Volume 11, Issue 7, July 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]


Blended learning is a method that mixes in-person instruction with online learning activities (Eoghan Quigley, 2022). This study aims to determine the relationship between the use of blended learning materials and higher-order thinking skills as perceived by the BTLED students in Kolehiyo ng Pantukan. This study employed quantitative research and was anchored to the concept of Samsanova (2019) entitled “Blended Learning Tools” in independent variable while in dependent variable was anchored to “Bloom’s (Revised) Taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001). It utilized descriptive correlational design that investigates the relationship of variables. The participants of this study are the BTLED students from first year to fourth year who enrolled in the academic year 2022-2023, which has a total population of 249 students. The study utilized a complete enumeration method. The researchers used an adapted and modified questionnaire as a research instrument. Thus, it utilizes mean, Pearson-r, and probability as statistical treatment in this study. As a result, the utilization level of blended learning materials in BTLED students in Kolehiyo Ng Pantukan was high. On the other hand, the level of higher order thinking skills as perceived by the BTLED students in Kolehiyo ng Pantukan was high. This indicates that there is a strong correlation between the use of blended learning resources and the quality of students' higher-order thinking abilities. Because of this, students should use technological tools to develop their higher-order thinking skills, teachers should incorporate technology as new pedagogy, parents should practice using specialized tools, and institutions should assess what technological tools are lacking to provide and improve school facilities and technical tools needed by students to enhance and strengthen their abilities and skills. Keywords: Blended learning materials, Higher order thinking skills as perceived by the BTLED students in Kolehiyo ng Pantukan, Descriptive- Correlational Design, Philippines


Moment redistribution is a powerful structural engineering technique that offers various benefits, including improved structural efficiency, enhanced capacity, design flexibility, and increased seismic resilience. This article explores the potential advantages of moment redistribution, such as cost savings during construction, capacity enhancement for existing structures, design flexibility, and improved seismic performance. Additionally, it delves into the challenges associated with this technique, including the complexity of analysis and design, the risk of over-redistribution, increased design sensitivity, and compliance with code limitations. The article provides a thorough examination of moment redistribution, its merits, and potential drawbacks, offering valuable insights for structural engineers and researchers.

Mobile Gaming and School Time Management []

The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between mobile gaming and school time management. This is to find out how the students balance their study time while playing mobile gaming. Due to the fact that there are widely accessible smartphones and applications, mobile gaming has become popular with young people. While mobile games offer entertainment and potential cognitive benefits, excessive use can interrupt school time management. Students may spend too much time playing games, which limits their attention and giving less time for academic tasks, studying or assignments. Excessive and unregulated gaming on mobile devices may lead to time wastage, which can result in reduced study periods, procrastination, or impaired academic performance. It is unable to know all the results. This research used a quantitative design through phenomenological design to analyze the details of how student’s managing their time of playing mobile games and doing school assignments or task. The data was gathered through a survey questionnaire of 30th senior school students. The results showed that mobile gaming and school time management have a significant positive relationship. The results also revealed that mobile gaming is not the top priority among students. The implications of this could be used to encourage senior high school students to manage their time correctly. The use of time in studying is important, rather than spending the whole time playing mobile games. Keywords: Mobile Gaming, School Time Management, Study Time

Research : Why Most Science Students in Most Secondary and Tertiary Schools Fail Chemistry Practical and Remedies []

