Volume 10, Issue 8, August 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication


Research on the manufacturing and characterization of Pangasius bone meal based on the size variation aims to determine the physi-cochemical characteristics of Pangasius bone meal and the effects of the milling process on the size of Pangasius bone meal. The re-search method used was an experimental method with a top-down way. The parameters observed were yields and chemical charac-teristics such as water, ash, fat, protein, calcium, phosphorus, particle size analyzer (PSA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The result showed a yield of Pangasius bone meal was 35.71%, water content was 9.96%, ash content was 20.80%, fat content was 17.54%, protein content was 42.61%, calcium content was 11.17%, phosphorus content was 11.75%. The particle size of flour without milling was 298.2 nm, and after milling was 228.1 nm, which belongs to the nanoparticle group. The FTIR was identified to contain a hydroxyl group, a carbonate group, and a phosphate group.


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the working practice was forced to shift from working in the office to working from home or WFH. There are numerous factors that affect the implementation of WFH, such as job mutation and job satisfaction, which also affect employee per-formance and companies' goals. This research aimed to examine the effect of job mutation, WFH practice, and work family conflict on employee performance mediated by job satisfaction at Tobelo Primary Tax Office. This paper is made to propose a conceptual model. It comprehends the research background, literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses, and quantitative research methods.


The number of mobile telecommunication users in the world has reached 67% of the world’s population, and 133% of Indonesia's population act as users. There are 142.8 million internet users in Indonesia, and it keeps rising every year. Even so, the use of Mobile Operator Self-Service applications is not parallel with this rising number. Companies have striven to increase market penetration and usage by understanding technological acceptance through various research models. This study aimed to examine the effect of com-petence, training, and organizational climate on OCB by using job satisfaction as an intervening variable. This paper is made to propose a conceptual model. It comprehends the research background, literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses, and quantitative research methods. This quantitative study aims to analyze the factors for the adoption of mobile operator self-service application technology using MyXX as a case study.


The success or failure of an organization in meeting needs and achieving goals depends on the success of human resources in carrying out their duties and obligations. Several factors may contribute to the success of managing human resources, such as leadership, expectation, power distance, and job satisfaction. Employees who have authoritative superiors have reported experiencing poor work satisfaction. The highest employee satisfaction in Indonesia is only 3.50%. This article is made to propose a conceptual model. It comprehends the research background, literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses, and quantitative research methods. This quantitative study aims to explore the influence of leader-member exchange on job satisfaction mediated by Pygmalion and moderated by power distance.

Challenges of corporate governance in Zimbabwe: What is the problem? A view from selected managers in Harare. []

ABSTRACT The title of this paper is challenges of corporate governance in Zimbabwe: What is the problem? A view from selected managers in Harare. The aim of the paper is to assess the extent of adoption of the Zimbabwe corporate governance frameworks. Corporate Governance in the business arena incorporates transparency, fairness, independence, accountability, among other things. Zimbabwe has witnessed collapse and closure of companies mainly due to Corporate Governance breaches. The study investigated the major corporate governance problems in Zimbabwe. The study was carried out in Harare where structured questionnaire and interviews were employed to gather data. The results do indicate that the major corporate governance problems are lack of transparency, lack of fairness, lack of integrity, lack of lack of trust and lack of honesty. From the interviews, which were conducted to seek further clarity on other issues, it was found out that the major problem was appointment of board members, characterised by nepotism, political connections and purging of those in authority who speak against incompetence, criminal abuse of office, misuse of stakeholders’ funds and corruption, and lack of action by the responsible authorities. It was concluded that there is need for creation of awareness of the presence of the corporate governance code. The research paper recommends that there is need for the responsible authorities to take action against offenders and to protect those who speak against wrong doers.


The purpose of the study is to evaluate the students’ perception on utilization of social media and academic performance. This study addressed to: determine the extent of the features of social media utilized by BEED program in Initao College; assess the performance of BEED students of Initao College; and find the relationship between the Academic Performance of BEED students and the type of social media. This study employed a descriptive survey method wherein the researcher analyzed, interpreted, and reported the present status of the problem on the utilization of social media. A modified questionnaire was used in this study wherein the mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data to answer the research questions and Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient was used to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed that the respondents’ perception on the utilization of social media was described as Often Utilize Social Media in terms of Online skills, Abilities, Motivation, and Time Management. Furthermore, the Academic Performance of the BEED – III students obtained a grade of 1.1-2.0 which interpreted as Very Satisfactory. Furthermore, the Academic Performance of BEED students and their Online Skills in utilizing social media were found Slightly Correlated. Students who are fully equipped in Online Skills are most likely learn better in distance learning. The students’ Academic Performance and their Motivation and Abilities in utilizing social media were found Not Correlated. The academic success of the students is not reliant only on motivation since they are already matured and responsible in their learning. Academic Performance of BEED students and their Time Management were found Slightly Significant. Therefore, the students who are good in managing their time, are more likely to perform better in their class.


