failed and the patient died. The attendant started yelling on the counter and filed a complaint against the nurse for not considering her request. The nurse was given an observation form for not considering the patients request. Here I argue that nurses are not supposed to fulfil patients wishes against the hospital policies.

« Effets du taux de change sur les importations et les exportations en République Démocratique du Congo » []

La stabilité du taux de change, dans le contexte de la mondialisation s’avère délicate, mais indispensable car elle permet à tout Etat qui n’est pas en autarcie d’accroitre la compétitivité de ses exportations et de maintenir constant le pouvoir d’achat des ménages consommateurs des produits importés. Plusieurs raisons justifient la fréquence élevée des importations dans plusieurs pays ouverts à l’échange international. Le premier motif explicatif est celui de l'indisponibilité des biens ; un pays importe ce qu'il ne peut pas produire pour des raisons d'ordre climatique ou en absence de certains minéraux sur le territoire national. Le second motif est celui de la recherche des débouchés pour expliquer les mouvements internationaux. Aussi, le développement du commerce international tient compte de plusieurs paramètres différents parmi lesquels figure le taux de change, dont il serait important d'analyser. Notre thématique se situe dans le domaine d’économie monétaire en ce sens que la politique monétaire mise en œuvre par la Banque Centrale poursuit comme objectif non seulement la stabilité extérieure, s’expliquant par la parité de prix de deux monnaies, mais aussi au niveau domestique par la maitrise de l’inflation et la réduction de certains déséquilibres extérieurs. La situation économique de la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) est en train de s'améliorer progressivement après avoir connue une longue période de crise, laquelle a atteint son point le plus aigüe au cours de la décennie 90 avec notamment une inflation à 4 chiffres. En 2001, le pays avait mis en place un programme de stabilisation macroéconomique dénommée « Programme Intérimaire Renforcé », en sigle PIR . Ce programme, était élaboré avec l'assistance des services du FMI, et avait une double finalité, à savoir : stabiliser le cadre macroéconomique en vue de préparer les conditions de relance économique et favoriser la reprise de la coopération internationale. Les différentes économies nationales sont dotées des monnaies différentes. Dès lors il existe entre elles des opérations économiques (commerce international, mouvement de capitaux) un problème de réglementation se pose entre les différents espaces monétaires. La confrontation sur le marché des changes est la première manifestation de la réalité internationale. Toute entreprise qui exporte ou qui importe, tout particulier qui se rend à l'étranger, toute institution financière ou non financière qui prête, place ou emprunte sur les marchés étrangers ou internationaux se heurte immédiatement à un problème de change. Dès lors, la gestion des risques de change se pose avec acuité. Le taux de change est devenu une variable importante dans le monde économique actuel .

« Gratuité et efficacité interne de l’enseignement de base dans la ville de Kindu en République Démocratique du Congo » []

L’éducation en Afrique comme ailleurs, est l’un des principaux secteurs d’intervention des Puissances Publiques qui consacrent une partie de ses ressources budgétaires pour son développement. Le retard qu’a connu la RDC, en matière éducative, est cependant très grand, un obstacle majeur à la croissance et à la lutte contre la pauvreté. Parallèlement, la faible croissance limite les marges de manœuvres disponibles pour financer une extension de la scolarisation, tout comme d’ailleurs le faible niveau d’instruction de la population limite la capacité des écoles à donner une meilleure qualité des enseignements aux enfants scolarisés.

Article from a case study []

Child marriage remains a concern globally, more so in developing countries, including Zambia. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that perpetuate child marriage and strategies to prevent them: A case study of Nyangu Village in Rufunsa District, Lusaka Province. The main objectives of the study included; to explore the existence of child marriages within Nyangu village of Rufunsa District, in Zambia; to identify unique factors that foster child marriages in families and communities in Nyangu village; to identify gaps that are in marriage laws in Zambia; and to determine strategies that can prevent child marriages in families and communities in Nyangu village. This research applied a qualitative approach. The study sample included a total of twenty three participants; sixteen under eighteen participants made up of fourteen girls and two boys; one Headwoman, One headmaster of the primary school of the community, and five parents made up of community leaders, two male and three female. Purposive sampling was used to determine the sample for the study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The study revealed that child marriages existed in Nyangu village and were influenced by factors common and generational. These factors included poverty, lack of education, influence from parents and culture, gaps between the two legal systems, lack of developmental programs, and early pregnancy. The study recommended the government of Zambia harmonising the two national laws; the government of Zambia offer holistic resources support towards learners to support the free education policy; improving the lives of families in the village through the promotion of tourism in the village and surrounds, as it is located at the border of three countries and in close proximity to the Luangwa River and national parks; lastly, to improve reporting systems and implementation of the police service in the village.

Exploring Use of CFD Based Simulated Audio Signatures to develop Machine Learning Model for Drone Identification and Classification (A Review Study) []

Quadcopters or drones are the emerging technology of today and are quickly finding their effectivity in every field of life. While their generalized use has brought ease, the possibility of their proliferation and illegal used by certain rogue elements and lone wolves also pose a serious security threat. With a lot of research directed towards ensuring the safe usage of these technologically advanced platforms, this publication review discusses various available techniques for drone detection and identification. The simplicity and effectiveness of audio-based designs for drone identification and localization is the primary focus of study. These available methods primarily rely on experimentally obtained drone data to build a machine learning model requiring physical setups and are mostly limited by the availability of model geometries and audio recording sessions. Towards the end of this technical review an effort is being made to lay the foundation for proposed utilization of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulated audio data of different drone / quadcopter geometries. Same predicted data can in-turn be augmented with available experimental drone sounds and commercially available noise data to develop a drone identification machine learning (ML) model.


