Volume 11, Issue 4, April 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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From Theories to Practice of Teaching English as a Foreign Language at a Vietnamese University []

This study aims to investigate EFL teachers’ knowledge about learning and language theories as well as pedagogy in relation to teaching foreign languages in the context of a university in Vietnam. The study employed a qualitative method. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. The data were transcribed, language translated and imported into NVivo 12 Plus software for coding and analysis. Results of the study show that EFL teachers’ pedagogical knowledge a degree of flexibility and the ability to adapt in terms of practices. However, they do not pay much attention to theories. The study provides some suggestions further professional development for the EFL teachers and future researchers.

Conceptualizing Military Siege Warfare Strategy: Objectives, Conduct and Challenges. A critical review of literature and research agenda []

The current international human law framework does not define what the term military siege is. This is despite its consistent and regular use in modern warfare and its resistant repercussions. There is an increased interest among scholars to focus on siege warfare. Despite this increasing interest and relevance of the concept in several settings in contemporary military operations, the fundamental constructs have not been properly defined and operationalized. It was therefore critical that a study is conducted to critically analyze the concept and its objectives; the conduct; and challenges. The analysis was key in crafting a definition of the concept ‘siege warfare’ and providing possible recommendations regarding its conduct. One challenge however is that modern law still tolerates deliberate infliction of extreme deprivation especially in non-international armed conflict. Besieging forces are also free to reject passages of humanitarian relief without explanation. The study recommended as follows: As a matter of urgency, IHL be improved to include deliberate non-deprivation of foods to civilian in non-international armed conflict and combatants in both international and non-international armed conflict as a war crime under IHL. Given the role of Humanitarian organizations in alleviating human suffering during hostilities, the International Law should include a clause on the non-interference with humanitarian assistance efforts by parties to a conflict both in international and non-international armed conflicts and harsh penalties on indiscriminate attacks in populated areas, among others. A definition for the construct ‘military siege’ was also provided.

Religion in the Development of Peace and Harmony in India with special reference to Islam []

The religion has often been ‘portrayed in dual terms’ either in the state of conflict or its resolution. In the case of violence or of reconciliation, it is considered as source. The infamous intricacy of the subject reveals that there is no common and general understanding of the central theme of religion. It is observed that the religious motivations and factors vary in each case in their apparent ways and extent to implicate different aspect of religion in the violence and vice versa. Context becomes crucial to understand its role in the situations of conflict. The religion is always a complex and interwoven system of variables, which is based upon many different contextual and historical factors. This paper attempts to find a general understanding and application of ‘religion’, that is often applied to different situations, ideologies, actors and institutions. Efforts have been made to get it understand and experience by doctrines rather than by individual’s actions. To understand the potential role of religion in both conflict and peace building measures, it is necessary to review it operations and interactions with different aspects of human experience. This paper does not aim to provide a definite solution to such violence that has infested our society. Instead, it reflects on our way of scrutiny that we use to deal with the matters of conflict. It is also a humble attempt at presenting some intellectual understanding of the concept of ‘religion’ in context of conflict and its resolution. This exercise contains a literature review, which aims to capitalise the works and experiences of scholar in different academic disciplines, including social philosophies and other literatures.


One of the challenges in many economies is financial inclusion, in which rural areas and women have limited capacity to access and obtain financial services. One of the key drivers though which financial inclusion agenda is driven, is by Mobile money, which has grown rapidly over the past decade. MTN Zambia is one of the mobile money service providers in the country. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of MTN mobile money services on improving financial inclusion amongst women in the country. The main objective of the study was to establish the effect of MTN mobile money services on improving the availability and access to financial services and products, and reducing the cost of obtaining financial services and products. A survey was conducted involving women in three districts; Kafue, Chilanga and Chongwe. The study used systematic random sampling to select 180 women. Data analysis was done through obtaining descriptive statistics; e.g. the mean, frequencies and percentages, as well as employing chi-square test of association and logistic regression analysis. The Pearson chi-square results indicated a positive association between MTN credit loans and improved access to FSP, statistically significant at 0.0001 P-value. By using logistic regression analysis, the study found that accessing MTN loans has a significant positive effect on improving financial access. The Chi-square test of association indicated that MTN money withdraw cost, charges on MTN bill payments and MTN interest on loans were found to have positive effects on reducing the cost of obtaining Financial Services and Products, statistically significant at 0.0001 p-value. The logistic regression analysis also found that MTN mobile money services has a significant positive effect on reducing the cost of obtaining financial services and products. The study therefore recommended that MTN Zambia and other mobile money providers should increase the amount of loans given to women; and should consider reducing the interest on loans for women, especially repeat borrowers who pay back within short periods of time (less than 30 days).


Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel found on the planet. It is still the most used energy source for generating electricity. In most developed countries, it is firmly established, and it is fast expanding in underdeveloped countries. Coal reserves around the world are enormous, with hundreds of years yet to be mined. This paper presents coal formation, classification, mining, processing, storage, transportation, conversion to other forms of energy, efficiency, pollution problems, and remedies.


The rate of economic growth and industrialization of any nation depends on its ability to produce adequate quantity and quality of electric power and effectively distribute it to power homes and industries. The power generating stations have been discussed and the underperforming and non-functioning plants were identified. The paper dives into a detailed analysis of the factors affecting Nigeria’s electricity generation and profers solutions to these problems.

"CPEC,as Economic Corridor in the region " By Usama Khan (Critical analysis on Foreign Affair) []

The CPEC is ambitious strategy of China and Pakistan to make Economical Corridor between both state in order to shaped geo-economic dynamic structure of relation, officially such project took place in 2015 between both governments sectors and signed as fifty one agreements and memorandums of understanding it cost value of $46 billion but history of such initiative called it before as (OBOR) One belt one road which little discover in era of 1960s which focused on to improving connectivity among multiple continents such as Asia, Europe and Africa according to critics OBOR consists of CPEC because Critics elaborate that in 1960s’The government of both states assigned a treaty which based on “Economically welfare” future CPEC roots deeply turns towards Musharraf Era when he welcome China Prime Minister Zhu Ronngji to support Pakistan in field of Economic and through which Six agreements take placed and a Memorandum of Understanding which covered areas including Telecom, petroleum and railways although Musharraf ask for support for construction of Gwadar port and in 2002 Prime minister Wu Bang Guo visited Gwadar port and it become ground-breaking ceremony and which now seems as mouth piece of CPEC, historical thinkers mentions such ceremony ultimate cause of Pak-China Friendship corridor from Karakoram to Gwadar. Economists term such developing programmer as ‘learning by doing’ which define as to realize its fully potential Qualities under strategy and ambitions of both states because CPEC Visionary target is to support the entire citizenry which will covered highways, ports, power plants and industries and all those aspect of economical senior which will be in favor of citizenry of both sides . Chinese belief of business is Simple, she beliefs “welfare and stability” can only be achieved through economic development, in such senior their CPEC programmer is essential figure for both countries because it gives stability to china province such as “Xinjiang”, which will help Chinese interests in East Asia up to Europe its seems as Pakistan state will act as a “bridge” between china, south and central Asia an its has enormous level of strategic importance in Middle East and Gulf states too, according to Critics Pakistan will be consider as “Corridor” in all this achievement of Pak-Chine CPEC, alike late in renaissance Era Europe Corridor was Italy which make cause of economically welfare for Europe same alike Pakistan will be consider as Economical welfare for Central Asia ,in all such core of any successful business ventures lies on joint ventures cooperate with each other, although for cause of success they have to expand its cooperation in field of business after completion of CPEC in which both state Economic will progress great fully, through all such completing of CPEC will cause Culture exchange ideology between two state subject which makes more easy for both parties to understand and adopted life style of each other norms and values because for business both parties must know how to behave and act according to local culture and practices .