“Pana-panahon ang pagkakataon… Maibabalik ba ang kahapon?” Ang linyang ito ay isang sipi mula sa awiting “Kanlungan” na sinulat ni Romeo Dongeto na nakapupukaw sa diwa at damdamin ng mga tagapakinig. Isang tanong na may lantarang kasagutan ngunit isa pa ring palaisipan para sa mga nakikinig o bumabasa ng liriko nito. Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang deskriptibo at kwalitatibo na pagsusuri. Susuriin ang mga patayutay na pahayag sa bawat taludturan ng awiting “Kanlungan” sa paraang tekstwal na analisis. Ito ay naglalayong malaman ang mga uri ng patayutay na pahayag na ginamit ng manunulat na si Romeo Dongeto sa kanyang awiting “Kanlungan.” Napag-alaman ng mga mananaliksik na ang mga patayutay na pahayag na ginamit sa awiting Kanlungan na sinulat ni Romeo Dongeto ay ang metonomiya, retorikal na tanong, simile, personipikasyon, at ang simbolismo, at sa lahat ng ginamit na pahayag, higit na ginamit ang retorikal na pagtatanong.


In the onset of the pandemic, majority of the Filipino students in the Department of Education were exposed to modular distance learn-ing due to limited access to other learning modalities. Teachers then used designed Self-Learning Modules (SLM), which were purely print-based. However, problems arose specifically with the students’ engagement in their reading activities. Hence, this study incorporated com-ics into the English Learning Modules of the Grade 9 learners from a public national high school in Region X, for school year 2021–2022. The research and development (R&D) design was thus utilized, following the Successive Approximation Model (SAM). As needs assess-ment, the respondents’ reading profile was determined alongside an evaluation of their reading engagement level. The Online Student Engagement Scale (OSE) was modified and used to determine students’ engagement level before and after giving the developed interven-tion material. The results revealed that most of the students were frustration-level readers due to their reading engagement problems. This low engagement level of the respondents was caused by varying factors ranging from the unavailability of a learning facilitator, decreasing level of motivation due to the learning set-up, and an uninteresting learning module content. To address this concern, the researcher de-signed two comic-laden self learning modules. These met the Division standards after it went a thorough evaluation of the select subject matter experts. Moreover, the developed learning packets improved the students’ engagement level. Hence, the intervention product of this paper maybe useful for other Language teachers in addressing students’ reading engagement difficulties.


Abstract The study investigated the relationship between self- esteem and career choice among undergraduate students in Mkwawa University College of Education in Iringa region, Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to assess the self-esteem of students and its influence on career choice. Convergent parallel research design was adopted in this study. Sample size of the study was 199 undergraduate students from Education and Science faculties for quantitative and qualitative data. A stratified sampling technique was used to separate males and females and then simple random sampling was applied to get the sample size for quantitative data. Self-esteem adapted standardized instrument developed by Rosenberg (1965) scale of ten items to collect data. Validity for qualitative instruments was obtained through triangulation and rich or thick description. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. The results showed that students have positive attitude of self- esteem towards themselves. Also the findings indicated that there was a relationship between self-esteem and career choice among students. Keywords: Self-esteem, career, choice, undergraduate student