The difficulties encountered by most students in chemistry practical in Nigeria (colleges, and institutions) most especially in secondary schools is so great that it has become a great concern to various individuals and groups in the nation and as such as generated a lot of issues, argument in lectures, seminars, journals, and so on. The technological advancement of any country depends on the scientific background of such country. Chemistry teaching practical to be précised, has been faced with a lot of problems. Accordingly Nigeria students studying chemistry are expected to be taught what chemistry is [1], they are expected to acquire scientific skills of observing, and reporting, organizing of information, generalizing, predicting or speculating and designing experiment to test hypotheses. The teaching strategies used in carrying out chemistry practical prescribed for developing these skills in the labouratory rooms include: • The involvement of students in opening ended field or lab work • The inclusion of problems-solving activities • The use of discovery teaching tactics whenever appropriate. On the contrary, there are various factors which have marred these methods such that objectives of teaching and learning of practical and experimental exercise which are geared towards improving the preparation of scientific background for technological advancement have not been activated. This book addresses some of the factors causing most students in both secondary and tertiary schools to fail chemistry practical as well suggest likely ways by which these difficulties could be solved. Keywords: Science students, school, chemistry practical, labouratory, remedies

Set of non deranged permutations as functions, zeros and poles []

In analysis we solve problems by finding a sequence of approximate solutions whose limit is an actual solution. We need the limit to exist in our space. That is why we do calculus in the space of real or complex numbers which are complete vector spaces. In this work, we embed a set of non deranged permutations of the first p(prime) natural numbers into a complete vector space Cn with p = n. we show that the non deranged permutations are functions, solutions and poles of functions. We use Borel Caratheodory theorem to find the highest value of complex functions whose real parts are non deranged permutations. we use nevanlinna theorem to measures the growth of the number of poles in the disks | z | ≤ r as r and p increases. We use the symmetric version of Rouche’s theorem to show that two functions f and g whose zeros are 2 different permutations of the same first p numbers must both be greater than 0. We also apply Jensen’s formula and Rouche’s theorem to analyse non deranged permutations as poles and zeros respectively. We apply Maximum modulus theorem and Liouville’s theorem to analyse the special embedded cycle of our set of non deranged permutations. Finally, Picard’s little theorem shows that 0 is the only number the function cannot attain.


A study was carried out to assess the impact of water purification sludge on the chemical parameters of Amaranthus hybridus and to assess its quality compared to those usually grown. The tests were carried out on the soils of Kimuenza (Tshilombo) amended with sludge. The vegetables sampled were analyzed firstly by X-ray fluorescence from CREN-Kinshasa for major elements and secondly by ICP-MS from the “ United Scientific” laboratory in Lubumbashi for metallic trace elements. The precision and reproducibility of the results obtained were considered acceptable, since their coefficient of variation was less than 10%. The results obtained showed that: - Major elements (K, Ca, Mg, P and S) are higher in vegetables than in simple and amended soil while Fe, Na, Al and Si are higher in soil than vegetables. - The metallic trace elements of market garden vegetables have a higher than normal concentration [Cr varies between 24.3-29.6 mg/Kg against 1.8 mg/Kg, Cd varies between 0.6-0.9 mg /Kg against 0.05/0.2 mg/Kg, Pb varies between 0.6-0.8 mg/Kg against 0.1 mg/Kg, Ni varies between 10.8-15.9 mg/Kg against 10 mg/Kg] for all the sites and Cu varies between 21.1-22.5 mg/Kg against 20 mg/Kg in the two sites as well as Zn in the Kiala site at 122.2 mg/Kg against 100 mg/Kg . Metallic trace elements were totally absent in the vegetables from the amended soil. On the other hand, Cd and Pb are present but at acceptable proportions for human consumption. Keywords: Impacts - Mud - Drinking water - quality - Amaranthus hybridus - physicochemistry


