Volume 10, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Participatory Management for Forest Resources’ Conflict Resolution in Got Ramogi Forest Reserve, Siaya County, Kenya []


Forest resources play a significant role in supporting livelihood of people and biodiversity all over the world leading to over exploitation. This over exploitation leads to depletion and conflicts over the resources utilization as is the case in Got Ramogi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the community participation in decision making in Got Ramogi forest reserve as a strategy for resources utilization conflict resolution. The study was based on the managerial citizen involvement model. A cross-sectional research design was used in collecting in-formation on participatory forest management as a strategy for forest resource utilization conflict resolution in Got Ramogi forest reserve. A sample size of 274 households was selected from target population of 950 house-holds in the study area with 3903 people. The research used systematic, purposive and snowballing techniques of both probability and non-probability sampling design in selection of informants. Secondary and primary sources of data were used. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaires, interview of key in-formants, focus group discussions and observation of forest destruction. Secondary data was collected from published and non-published literature on conflict resolutions in forest resource management. Chi-square and Cost-Benefit Analysis were used to analyze quantitative data collected in Got Ramogi Forest Reserve. Qualita-ive data collected from got Ramogi Forest reserve was analyzed by using a descriptive master sheet where data was cleaned, edited and coded then presented thematically. Maps were used showing the study area. The results found that; a mean of 4.76 was obtained denoting strongly agree. The interpretation of this finding is that the respondents strongly agreed that major decisions in the participatory forest management are made by the Government Authority thus affecting community involvement.The study contributed to the body of knowledge on management strategies that would prevent forest resources utilization conflicts and advice stake holders on the best practices for forest policy formulation in participatory processes. The study concluded that the community was slightly involved in decision making of participatory forest management as a strategy for resources utiliization and conflict resolution in Got Ramogi forest reserve.


BARRIERS MILITATING AGAINST WOMEN’S ACCESS TO AND USE OF LAND. (A Case Study in the Northern region of Ghana) []


Gender inequality has been a dominant terminology within our vocabulary in the wake of the 21st century with human rights advocates and feminist scholars pushing for equal opportunities for both men and women within the society which we live today. The issue of gender in access to land has called for attention from gender activists, world bodies, land administrators and development associations alike in a bid to address this concern in development which tends to have a direct impact on the livelihood and security of individuals both in rural and urban areas (Adolwine & Dudima, 2010). The problem of excluding women from accessing land resources has been an issue to grapple with in overcoming the contemporary problem of a gendered access to land. This study thus seeks to underscore some of the barriers which militate against and contend with efforts to empower women and ensure equal access to land in the Northern part of Ghana. According to the study, barriers which bring about the menace of exclusion are due to either cultural or social reasons mostly through the gendered social norms and stereotypes which are constructed socially. Increased formal education for the women has been advocated for, to ensure that they have sufficient knowledge in order to be economically empowered and to also take part in decision making about the tenure and system of land ownership.


Identifying slow learners in mathematics and promoting their participation in Mathematic in Sierra Leone. Case Study: Ten Schools in Kenema City []


This dissertation focuses on how slow or dull learners can be identified and assisted to cope with Mathematics lessons in junior secondary schools. The challenge of slow learners cannot be addressed until the learners are identified. Sometimes one error by a fast learner can make him or her appear like a slow learner in the eyes of a teacher. Therefore teachers need a deeper knowledge and understanding of how slow learners behave before jumping into conclusion .This research is therefore conducted to identify the behavior of slow learners and help teachers to promote their participation in Mathematics lessons .


STO ASSESSMENT SYSTEM []


As the generation upgrades day by day, the digital transaction and online interactions through web and mobile applications were developed and implemented. Such as online enrollment for schools, virtual classes, online examinations not only for schools but also for review centers, government transactions and online job applications and many other system were developed. Thus, this study aimed to develop a web application for the examination and assessment that be used by the Shipboard Training Office. The system can create/add, register, delete users and manage users, it can create/add, edit and delete questions for the Examination courses, can manage results, see the list of takers and do the item analysis.