The social media influence on live selling has a greater impact that entices buyers and makes a purchasing decision. The online selling opinion in terms of the influence on customer buying behavior differs despite that they belong to the same platform but influence more positive consumers' buying behavior as they need to redesign their methodologies in dealing with live selling to entice more buyers watching them live. Drawing on literature in retailing, adoption behavior, and electronic commerce has a comprehensive framework with which to examine the relationships among customers' perceived value of live streaming, customer trust, and engagement. The symbolic value is found to have a direct and indirect effect via trust in sellers on customer engagement, while utilitarian and hedonic values are shown to affect customer engagement indirectly through customer trust in products and trust in sellers sequentially. Elucidating the role of live streaming in increasing sales and loyalty in different routes through which small online sellers can build customer engagement with two types of trust as mediators. A strong effect is played by customers' loyalty to alternative markets, showing that establishing a long-term relationship with producers participating in alternative markets increases the probability of buying more food through these channels. It discloses potential in terms of upscaling of alternative food networks, linked to the identification of the consumer segments that are more likely to use these channels as a main source of provision, and to the types of business models that can more likely increase the quantity of purchase. Better targeting opportunities and the increasing role of information-intensive environments have created new challenges for firms in obtaining customer information. Such information can help firms increase their profits through cross-selling opportunities. However, revealing personal preferences and contact information can raise risks for customers when dealing with a firm. Consequently, some customers trade off the benefit and risks of revealing information. As the opportunity to obtain a higher level of information increases, customers incur a higher level of risk when dealing with a firm. This increases the firm's incentive to commit on a cross-selling level. By such a commitment, a firm can obtain customer intimacy and benefit from detailed customer information. From the above findings, it is suggested that for the online selling mechanism although it was viewed as positive and beneficial, a thorough review is needed to align the new trend of buying paradigm

Shelf Life of Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Using Gracilaria sp. as Edible Coating at Cold Temperature []

Fresh Vannamei Shrimp is a source of food with high protein and Fresh shrimp is a food that can be used as various types of food. Fresh shrimp is easy to decrease in quality that can be caused by the activity of microorganisms. This study aim to determine the optimal con-centration and determine the effectiveness of Gracilaria sp. as edible coating on fresh vannamei shrimp for 8 days during cold tempera-ture. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Processing of Fishery Products, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and the Laboratory of Ruminated Animal Nutrition and Feed Chemistry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The research meth-od was carried out experimentally consisting of 4 treatments, shrimp without coating, Gracilaria sp. 0.5% coating; 1%; and 1.5%, with 15 semi-trained panelists as replicates. Parameters observed in this study were the degree of acidity (pH), weight loss, water content, Total Volatile Base (TVB) were analyzed descriptively. Organoleptic test analysis using Friedman test and analysis of Bayes method. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the edible coating with the addition of Gracilaria sp. 1% is the optimal concentration to in-hibit the deterioration of shrimp quality during storage and can improve the appearance, aroma and texture of shrimp, based on the Bayes method test, the priority value for the addition of Gracilaria sp. 1% is 0.27 and the alternative value is 2.80. with a TVB value of 25.55 mgN%, a water content of 82.08% and a pH of 7.6.

Ultraviolet - Visible Spectroscopy of Silica Gels From Rice Husk []

Crystalline silica gel was prepared from leached and un-leached rice husk calcined to 1000oc in a muffle furnace. The prepared gels were dissolved in absolute ethanol and aged for 24 hours. The UV-Visible Agilent Spectrophotometer was used to observe the optical transmission and intrinsic absorbance of the gels. The results obtained were compared to those of the commercial gel. The result of the leached rice husk silica gel showed a higher percentage (up to 91%) than the un-leached rice husk silica gel (82%), and that of commercial gel has the lowest percentage (22%) in transmittance.

Principal Component Analysis of the Flue Gases Exhaust in a functional single chamber Incineration system []

This plant was designed as a possible option for thermal utilization of rural and urban wastes in Nigeria. Pollutant gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) have numerous health implications when unsafe amounts are released into the atmosphere. Packed-bed technology was installed along with the Wet Scrubber System (WSS) catalyzing the oxidation of packed-bed and pollutant gases. After the water temperature was controlled, the concentration of packed-bed increased resulting in an efficient pollution treatment system. Levels of pollutant gas emission were found to be beneath National Guidelines for Emissions. Data were collected from the experiments conducted in the Centre for Industrial Studies (CIS) workshop, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria, which were analyzed and examined. Determination of the heat contents were carried out using two methods: IMR 1400 Gas Analyzer PL model and Dulong‟s formula. Some samples of the wastes were analyzed with IMR 1400 Gas Analyzer PL model in the above named Centre. This is important because it is a direct measure of the temperature requirements that the specific waste was place on the system. The comparison of the net enthalpy values for textile, paper and wood wastes blended with plastic at different compounding ratios used which shows that 25%PL + 75%TE had the enthalpy calorific values of 8.077 MJ/mol, 10.287 MJ/mol, 10.241 MJ/mol and 11.045 MJ/mol for CO, CO2, NOX and SOX and 100%PA had the lowest value of 2.974 MJ/mol, 3.788 MJ/mol, 3.771 MJ/mol and 4.067 MJ/mol for CO, CO2, NOX and SOX respectively. The maximum temperature of the furnace attained from the energy balance based on this value around the combustion chamber was 277 K, Keywords: Solid-Waste, Steam, Temperature, Flue gases, Calorific Value, Energy, Combustion