The Principle of Quantum Consciousness’’ []

A term Quantum explain as small quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation or nature and behaviour of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level, which allow us to observe as quantize packages, East Science elaborate it in two terms atom is quantize in observe level for observer or Quantum Consciousness in literary term of action potential as optic nerve or Ta Haa (طه) which means autism or Gamma. In Quantum Consciousness principle we will know how magnetic impulse aware through stimulus by CNs through Stock and make harmonic interaction through nerves where magnetic susceptibility in orbital velocity will aware mind of state in which electrical impulse will enhance stimulus for free particle for task, whereas subconscious or lower-soul with negative charge will intricate with rational part of brain to motivate organs or device for Consciousness or Quantum mind in all such Intellectual Consciousness (action potential) will do electro-slit mechanism in atomic impulse to break down of nerve glucose for Double consciousness or electrical impulse mechanism within charges, whereas charge-less particles or Gamma waves will perform mechanism of neural nerve system for irrational phase of brain and find out unconscious or delta waves for to give duration for mental activities. Although force or affords Alpha waves have source of gravitational impulse system in brain to regulate Quantum consciousness phase. A harmonic wave motion in constant velocity is time or state to state interaction duration phases in Quantum Consciousness which function is to regulate charge particle in Quantum. In below we will elaborate Principle of Quantum Consciousness in physics through which relativity of gravitational impulse will implies through necessity of anti-particles with change of its electrical impulse vice versa and in physics all universal Forces of attraction acting between all forces, East call it as law of atomic attraction or spinning mechanism, in regards of uncertainty principle we know magnetic susceptibility in waves or electromagnetism is dilemma or decision points of charges among atoms mechanism, distances shorter than magnitude have high probability to detect particle of anti-particle pairs (sub-lower soul or subatomic level) packs around the original particle that we put in this phenomena will shows relativity of gravitational impulse or force or multi-particles unit. Through help of La Theory in Quantum physics we will conduct experiment, by choosing of Bose statistics for integer spin particles, and Fermi statistics for half-integer spin particles. In Principle of Quantum Consciousness we will elaborate all principle by quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science.

Neuroscience and Pathology of imaging Aging brain . []

This Article aims to investigate the cognitive process and the neural basis of action processing and, in particular, of gesture elaboration. The topic has been dealt with in clinical and neuro imaging studies, and the functional role of the fronto-temporo-parietal regions, with a particular focus on the motor and premotor areas. The first chapter presents a critical revision of neuroimaging findings on the neural basis of gesture processing, with the aim of verifying whether different neural structures are involved in processing various kinds of gestures and with specific reference to the distinction between meaningless (MLG) and meaningful gestures (MFG). The review also proposes an attempt at reconciling cognitive models with available neuroimaging data, and serves as the starting point for further clinical investigation. In the second chapter, the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) - the major target of basal ganglia output - in the control of voluntary movement was investigated in a functional MRI study on a patient with Tourette syndrome. The topic of the voluntary control of action has been discussed from a different clinical perspective in the third chapter, by means of a study on the automatic-voluntary dissociation (AVD) in patients affected by disorders of gesture processing (limb apraxia); apraxic patients usually perform the same gestures better in a naturalistic context than upon an examiner’s request. The comprehension of the cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in single patients can provide further information about how the fronto-temporo-parietal network interacts with environment in gesture planning. Finally, in the fourth chapter, the activity of the primary motor area (MI) has been addressed in relation of the embodiment theory by means of a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study, in which the effects of action observation and action sentence comprehension on the activity of the motor system in different ways have been compared.


Information system quality is the quality of a product or service which is generally measured based on the user's compatibility with the information system. Information quality can affect the effectiveness of the company's information system. The pur-pose of this study was to determine the effect of System Quality and Information Quality on the Effectiveness of Financial In-formation Systems, either directly or through Actual Use, to determine the effect of System Quality and Information Quality on Information System Effectiveness through moderation of Top Management Support. The type of research used is quantitative research with a causalitative approach. The final sample size used in this study was 225 respondents. The data collection method used in this research is a questionnaire. This research data analysis uses the moderation regression analysis method. The results in this study indicate that 1) System Quality affects the Effectiveness of the Financial Information System through Actual Use, 2) Information Quality affects the Effectiveness of the Financial Information System through Actual Use, 3) Top management support cannot strengthen the effect of System Quality on the Effectiveness of the Financial Information System, 4) Top management support can strengthen the effect of Information Quality on Information System Effectiveness. Keywords: System Quality, Information Quality, Information System Effectiveness.