Human existence has experienced untold disasters and this has continuously been on the rise with its heavy devastating impacts on lives, livelihood, properties and geographical environment of the affected communities. In respect of these realities, there is an obvious lack of proper coordination amongst stakeholders and agencies which brings about chaos, confusion in the delivery during and after flood disaster occurrences. While Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS V. 21) was engaged for proper analysis using the descriptive and inferential (analysis of variance) statistics tools for data analysis. As a consequent reaction to these clearly exposed challenges, DRR should be all inclusive rather than exclusive by recognizing the different forum of knowledge valuable in addressing disaster risk events. The coastal environment is dynamic in nature with its terrain exposing its vulnerability to flooding resulting in an increased level of insecurity of properties and lives. The result show that most communities in Yenagoa, Sagbama, Kolokuma Opokuma, Southern Ijaw, Ekeremo, and Nembe agree that there is a high level of property insecurity during flood events. In Delta State, communities in Ugheli South, Isoko North, Ndokwa east, and Patani also confirmed that the occurrence of flood results in a high level of insecurity within their communities, which affirms that the occurrence of flood increases property insecurity. The majority of the communities in Yenagoa, Sagbama, Kolokuma Opokuma, Southern Ijaw, Ekeremo, and Nembe confirmed that there is high level insecurity during flood event in Bayelsa, while communities in Delta state in Ugheli South, Isoko North, Ndokwa east, and Patani also confirmed that flood occurrence results in high level insecurity within their communities, which can result in the concurrence that. Additionally, evidence suggests that crime rates have increased after flood disasters. They agreed as a result that the occurrence of flooding worsens the security situation in their areas. KEYWORDS: Flood, Flood Management, Insecurity Aspect of Flood.

La fiction littéraire en langue additionnelle et ses effets sur la compréhension sociale. []

Storytelling is a uniquely human activity. We use stories to understand the world, explain it to our children, build community and learn about others. This article focuses on the short story in an additional language as a literary genre and its impact on complex social cognitive abilities. Correlational and experimental data suggest that exposure to fiction recruits and enhances our ability to represent the state of others. We hypothesized that literary fiction improved social understanding (SC) performance. Consistent with expectations of greater character attention in literary fiction, linguistic content analysis indicated that literary texts contained more markers of reflective function, a complex manifestation of SC.

The influence of implementation of Ghana's integrated financial management information system in senior high schools. []

The study examined the influence of the implementation of Ghana's cohesive financial management information system in senior high school education. The research design employed was characterized and analyzed to achieve the purpose of the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The sample size for the study was thirty (30) participants of accounting background of Account Assistance, Account Clerk, Accountant, principal Accountant, and Chief Accountant in senior high schools in the Ashanti region, respectfully. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data from the respondents, which was analyzed to generate frequencies and percentages with the help of Microsoft Excel. The result of the study showed that GIFMIS was found to be the immediate and perhaps long-term solution. GIFMIS is a financial Information Technology system that is now replacing the manual system of governmental financial transactions. It involves using an Enterprise Resource Plan (ERP), which is essentially a centralized electronic platform, with various components designed to facilitate the flow of information amongst national institutions, to facilitate decision-making. The government’s objective in investing in GIFMIS as outlined in the GIFMIS Project Charter is principally to “improve the effectiveness of service delivery and the allocation of scarce resources, using the new tools and processes resulting from the GIFMIS system”. In turn, improving effective service delivery is incumbent upon the improvement of public finance management.


Entre 1871 et 1893, Émile Zola a écrit et publié un cycle de vingt volumes intitulé Les Rougon-Macquart. Dans cet article, nous examinons les représentations fictionnelles des maladies féminines dans cette série. Nous soutenons que Zola tisse son récit en mêlant habilement ses connaissances médicales (se conformant ainsi au Naturalisme), les notions de genre de son époque et ses objectifs littéraires. Nous appliquons le concept de la « construction culturelle du genre » de Chauvin et Coll. et montrons comment Zola, tout en étant profondément immergé dans son époque, reproduit la construction du genre dans les maladies féminines (Chauvin et Coll, 2020).