Differences in Organizational Commitment in terms of Gender in Employees at Company X []

This study aims to determine whether there are differences in organizational commitment in terms of gender in employees at company X in Medan City. The research method used in this study uses a comparative quantitative approach, the population in this study are employees of company X, with a sampling technique using random sampling technique, the sample in this study amounted to 60 employees, of which there were 30 male employees and 30 female employees. The preparation of the scale in this study uses a Likert scale approach through the organizational commitment scale. The data collection method used in this study was by filling out a questionnaire. The analytical technique used in this research is One Path Anova. Based on the results of the One Path Anova test, the results of the value of Sig (p) = 0.008 < 0.050, this indicates a significantly smaller value than 0.050, this means that there are differences in organizational commitment to male employees and female employees. Based on the results of the calculation of the hypothetical and empirical mean, the value of male employees' organizational commitment, the empirical mean = 82.67 < hypothetical mean = 80, where the difference is more than SD = 9.445, in the medium category. Meanwhile, female employees get the empirical mean = 90.12 < hypothetical mean = 80, where the difference is more than SD = 8.563, which is in the high category. Therefore, the organizational commitment of female employees is higher than the organizational commitment of male employees.


The study aimed at determining the relationship between the extent of emotional competence of teachers concerning their level of performance. It addressed to assess the extent of emotional competence of teachers in Pagatpat and Tumpagon Elementary Schools; determine their level of teaching performance when categorized as Outstanding, Very Satisfactory, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory, and Poor and find the significant relationship of the extent of teachers’ emotional competence and teaching performance. It employed a descriptive survey method using a modified questionnaire wherein the researcher analyzed, interpreted, and reported the present status of the teachers’ emotional competence. The respondents of this study were 61 Public School teachers of Pagatpat and Tumpagon Elementary Schools. It revealed that the extent of teachers’ emotional competence was Very High in terms of their Self-awareness, Self-regulation, and Self-motivation and High in terms of Empathy and Social Skills. There is a 64% of teachers who have Outstanding rating and only 4% has Satisfactory rating. The extent of emotional competence showed a Very High Positive Correlation to the level of teaching performance which indicates a Significant Relationship. It is recommended that schools should increase skills training which aid in the development of teachers' mental faculties. Teachers should improve their emotional competence to advance their social abilities that would increase their acceptance among their peers and therefore, improve the working environment and results success in the organization.


This research was conducted at the poultry farm, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang. This research was found to determine the effect and level of using jengkol pericarp extract in the ration which produces the optimal performance of broiler. The method which was used is experimental, and used a Completely Randomized Project (CRP) with four treatments and five repetitions; there is a ration without jengkol pericarp extract (R0), a ration by the addition of 0. 01% jengkol pericarp extract (R1), a ration by the addi-tion of 0. 02% jengkol pericarp extract (R2), and a ration by the addition of 0. 03% jengkol pericarp extract (R3). Variables that were ob-served are consumption of ration, weight gain, and conversion of ration. The data was analyzed by using variance and continued by using the Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result of this research is the using of jengkol pericarp extracts in the ration affects the weight gain of the broiler. The use of 0. 02% jengkol pericarp extract produces the optimal weight gain of the broiler but does not affect the consumption and conversion ration.

Evaluation of Fluoride level in Drinking Water Wells and its Effects on Human Health []

Fluorides are classified as one of the inorganic forms of Fluorine and consuming high level of fluoride will have several adverse health effect. The study aims to evaluate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water wells and its effect on human health. A total of 11 water samples were collected from different areas in Khartoum, Soudan for chemical analysis. Public survey was implemented with 100 participants to measure their level of awareness and understanding about the fluorides problem in drinking water. The study revealed that a high percentage of participants knew about fluoride and its benefits to human health. However, the study showed that the level of fluoride in water samples s less than the WHO standard value (1.5 g/L) of fluoride that exists naturally in drinking water. The results obtained indicated that most of the participants do not suffer from kidney problems and were not aware of deflouridation. So, raising awareness about defluoridation techniques has many positive impacts.