Pharmacological intervention is seen as an approach for treating obesity, which is thought to have a substantial effect on medical conditions and produces multiple chronic conditions and difficulties. For something like a long time, it was thought being overweight was such a consuming disorder which might be treated with counselling and relatively brief medication therapy. The majority of biochemical lean mass medicines have side effects, which makes it more difficult for regulatory bodies to approve them. This article gives an insight into the latest anti-obesity medications and natural ingredients to anti-obesity characteristics in addition to their effectiveness mechanisms, which also include reducing lipid accumulation, vastly increased metabolic activity, reducing energy intake (thermogenesis), suppressing hunger, changing the configuration of the intestinal micro flora, and growing fecal fat detoxification.

Analysis of Climate Change related Hazards for the Risk Reduction, Case of Flooding in the City of Kigali []

Under climate change, hydro-meteorological hazards, mainly floods, are impacting, to a large extent, poor communities. In Rwanda, specifically City of Kigali, under rapid urbanization, high population density, and frequent rainfall, there is a regular occurrence of flooding, causing immense losses. Hence, historical rainfall and temperature patterns and flood related losses data are needed for policymakers and communities to adapt to the effect of climate change. The objective of this research is to analyze climate change-related flood losses toward reducing the resulting risks in City of Kigali. The 1990-220 secondary datasets on climate change (rainfall and temperature patterns) and flood losses (people killed/injured, destroyed infrastructures (classrooms, bridges, markets, electrical and water lines), cropland damaged and lost livestock) are utilized from Rwanda’s Ministry in charge of Emergency Management (MINEMA). Annual mean rainfall and temperature (max and min) data are given by Tropical Applications of Meteorology using Satellite (TAMSAT) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The Spatial Analysts Tool of Geographic Information System (GIS), Microsoft Excel, and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) facilitated data analysis and presentation. The results show that between 1990 and 2020, a fluctuating trend of temperature is recorded. The highest record of 27.86 oC was registered in 2000, while the lowest of 22.77 oC was in 2010. For the rainfall, the 1990-2020 annual mean rainfall increased from 102.96 mm up to 221.34 mm in 2000 and 2020, respectively. This is attributed to the increasing flood losses also recorded in the same period of study. The floods injuries rose from 9 over 1990-2010 to 85 across the period 2011-2020. Similarly, the number of houses damaged by flood increased from 75 to 3,187 from 1990 to 2010 and from 2011 through 2020, respectively. In addition, the map of flood over the study area confirms that areas with a higher record of losses are similar to the recording of higher rainfall. Although flood results from different factors exist, only climate change patterns (rainfall and temperature) considered in this research confirm the effect on the growing number of flood losses. This is confirmed by the obtained positive P value (0.028) between climate change and flood losses. Recommendations like (a) empowering early warning systems for awareness and preparedness, (b) using available information to build in safe zone areas and (c) expanding green spaces to reduce the runoff are provided to policymakers and communities for the flood risk decrease and climate change adaptation in the City of Kigali. Keywords: Climate change, City of Kigali, Flood, Risk Reduction, Rwanda


Late injection for a stratified charge could realize Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine’s full potential in terms of fuel economy and emissions. A current study shows that lean mixture creation in the combustion chamber causes misfire, hydrocarbon, and NOx emissions potentially weakening the engine’s advantage over the port fuel injection (PFI) engines. This work explores the impact of dual direct injection on NOx formation in a GDI engine at early injection mode. The 2021 ANSYS Design modeler was used for the geometry design, and meshing, and employed ANSYS Fluent for simulation, and numerical analysis. Post-combustion mass fraction of nitrogen and its corresponding oxides of nitrogen content in the combustion chamber were about ten times lower in the early injection mode of the dual direct injection engine in comparison to the same in the late injection mode. The results suggest that dual direct injection enhances progressive cooling of the charge and in-cylinder temperature for the mitigation of NOx formation.