Comprehension Levels on Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration among First Year College Students in a State University: A Two-tier Diagnostic Analysis []


This descriptive study aimed to determine the comprehension levels and alternative conceptions on photosynthesis and cellular respiration among first year college students. The respondents consisted of 147 first year college students from a state university in Iloilo City, Philippines. The sample was made up of one hundred thirteen BS Biological Science and thirty four BSEd Science major students. The instrument for collecting data was a 20-item validated researcher-made two-tier diagnostic test. Results revealed that the comprehension level of first year college students was average. Common alternative conceptions were identified in eleven categories. These were: Source of oxygen for photosynthesis, Comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Gas Exchange, Stages of cellular respiration, Electron transport chain, Purpose of photosynthesis, When do green plants respire, Cell respiration in plants, Electron flow in photosynthesis, and Krebs cycle. Two sample proposals were made to eliminate alternative conceptions. In photosynthesis, teachers could use graphic explanation of the correct chemical equation focusing on the sources of reactants and products of photosynthesis, while for cellular respiration; it might help if teachers could check prior learning and integrate the topic to other disciplines for contextualized learning.


CULTURAL REVIVAL OF THE MAGUINDANAO ARTIFACTS: PERSPECTIVE AND PROSPECT AMONG THE YOUTH []


Abstract This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of the youth on the local culture and arts in the Province of Maguindanao. A sequential procedure of the mixed design was utilized. There were 100 respondents composed of the Key Informants and the Focus Group Discussion. This study found out that the Maguindanaon artifacts were composed of the pandala, internal decorations, antique decorations and instruments, and for livelihood materials. There was a high level of perspectives on the Maguidanaon artifacts and culture as rated by the respondents and a high level of acceptance of the Maguindanao cultural artifacts in terms of appreciation and promotion. They believed that the Maguindanaon artifacts must be adapted, applied and institutionalized especially in the field of education. This study concluded that there is a dire need for the revival of their cultural identity before it will be buried in oblivion by the modern generation. Their cultural artifacts must be preserved to be able that it would be appreciated and promoted by the present generation of the Maguindanaon youth. Its adaption, application and institutionalization served as an avenue for revival and preservation. Let me start with self-contradictory premise cultural revival of the Maguindanao artifacts is a heritage and is a living thing of the past . This may of course seem a rather odd statement, the past being dead and long gone. But as we all know, communities leave residues of their individual and communal lives in many forms, and it is through these traces that we know what happened, how generations before us lived, and what mattered to them. Each time we preserve any part of our heritage, we keep it alive. It is in this sense that I regard heritage as a living thing: it becomes a part of us who live in the present. The irony is what we do not give these traces as much importance while their makers are alive; but once gone, their remnants take on increasingly greater value. There was a responsibility attached to cultural revival and heritage, whether from the legal or moral standpoint. The duty of the present generation is to preserved significant traces of the past, tangible and intangible just as it would be the duty of the future generation to preserved cultural revival created by the generation today. We are all, therefore, stewards of the cultural heritage with the viewed not only past but also to the future. The preservation of the cultural revival of the Maguindanao Artifacts are required a combination of the historical knowledge and method of the history and the conservations of the culture and the arts in the province of Maguindanao. Keywords: Cultural Revival, Artifacts, Culture & Arts, Maguindanao


PERCEPTIONS OF DISASTER RESILIENCE AND PREPAREDNESS IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE PHILIPPINES: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF POLICIES, PRACTICES, AND CHALLENGES IN SAN POLICARPO EASTERN SAMAR []