Smallholder Farmer Access to Bank Loans: A Case of Mvomero District []

Smallholder farmers in Tanzania face a major constraint when it comes to accessing credit to invest in their farming activities. The study on which the paper is based was carried out in Mvomero District, Morogoro Region. Specifically, it aimed at determining the loan amount accessed, identifying farming activities on which loan accessed are spent on and identifying challenges facing smallholder farmers in accessing loans for farm investment. To address the aims a cross–sectional research design was adopted whereby data were collected only once. Purposive sampling was used to obtain 110 respondents from the selected wards. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Collected primary data were analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), where¬by descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were determined. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Generally, results show that loan acquisition among smallholder farmers varies as a few of them can benefit from being granted a greater loan while the majority receive an average to the minimal loan amounts. Further the results show that the majority of all of the smallholder farmers who participated in the study used the loan for paddy cultivation only. Lastly, the results show that the major challenges faced by smallholder farmers in their access to bank loans were high-interest rates, loan inadequacy, and high collateral demand. Therefore, the Government and financial institutions are recommended to find ways to increase smallholder farmers’ access to loans, so as to enable them to raise their paddy productivity.

Malware detection []

In recent years, malicious applications are increasing at a very high rate and most of them are hard to detect because of their complex code obfuscation techniques. As a countermeasure to keep our system safe and the internet from such malware, these malicious applications must be detected before they infect a huge network. In recent studies there have been several detection methods are proposed. though detection of malware still has difficulties. Some methods are more efficient and faster in the detection of malware, such as Static-based, signature-based, heuristic-based detection. Meanwhile, For malware which is new and has complicated algorithms, models like behavior-based, call graph, and cloud-based work efficiently. And deep learning and machine learning-based approaches are also good in some known and unknown malware but it’s a bit challenging task. However, no such detection method has been made to completely compromise all types of malware. This paper gives a comprehensive study on malware detection approaches and techniques. the main focus of this paper is to lay a helping hand to the researchers and provide a good idea about the latest and most effective detection approaches.

Investigation on coated substrate of D-Gun sprayed Monolayer and Functionally Graded Ceramic Composite Coatings of Alumina and Alumina-Titania (AT-13) []

The ceramic composites coated by thermal spraying process and Detonation-gun (D-gun) is one of the most important and less explored area on the high velocity thermal coating process. The coated ceramic materials are Alumina and Alumina-Titania (AT-13) as monolayer and functionally graded coatings (FGC’s) by D-gun. The important aspect of the present study is to find the residual stress on the coated substrate and the hardness of the coatings and its chemistry changes by XRD analysis. XRD analysis shows the phase change in the monolayer are less compare to functionally graded coatings. The monolayer of Alumina has higher hardness compared to all other coatings and functionally graded coating ATG2 gives higher compressive residual stress.


Abstract The community policing project was developed on the notion that police alone without the good will of the community may not achieve much in maintaining law and order. Community policing has over the years gained fame globally as an appropriate plan to improve public security and safety. The purpose of this research is to describe the problems, issues and challenges faced by law enforcers in carrying out their responsibilities in the community in Parang, Maguindanao. The study gathered data among the policemen and policewomen who implemented the Police Community Relations program of PRO BAR. The study describes the community policing activities, including the specific actions such as information dissemination, confidence-building measures, community safety initiatives and others. With this study, the community residents may be provided with information about what the government is doing in the prevention of criminality including drug use and drug pushing and the different forms juvenile delinquency. The police policy makers also may be informed of the problems, issues and challenges and which could be basis for the improvement of the community policing program in the future. The participants showed peaceful orientation by resorting to dialogue when faced by a problem or a challenge. They also respect the local government officials and the informal leaders, the elders. The problems encountered are similar to problems experienced by development worker. The only difference is that community development is a professional training and part of it is trouble shooting. They also have special ways of facing the challenges and contextualized to be effective and relevant. Community policing could be a double-edge endeavour policing and community development work. Many law enforcers manifest love for communities as revealed in the study. The Philippine National Police can capitalize on this nature. They can use community policing as a way of regaining lost confidence of the people in a way this would lead to a productive law enforcer. Keywords: Community Policing, Philippine National Police, Police Community Relation, Bangsamoro, Maguindanao

Design and Implementation of an IoT-Based Solar-Powered Inverter Control System. []