Spatial And Temporal Changes Of Urban Heat Island In Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria []

The Jos Metropolis in Nigeria has been under the pressure of urban growth over the past few decades. The population increase coupled with developmental activities within the city has led to urbanization. This urbanization and conversion of natural landscape into anthropogenic structure has resulted to temperature variation between the urban areas and the surrounding open areas. Furthermore, the temperature variability represents human-urban and rural contrast, which is due to deforestation and converting natural land surface into impervious land due to the urbanization. This paper examined the spatio-temporal variations of Urban Heat Island in Jos metropolis, a phenomenon that occurs when the temperature of a city or urban area is higher than the surrounding rural area by analyzing the Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC), the Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) of the study area and how they affect the city. In the end, the study showed that the Spatio-temporal changes of LST within the metropolis was on an increase owing to the Rural-Urban migration in the city, due to the presence of commercial and industrial activities within the metropolis.


Abstract Higher education institutions in developing nations are increasingly emphasizing quality assurance, as seen by the creation of pertinent national and institutional policies, structures, and processes. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the quality assurance systems in selected private universities in Lusaka district. This study was guided by four objectives namely to assess the infrastructure available for students learning, to ascertain the credentials of academic staff and other staff, to explore how the financial capacity of the selected private universities impacts their internal and external operations and to establish the measures private universities need to put in place to ensure quality assurance. The study was guided a case study research design. The data was collected using questionnaires and interview guides. The data collected was subjected to thematic and descriptive analysis. The study revealed that infrastructure is an essential component of the learning environments universities. The study further revealed that some lectures at private universities don’t actually have the academic credentials they claim to have. The study further revealed that the financial capacity of selected private universities impacts their internal and external operations in a negative way as it was dependent on tuition fees from students. Following the research findings and in response to the conclusions drawn from the study the following recommendations have been made; Private universities must set up quality assurance units to safeguard the general interest of all stakeholders in sound standards and maintenance of high quality education. It will encourage continuous improvement in the management of quality academic processes. Private universities need to find other alternative sources of funding in order to reduce sole dependency on fees. Private universities should establish a staff exchange program especially the non- teaching staff with already established universities especially public universities. Management of the private universities should put in place modern financial management control systems especially adoption of computer related packages to make sure they are able to plan properly and avoid financial surprises Key Terms: Quality assurance, Private Universities, Financial capacity, Infrastructure, Academic Credentials


Instructional material is a tool used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. It is a generic term used to describe the resources teachers use to deliver classroom instructions. Basically, these are materials to support specific learning objectives, as set out in lesson plans or lesson logs. Based on the experience of the researcher as an Araling Panlipunan teacher, there is a difference in teaching with or without instructional materials. Getting your hands-on valuable teaching materials made teaching easy and very interesting. One of the most common instructional materials used by the teacher in teaching Araling Panlipunan are maps and globes. However, students find it difficult to trace places using minute printed materials that can be seen on the globe or map. It is a perennial problem encountered by the researcher every time the researcher conducted a formative test in identifying and locating places on the map and globe. I. To address the existing problem encountered by the Araling Panlipunan teacher, the researcher designed Paper Tarpaulin as a tool to identify and locate places on the map. Similar to the original map, it is huge and clear enough that students can read, locate, and identify places correctly. The significance of this study is to help students with difficulties in locating and identifying places on the map. With the Focal Group Discussion result, the researcher found out that the respondents were positive about the innovation. The MPS was raised to 90.67% from 37.07%. The respondents showed a positive attitude towards paper tarpaulin as instructional material wherein most of them strongly agree that they definitely understand the lessons using larger printed materials like paper tarpaulin. Finally, most of the respondents could identify, locate and pinpoint places using paper tarpaulin as instructional materials.