Deep learning, a subfield of machine learning, has been making significant strides and achieving remarkable accomplishments in recent years. Powered by large-scale neural networks and massive amounts of data, deep learning has revolutionized various domains, including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and more. One of the most notable achievements of deep learning in recent times is its remarkable progress in computer vision tasks. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved groundbreaking results in image classification, object detection, and image segmentation. Models like AlexNet, VGGNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet have demonstrated unprecedented accuracy on benchmark datasets such as ImageNet, significantly surpassing human-level performance. Moreover, deep learning has also enabled impressive advancements in the field of natural language processing (NLP). Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and transformer models, such as the famous GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series, have pushed the boundaries of language understanding and generation. These models have excelled in tasks like machine translation, text summarization, sentiment analysis, and even generating coherent and contextually relevant text. Deep learning can be understood as a subfield of machine learning concerned with efficiently training artificial neural networks (NNs) with many layers. This project focused on using deep learning models to predict loan defaults of credit loan customers to minimize the outrageous risks for financial companies. Loan default prediction plays a crucial role in the financial industry, aiding lenders in managing risk and making informed lending decisions. In recent years, deep learning models have gained attention for their ability to capture complex patterns and dependencies in loan data. This abstract provides an overview of a deep learning prediction model for loan default, highlighting its methodology, performance, and key findings. The model is deployed using Keras API via TensorFlow 2.0. It uses the rectified linear unit (reLU) and Sigmoid function as the activation layers and Adam optimizer for the model optimization. The proposed deep learning model utilizes a feed-forward neural network (FNN) architecture. The model incorporates feature engineering techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and oversampling/undersampling, to address imbalanced datasets and enhance predictive accuracy. Data preprocessing steps ensure data integrity, including normalization and missing value imputation. The deep learning prediction model is evaluated using metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). The results demonstrate superior performance compared to traditional machine learning algorithms, showcasing the model's ability to accurately predict loan default. The interpretability of the model is addressed through explainable AI techniques, providing insights into the factors influencing loan default. The model evaluation shows how effective deep learning networks predict loan defaulters and help to curb loan and credit risk for financial firms. The proposed deep learning prediction model for loan default shows promise in enhancing risk assessment and decision-making for lenders. Future research directions may involve exploring alternative deep learning architectures, such as graph neural networks (GNNs), to capture complex relationships between borrowers and lenders. Additionally, incorporating transfer learning approaches and large-scale labeled datasets can further improve the model's performance and address challenges related to data scarcity.

School general assembly committee involvement and student’s academic performance in rural public secondary schools in Rwanda: A case of Nyagatare district []

This study examined School General Assembly Committee involvement and student’s academic performance in rural public secondary schools in Nyagatare District in Rwanda. Specifically, the study identified effect of school general assembly committee involvement in fundraising, educational planning and monitoring school activities on the students’ academic performance in rural public secondary schools. The researcher used a descriptive design which employed a mixed approach. A sample of 283 respondents was drawn from 498 persons including 36 upper secondary schools including 412 teachers, 36 head teachers, 36 SGAC members. Respondents and key informants were obtained using simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. This study used questionnaire to gather information. The researcher analyzed quantitative data using a statistical package for social sciences version 25.0. It helped to produce descriptive statistics in term of frequencies, mean, and standard deviation. The researcher produced correlational and regression data to show association between SGACs and learners success. Results Findings indicated that SGAC promote best interest of schools and encouragement fund allocation among respondents where 74.1%. When fundraising SGAC consider similar structure for establish clear interaction. The study shows that 86.9% where participants strongly agreed with a use of when fundraising SGAC consider similar structure for establish clear interaction. In this regards, requests on suitable appeal is positively association with the performance in tests (r=0.573, p-value=0.000), with timely completion of assignment (r=0.000, p-value=0.000 ), with students’ activeness in class, (r=0.900, p-value=0.000) and with the performance in national examination (r=0.590, p-value=0.000). Results to the second objective, indicated that SGAC participated in operational school development planning where 72.3%. It means that SGAC is involved in setting three year execution targets. Results indicated that 89.3%, mean response agreed the use of SGAC is responsible to approve the school planning and strategic development. The study indicated that 88.4% agreed with the adoption of SGAC determines school policies, school work, and budget plan and school performance. Data revealed that independent variables are correlated with dependent variables. Operational development planning is positively association with the performance in tests (r=0.473, p-value=0.000), with timely completion of assignment with students’ activeness in class, (r=0.800, p-value=0.000) and with the performance in national examination (r=0.490, p-value=0.000). Results to the third objective show that 62.7% show an agreement that SGAC undertakes routine and regular monitoring of school activities, 50.0%, show an agreement SGAG assesses learning outcome and provides reports. Moreover, SGAC makes control of meetings on design school projects as indicated by 58.3 %. The study revealed that independent variables are correlated. Operational development planning is positively association with the performance in tests (r=0.562, p-value=0.000), with timely completion of assignment (r=0.000, p-value=0.000), with students’ activeness in class, (r=0.899, p-value=0.000) and with the performance in national examination (r=0.579, p-value=0.000). The ministry of education and head teachers must include SGAC in managing every day activities of secondary schools. There is a need to guide educational practitioners in knowing the role of each part involvement in schools management. School principals must stimulate and ameliorate their cooperation and collaboration with parent and teachers in setting adequate discipline management strategies. The study suggests that future studies in rural areas in secondary and primary schools in order to improve student academic performance.