The aim of the study is to analyze the sustainability strategy approach adopted by Bank Muscat, the main initiatives under the ESG umbrella, and their impact on the performance of the company in the context of a growing importance of sustainability in building more trust among all the stakeholders and ensuring long-term performance and value delivery. The analysis includes also the governance mechanism around sustainability, the results in terms of the environment footprint of the bank, and the impact on the customers and communities. The main data sources used for this research were: the bank annual sustainability report, a dedicated survey designed to assess how sustainability is managed by the bank and which has been completed by 50 employees from 3 strategic departments which are the representative for the transformation of the bank. Last but not least a series of secondary sources, articles and books on sustainability in general and in the financial services industry in particular have been critically reviewed. The main findings of the research are that the bank has a clear sustainability strategy split in 3 main areas/sub-strategies under the environment, social and governance pillar, that the bank has a formal governance and annual report for sustainability, specific performance indicators to monitor the progress in implementation and also the bank employees have a high awareness about the sustainability strategy and perceive that it contributes to the long-term performance of the organization. The main recommendations of the research are: to calculate the return on investment (ROI) for the sustainability strategy and communicate it, to introduce a maturity model for the sustainability strategy and execution and communicate it, to introduce new performance indicators to measure innovation and leadership as the employees perceived these 2 areas are the most difficult to measure and to continue the awareness and training programs around sustainability and its impact on the long-term performance of the organization. The study will give a comprehensive image on sustainable finance, how does the long-term sustainability look like for the banking sector, what are the key sustainability strategies adopted by the financial institutions

The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on the Financial Performance of the Government Universities in Sri Lanka []

Abstract That brings up some significant hazards that cannot be disregarded, given the current state of the world economy. According to the education sector, the trade-based economic engine that has long given riches to the world would be destroyed if isolationism and protectionism were allowed to go too far. A market for free education defined by willing participants acting honourably within the parameters of accepted financial norms thrives, if they do not use a standard platform, like IFRS. The objectives of the research are to examine the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on government universities in Sri Lanka, to examine the required level of policy framework to implement International Financial Reporting Standards in the government universities in Sri Lanka, and to examine the positive externalities of the implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards on the government universities in Sri Lanka. PRISMA is a crucial set of techniques for systematic reviews and meta-analyses supported by evidence. PRISMA's primary area of interest is providing evaluations of the performance of international accounting standards. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) make it abundantly clear that nations should "adopt a single set of internationally recognized, high-quality accounting standards" (AICPA). They contend that American public firms and financial markets would benefit from more financial reporting openness and comparability. IFRS is widely used at many universities throughout the globe. A deadline for public firms to adopt a single set of international accounting standards is something that many colleges throughout the globe, investors, and bursars/accountants are waiting for. According to a poll by the Association of International Certified Professional Accountants (AICPA), public businesses around the world would quickly adopt IFRS. It is crucial for a flexible accounting industry that can adjust to a chaotic, ever-changing environment. State universities in Sri Lanka should provide bursars/ accountants and financial professionals with the knowledge, abilities, and resources they need to comprehend complexity, foresee risk, and identify opportunities using IFRS.


This study focuses on determining the Self- Care Behavior of Persons with Diabetes. It employed the descriptive research design to gather the empirical data required and non-probability sampling technique was used in the selection of the participants. To gather an in-depth and substantive data, the researcher personally assisted and individually interviewed the participants in answering the survey questionnaire. The outcome of the study revealed that majority of the participants are on the action stage of the Transtheoretical Model of self-care behavior since they have made specific overt modifications in their physical, psycho-emotional, social and spiritual self-care behaviors for more than 6 months and they intend to continue these changes by moving or going forward in order to prevent the complications of the disease. Despite the challenges they encountered they were able to survive and face those challenges because of the support provided by their family, friends, health care providers and religious groups. Moreover, it was found out that the good interpersonal relationship they have developed with their doctors have positively affected their self-care behavioral changes. However, despite the programs and activities provided by the Diabetes Specialty Clinic of the Cotabato Regional and Medical Center, there are other participants who are still contemplating and pre-contemplating of modifying their behavior and is most common among newly diagnosed clients and those who have difficulty in adhering to the dietary and pharmacologic treatment. Based on the given phenomena, the researcher therefore concluded that persons with diabetes can manage to change their self-care behavior despite the difficulties and challenges experienced with the help of their family, friends and members of the health care team who inspired them to adhere with the therapeutic regimen thus motivating them to help themselves better with the dread effects of diabetes mellitus to improve their quality of life. The researcher recommends the participants to be proactive advocates in the prevention and control of diabetes and be a motivation to other diabetic clients in self-care behavior change. Coherent and logical plans shall be formulated with full autonomy as partners and major decision makers in this care process. Moreover, for nurses and health care providers at large, to enhance and strengthen health promotion activities and programs to motivate and encourage diabetic clients to change their self-care behavior. The utilization of evidence-based interventions, strategies and processes are highly recommended in order to help diabetic clients move through stages and uplift the professional nursing care practice. Furthermore, focus on the challenges faced by the clients by helping them cope with the adversities, and strengthen their efforts in order to hurdle the difficulties encountered. Keywords: Nursing, Self-Care Behavior, Diabetes Mellitus, Persons with Diabetes, Transtheoretical Model