Analyse critique des effets de la fonction financière des organisations publiques de santé : cas l’Hôpital Général de Référence de N’djili en 2021. []

La République Démocratique du Congo étant gangrénée par les antivaleurs dans la gestion des biens publics (corruption, détournement, vol, …), le décideur devrait promouvoir les règles de gestion simples et adéquates pour protéger les ressources financières de son organisation. Cette étude se retrouve dans le paradigme interprétativiste. L’objectif poursuivi est de procéder à une analyse critique sur le respect des pratiques et procédures de gestion financière dans une institution sanitaire publique en utilisant les méthodes d’analyse comparative, d’observation et documentaire. De façon critique, L’Hôpital Général de Référence de N’djili a réalisé durant l’année 1.375.065.095 FC et a engagé 1.375.102.590 FC soit un taux de recouvrement de 99%. 5.771 malades ont fréquenté l’Hôpital en 2022. De ce fait, le personnel du circuit financier a été évalué à 21%, la qualité des pièces comptables a été évaluée à 64%, le processus d’encaissement à 57% et de décaissement à 40%. En outre, la sécurisation et archivage des pièces ont été évalués à 40%. Ceci démontre que la manière de gérer les finances publiques au sein de l’HGR de N’djili présente des signaux rouges de fraude. Nous l’avons jugée de mauvaise (50%). Car, nous avons constaté que cette organisation de santé fonctionne sans un manuel des procédures, avec un personnel n’ayant pas de connaissances sur la gestion des risques de fraude. L’analyse des risques, des forces et faiblesses du circuit financier a démontré que les finances publiques de l’HGR de N’djili sont exposées à un risque élevé des fraudes (66%) ; avec des menaces de détournement, de falsification et des pertes de fonds et des pièces justificatives dans le circuit de l’encaissement et du décaissement. Mots clés : Critique, Gestion, Financière, Risque de fraude.

Psychological Well-being and its associated factors among boda boda drivers; a case of Nakawa division, Kampala. []

Introduction: Boda-boda drivers are the second most common group of road users in Uganda who get hurt in car accidents. Even though there are vast benefits to the boda boda system of transportation, boda boda drivers often face a number of social and psychological problems that put their mental and emotional health at risk. These relate to socio-economic status, the environment, health and safety, working hours, the number of rules they have to follow, and their relationship with their customers. Method: Study employed a cross-sectional study design. The sample size was determined using Keishlis formula. Multistage and simple random sampling to pick respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to conduct face-to-face interviews, The Psychological General Wellbeing Index (PGWBI), which consisted of 22 items rated on a 6-point scale was adapted for the study. Frequency tables were generated for the varia-bles at the univariate level, and a chi-square distribution was employed to confirm the associations of the factors with psychological well-being at the bivariate level. Ordered logistic regression established the factors that predicted psychological well-being. All the analysis was significant at a 95% level of confidence. Results: They showed that only a small number of boda boda riders (1.94%) had no distress, while the majority (84.14%) had severe distress, 13.92% had moderate distress, and no respondent was psychologically well. The study further revealed an overall significant relationship be-tween all the socio-demographic factors and psychological well-being: the majority of the boda-boda drivers aged below 25 years were severe-ly distressed; drivers who did not own motorcycles were more severely distressed (87.63%) as compared to those who did (78.07%); drivers (89.40%) who were living with their families had an overall low distress level as compared to those who were not (80.13%). So, there needs to be help for boda-boda riders, like giving them motorcycles on loan, teaching them about health, promoting development SACCOs, and inte-grating PWB campaigns, all of which are meant to improve their overall mental health and quality of life.