Influence of school teaching and Learning resources on effective implementation of competency based training (CBT) in Rwanda TVET schools: A case of Nyamasheke district []

This study evaluated teaching and learning resource on the implementation of competency based training in TVET schools in Nyamasheke District. Specifically, this study assessed effect of availability of teaching and learning materials, adequacy of physical facilities, and adequate of qualified trainers on implementation of competency based training in TVET School in Nyamasheke District. The sample size of 107 respondents was withdrawn from 145 respondents. Primary source was gathered using questionnaire, interviews and observation methods to triangulate data. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used adopted select trainees, school managers, trainers, SEOs and DEO. Qualitative data were collected using interview guide while quantitative data was obtained using questionnaire. The study analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Content analysis helped qualitative data analysis and quantitative data was presented using statistical package for social sciences by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (correlational and regression analysis). Regarding the first objective, results showed the availability of the high number of reference books, 34.0% were strongly agreed. Number of teachers guide were available, 40.1% were strongly agreed. The study revealed that teaching resources with 42.8% were strongly agree. Results revealed the association between research variables. Number of books with improved trainee practical skills (r=0.0317). A correlation was between description of requirements with books (0.817**, p-value=0.000). Contrary to insignificant correlation between books and improved trainee practical skills (r=0.006, p-value=0.950). To the second objective, results revealed that tables and chairs in staffroom, 40.1% strongly agree. Results showed the capacity in labs, 38.2% were strongly agree, results showed reliability of power supply with 59.8%. A strong relationship was established between tables, chairs in staffroom and technical skills improved trainees (r=0.424**, p-value=0.000), tables and chairs in staffroom and improved trainee practical skills (0.740**.p-value=0.000). The third objective revealed employment status of teachers 30.2% strongly agreed. 15.8% remarked a strongly agreement, 56.6% strongly agreed while 23.7% agreed. The large base of teachers employed per school, 45.4% show a strong agreement, and 74.3% indicate strongly agreement. Information revealed that the tables and chairs in staffroom is impacting technical skills improved competent trainees with a level of significance of 0.000 where an increase in desks and chairs in the classrooms led to technical skills improved competent trainees increase by 0.330 units. The study concluded that teacher training should improve CBC implementation in public primary schools. Teaching staff members should make a good preparation of teaching instructions and materials. The government should prepared more capacity building programs related to competency-based curriculum to ameliorate CBT execution. There is a need to stimulate capacity building programs for CBT..Schools should mobilize local community members to ensure effective execution of CBT and teaching staff members should be well trained in executing CBT.