In this project, an intelligent IoT-based solar inverter was designed and implemented using the Node microcontroller unit (NodeMcu). The NodeMcu (Node Microcontroller Unit) is an open-source software and hardware development environment built around a low-cost System-on-a-Chip (SOC) called the ESP8266. The Internet of things (IoT) describes exactly the network of physical objects - “things” that are embedded with sensor components, software, and other technologies to connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet. In addition, these physical objects are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data gathered over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. The materials and methodology employed in this project include a solar-powered inverter unit. This unit consists of chain connections. First, a solar panel is connected to a charge controller. The primary function of the charge controller is to protect the battery bank from overcharging. This is done by monitoring the battery bank- when the bank is fully charged, the charge controller sends energy from the filled battery bank to a (diversion) load. Next, the battery stores up charges and is connected to the inverter. The function of the inverter is to translate the Direct Current (DC) power supply from the battery to an Alternating Current (AC) power supply- the usable form for home or office appliances. Next, the inverter is connected to the energy meter. The energy meter measures the load of the inverter. The energy meter used is the PZEM-004T V3 to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, frequency Power factor (frequency and PF is extra added in the new version) using a microcontroller unit. The Node microcontroller unit (NodeMcu) consists of a 32-bit controller and an ESP8266 Wi-Fi module, enabling IoT incorporation by hooking the system to the Internet over a Wi-Fi connection. The data, which includes the value of current, load on each outlet, and the battery level of the inverter system, can be accessed via a designed mobile application interface. It can then be monitored and controlled remotely.


A school garden is an innovative teaching tool and a strategy that incorporates hands-on activities and integrates other disciplines. It is an outdoor living laboratory for real-life learning experiences, which allows for active students’ participation in the learning process. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a supervised school garden program on students of agricultural science at Peki College of Education (PKCE) in the Volta Region of Ghana. Data was gathered using a structured questionnaire, interviews, and personal observation. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as the mean, frequency counts, and percentages. The results found that the garden program provided the student teachers of agriculture with positive new experiences and hands-on learning, which enhanced their academic performance. Participants also learned many useful and life-changing gardening skills, including garden planning, seed nursing and transplanting, pest and disease detection and control, recording, and record keeping. In addition, the school garden project has helped change the negative perceptions student teachers of agriculture held about farming as a lucrative profession.


The use of biochar is gaining international attention among researchers as amendment for fertility enhancement in recent years. This is because biochar has a vital carbon source which is essential for soil fertility improvement due to its physicochemical properties. The excessive sole application of inorganic fertilizers on vertisols of Accra plains in Ghana has led to the gradual degradation of the soil health. It is therefore important to consider nitrogen fertilizer and biochar combination as a sustainable soil fertility improvement strategy. It was hypothesized that the combined application of rice husk biochar (RHB) and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer to vertisols could improve growth parameters and phenology (number of days tasseling and maturity) of Obatampa maize cultivar. A 3 factorial (3 x 2 x 3) field experiment arranged in a RCBD was carried out to investigate the effects of biochar and Nitrogen fertilizer combinations on phenology and growth parameters of Obatampa maize cultivar. Three levels of Nitrogen fertilizer with and without RHB (10t ha-1) were assessed on one maize (Obatanpa) variety. This was repeated on three different planting dates (1st sowing-S1, 2nd sowing-S2 and 3rd sowing-S3). The treatments (biochar only, 0N, 45N only, 45N + biochar, 90N only and 90N + biochar) were replicated thrice on a plot size of 6 m x 6.4 m. As basal application, a total of 45 kg ha-1 of P (Triple Super Phosphate) and K (Potassium Chloride) were applied respectively.


Rainfall variability is a serious trend that is posing a lot of challenges to agricultural development in many countries across the world in recent times. The majority of these countries can be found in sub-Saharan Africa. These countries continue to suffer due to the fact that agricultural commodities are the mainstay of their economies. In this paper, efforts were made (i) to shed more light on the evidence of erratic rainfall and its impacts on agriculture production in West Africa; (ii) to discuss the possible causes of food insecurity (iii) and how to mitigate the challenges posed by erratic rainfall to agriculture in the sub-region. A narrative review method was used to analyze the literature. The application of a narrative perspective to review the literature enables a broad understanding of the topic. The results provided evidence of an erratic rainfall pattern in the sub-region, with particular reference to Ghana and its impact on food security. It also assessed the feasibility of adopting weather forecast-based advice, integrated soil fertility management practices, and irrigation schemes as farmer coping strategies for mitigating the impact of an erratic rainfall pattern on crop production in West Africa.