Ce papier vise à identifier les déterminants de la performance de banques commerciales œuvrant en République démocratique du Congo, au cours de la période 2008-2018. L’étude distingue les déterminants des banques issues du processus de réforme et restructuration bancaires de ceux de banques commerciales nouvellement installées dans ce secteur. Concernant la première catégorie des banques leur rentabilité économique est positivement impactée par l’âge et les réformes menées alors que la pression fiscale et l’indice de concentration du marché ont un effet négatif sur celle-ci. Par contre, pour les nouvelles banques leur rentabilité économique est impactée positivement à la fois par l’indice de concentration des grandes banques, la croissance économique et l’inflation. Elle l’est négativement par l’âge et la pression fiscale. Par ailleurs, la rentabilité financière des banques réformées a pour déterminants clés qui agissent positivement : les charges de structure, la qualité de l’actif et l’inflation. Par contre, la liquidité, la croissance économique et la pression fiscale impactent négativement sur elle. Quant aux nouvelles banques, leur rentabilité financière a pour déterminants les charges de structure et la pression fiscale qui ont un effet statistiquement significatif mais négatif alors que l’adéquation du capital et la croissance économique l’impactent positivement. Concernant la marge nette d’intérêt des banques réformées, elle augmente avec la liquidité, les charges de structure et les réformes menées. En revanche, la marge nette d’intérêt de nouvelles banques s’accroit grâce aux coûts managériaux et la croissance économique. Par contre, la taille, l’adéquation du capital et la pression fiscale ont un effet statistiquement significatif mais négatif sur leur performance. De plus, nous constatons que la concurrence accrue entre les banques augmente significativement leurs performances alors que la fiscalité réduit significativement leur performance.

Autonomous English Language Learning of University Students during COVID-19 Pandemic in Pakistan []

The educational system all over the world has been affected severely due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. It forced the shutdown of universities in Pakistan which has adversely shaken the student fraternity. Since the nature of COVID-19 was contagious, it enforced isolation that tremendously disturbed the student-teacher interaction. Instead of traditional classroom teaching of the English language, online and computer-based learning has emerged as an alternative. It is therefore pertinent to evaluate the university students’ perception and readiness about the autonomous English language learning adopted at the university level during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the present study, the qualitative approach has been adopted; a sample of 10 students was purposefully selected by identifying their knowledge and experience with the phenomenon under study. The participants of the study are students of a public sector university in Pakistan who are at the graduate and post-graduate levels in the department of English and International Relations. The age of the participants lies between 21 to 26 years and they all are enrolled in the same university. The findings of the study reveal a mixed students’ response towards online English language learning and acceptance of digital learning systems. Students have accepted the significance of e-learning in the time of the COVID-19 crisis. However, most of them have expressed concerns over the lack of faculty training to use online modalities and problems like power failures that hinder their punctuality and performance in online English classes. Students have stressed the need to blend modern-day technology with traditional teaching for enhancing the language learning process and learning output. The findings of the study will facilitate the faculty members and policy makers who intend to take online English language teaching to the next level.


Three bulk samples of Ara-Ijero clay were mixed with varying percentages of nearby lateritic soil and compacted at the West African and Modified American Association of States Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) energy levels respectively. This was with a view to determining the influence of mechanical stabilization on the Unconfined (uniaxial) Compressive Strength (UCS) of the fired samples. Petrographic study of the parent rock was done while samples of the clay and lateritic soils were subjected to x-ray diffraction. Classification tests were carried on both the clay and lateritic soil samples prior to mechanical stabilization using 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% respectively by volume of lateritic soil as stabilizer. The stabilized samples were subjected to unconfined compression test at air-dried, sun-dried and fired states. Results of modal analysis showed that the parent rock is migmatite-gneiss with quartz as the most abundant mineral followed by alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite and muscovite with minor amounts of other minerals. The average amount of Kaolinite in the clay samples (35.4%) is typical of Kaolinitic clays. The clay and lateritic soil had average fine fractions of 62.7% and 53.0% respectively, an indication that the lateritic soil had better geotechnical property than the clay. The fired strengths were found to increase both with the amounts of stabilizer and the energy of compaction. However, the increases in strength as a result of increase in energy of compaction from the West African to the modified AASHTO level were found to be marginal. The increases in strengths noticed beyond 40% by volume of the stabilizer were also found to be insignificant. Fired bricks of adequate strength for construction of bungalow buildings can thus be produced by mixing 40% by volume of lateritic soil with clay with compaction at the West African level. This study has showcased the effectiveness of mechanical stabilization of clay with lateritic soil in the study area. Keywords: Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Mechanical stabilization, Migmatite-gneiss, Fired state, West African level.