This study aims to find out and analyze Systematization of the implementation of the Musrenbang in the preparation of the Work Plan Documents for the Regional Government of South Konawe Regency. Integrated implementation of the Musrenbang in the preparation of the South Konawe Regency Regional Government Work Plan Document. Transparency in the implementation of the Musrenbang in the Preparation of the Work Plan Documents for the Regional Government of Konawe Selatan Regency. Accountability for the implementation of the Musrenbang in the Preparation of the Work Plan Documents for the Regional Government of Konawe Selatan Regency. There are four informants. The research data was collected using interviews. Research results found that Musrenbang activities in Tinanggea District have been carried out systematically starting from the RT level, then from the hamlet, and village to the subdistrict, following the technical guidelines made by the Konsel Bappeda. Integration already exists in the Musrenbang agenda where there is alignment between the OPD work plans and community proposals and these proposals have been accommodated in the RKPD and APBD but there are also proposals that are not accommodated, this is more to the point that these proposals are not priority programs and activities. Transparency in the implementation of the musrenbang in Tinanggea District has been carried out, namely regarding the proposals received as well as regarding the lists of programs that will begin to be implemented in 2022, there are several lists of activities or programs that are starting to be realized.


This study aims to determine and analyze the company's financial performance assessed by financial ratio analysis at the company of Perumda Sultra. The data has been studied by using the financial statements of the Main Regional Enterprises of Southeast Sulawesi from 2019 to 2021. The company must have healthy and efficient financial performance to earn profit and to improve the achievements which the company has obtained. The research method which has been used to measure the financial performance at the Main Regional Public Corporation of Southeast Sulawesi is the financial ratio analysis which consists of the Current Ratio, Debt to Total Assets Ratio, Operational Expenses on Operating Income, and Return on Assets. The results of this research are based on the current ratio, it has been found that the condition of the financial performance of the company is not good. The profitability ratio which is proxy by Net Profit Margin, Return on Assets, and Return on Equity, has been found that the condition of the financial performance of the company is good. Debt to Total Assets Ratio has been found that the condition of the financial performance of the company is not good. Operational Expenses on Operating Income it has been found that the condition of the financial performance of the company is less efficient. Return on Assets has been found that the condition of the financial performance of the company is not efficient.

Effect of Trade Openness and Government Expenditure on Economic Growth of Nepal []

The connection between trade openness, government spending, and economic growth has consistently captured the attention of scholars and policymakers. In the case of Nepal, a landlocked nation situated in South Asia, comprehending the consequences of trade liberalization and government expenditures on economic growth holds significant implications for long-term development. This research article seeks to investigate the influence of trade openness and government spending on Nepal's economic growth through the application of empirical analysis methods.

Assessment of community’s willingness to participate in environmental management in Jimeta Metropolitan Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria []

Abstract Environmental problems posed serious challenges in Jimeta metropolitan area of Adamawa state and the situation is indeed alarming. The menace of annual flooding, indiscriminate dumping of refuse, pollution, diseases outbreak, among others, are by far the most pressing environmental issues afflicting the study area. This study aims to assess the community’s willingness to participate in environmental management in Jimeta metropolitan area of Adamawa state, Nigeria, with the specific objectives of determining the community’s perception toward environmental management to assess the community’s willingness to participate in environmental management activities and to assess the factors that influence their willingness to participate. Data were collected using structured households’ survey questionnaire, key informants interviews, and participatory observation in eight of the eleven wards within the metropolis. 120 respondent’s households were randomly selected to represent the entire population of the study area. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 while qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Results show that about 85% and 70% perceived that environmental management is costing but also beneficial respectively. While 78% perceived that, existing nature of the environment have poor quality. Using cross tabulations and regression analysis the result revealed that, 50% of the respondents were willing to participate in environmental management. Perceived benefits, level of educational, and sources of income were the factors that positively influenced household’s willingness to the management of the environment. The study recommends intensifying efforts towards creating awareness among the community members about their role in managing their environment, social participation and implementation of rules and regulations for a better and sustainable environment, among other recommendations.

Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge and Practices for Flood Risk Reduction in Adamawa State, Nigeria []

Adamawa state hosts a remarkable ethnic and cultural diversity with over 80 ethnic languages. The state is exposed to a variety of natural hazards. The occurrence and intensity of many of the hazards are exacerbated by environmental degradation processes such as deforestation, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. These events result in disaster when they meet with highly vulnerable population and environment. Flooding is becoming a serious challenge in Adamawa state and the situation is indeed alarming. In respect to that, this paper aimed at investigating the indigenous knowledge and practices for flood risk reduction in Adamawa state. Primary data were collected through administration of a structured questionnaire among randomly selected respondents. A total of 600 respondents were selected via purposive sampling technique. Data collected was analysed through the use of descriptive statistical analysis. The study revealed that the vast majority of respondents (72%) perceived the flood as a natural hazard/disaster, an act of the creator of earth and universe (GOD) or a means of punishment for the wrongdoings perpetrated by man on the surface of the earth; that the communities apply indigenous knowledge and skills in predicting weather patterns and interpretations to facilitate coping mechanisms (97%); that the local people apply various local and indigenous strategies in flood risk reduction. The study emphases the need for creating mechanisms that can promote and popularize indigenous knowledge and practices through public awareness-raising materials and educational activities to recognize and appreciate the value of their local knowledge in reducing flood risk. Mainstream indigenous knowledge can effectively be integrated in flood forecasting and monitoring, early warning systems and flood disaster response and recovery mechanisms.

A Proposed Practical Approach for Estimating the Reinsurer Share of Reserve for Deviates in Excess Loss and Stop Loss Reinsurance Treaties []

In General Insurance, It’s well known that net premium consists of two parts, the first is the risk premium and the second is reserve of deviates. So, the reinsurer which shares the direct insurer premiums and related risks accordingly has to share the direct insurer the risk premium as well as reserve of deviates and must get one standard deviation at least up the total number of standard of deviations added to the risk premium. In practice the reinsurers used to multiply the reinsurance risk premium by a loading ratio evaluated 100/65 or 100/70 as a reserve for deviates. This paper sets focus on how to estimate the reinsurer share of reserve for deviates with the direct insurer in respect of excess loss and stop loss reinsurance treaties.


The purpose of this qualitative and quantitative study was to describe the youth susceptibility to radicalization in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The research participants were 200 young individuals from the public and private colleges, university and madrasah of the region. The findings revealed that the amount of social, economic, political, and religious elements related to young people's susceptibility to radicalization were moderately high to high. Community-oriented policing, information advocacy against radicalization, and collaborations and coordination, all have high levels of perception among the youth as alternatives to prevention and intervention. The level of human security promotion in terms of freedom from fear, freedom from want, and freedom from indignity were all regarded as being highly perceived as positive alternatives. Based on the interviews that were done, it was determined that socioeconomic considerations were the main challenges. Religion-related difficulties, however, have also become factors in the reasons why young people turn to radicalization. Finally, social injustices play a role for certain young people who are recruited by the radical groups. The study implies that youths are highly vulnerable to recruitment to radicalism due to the complex situations emerging around them. Keywords: Youth, susceptibility, radicalization, violent extremism, alternatives, prevention, intervention, human security, Cotabato City


OpenCV and Paddle-Paddle libraries are used in the field of computer vision and machine learning. In the proposed paper, we integrate OpenCV and Paddle-Paddle to process PDF images, image pre- processing using OpenCV, template matching using the match_Template function of OpenCV, and then parsing the final output in JSON format using Paddle-Paddle. We summarize a detailed overview of the two libraries (OpenCV and Paddle-paddle) and finally discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses. We provide a detailed methodology for integrating OpenCV and Paddle-Paddle and demonstrate its performance in extracting information from PDF images. Our results show that the integration of OpenCV and Paddle- Paddle leads to improved accuracy and faster processing times as compared to using either of the library alone.