In the light of significant economic and human losses imposed on by the social construction of risk, disaster risk mitigation is a growing concern for policy. To reduce the risk and actively contribute to community resilience, public perception and viewpoints are more important. A critical analysis should delve further into the causes of disasters in order to strengthen the disaster compact and disaster risk management. Disasters are by definition social occurrences that necessitate a correlation between the social or human context and the purported natural hazards. The only method for preventing disaster or alleviate its consequences is to gain knowledge and put it to use in the world of action. The components, indicators, and factors that go into the social construction of risk formulation. The community can benefit from the SCRM (Social Configuration of Risk Model), which can assist decrease risk materialization and boost resiliency and recovery capacity. This study was conducted in order to comprehend the recapitulation of policies, practices, and challenges that will give us a practical understanding of measuring preparedness and adjudicating the early response of the vulnerable community to the social construction of risk.


A Critical Investigation on SME’s Opportunities and Challenges in The Construction Industries of Sultanate of Oman []


Small and medium enterprises are small scale companies in terms of size, investment and number of employees, but in the other hands, they contribute significantly to the socio-economic of the country. SME’s in the construction industry represent approximately 90% of the firms working in this sector, providing this industry with construction innovations, technology, creating new jobs, and providing a wealth balancing in the society. Oman’s government has developed various programmes to elevate the performance and business development of SME’s across the country, with the leading authority of SME’s development, which has been established in order to provide the required support to this sector. However, there are various challenges faced by SME’s in the construction industry that have impacted their performance and business continuity, the significant challenges faced by them are mainly delay in payment for the executed works, contractual issues, access to financial facilities, availability of manpower, regulations and policies, and the management knowledge of their management. The aim of this research paper is to investigate in depth on the available opportunities in the construction industry for SME’s to involve in, and secure a successful market place, and to highlight the various challenges faced by SME’s in this sector that works as a barrier for their growth. The information will depend on a primary data through questionnaires and direct interview to business owners, in addition to different published reports by government authorities and institutes. The results will be evaluated and analyzed to identify the real issues in order to provide a set of recommendations that attempt to resolve the problem. Keywords: - Construction industry, SME’s, opportunities, Challenges, Access to finance, manpower availability, regulations and policies.


PROTECTION OF ONLINE CONSUMERS FOR ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS IN TANZANIA. []


Tanzania is not an island isolated from the impacts of ICT development. Despite the good that comes with ICT development it is associated with side effects that tend to be thorn to the countries development and its subscribers. The main subscribers of the ICT development are the e-consumers who tend to be Tanzanians transacting using the cyber platform. Electronic Transaction has been booming since the late 20th century to date, bringing lots of aspiration benefits to e-consumers and Tanzanians economy at great rate. The development came with shortcomings that led to passing of an Acts of the parliament to deter the problems. The enacted Acts of parliament do not carter for the deterrence of the new challenges that affect the e-consumers that come with rapid development of the ICT. The author tends to address the matter by focusing on a comparative analysis approach between Tanzania and United Kingdom (UK) laws. This approach will bring into a positive result to be recommend on for respective authorities to act upon towards intensifying the protection of e-consumers engaging in transaction.


Effectiveness of Self-Service Technologies on Passenger Travel Experience at Muscat International Airport []


Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) become a necessity to any airport’s operation in order to reduce the processing time, cutting cost, convince users, raising the operational efficiency, improving service quality, gain the customer satisfaction and enhancing passengers travel experience. The aim of this research is to explore the effectiveness of SSTs on passenger travel experience at Muscat International Airport. The study depended on primary sourced data which has been collected through interviewing senior managers at the airport and distribution of a questionnaire among sample of passengers. While the secondary data explored via reviewing of literature of similar studies. After implementing qualitative and quantitative methods on the collected data, the results have met the research objectives. The SSTs at Muscat International Airport were acceptable to the passengers as these facilities have reduced the processing time, enhanced the passenger travel experience and raised the level of customer satisfaction. Although, the airport’s authority keeps working and planning for more SSTs implementation as part of its continuous improvement plan.


Effects of Human Resource Management Functions on the Performance of Non-Governmental Organizations in Iringa Municipality []


This study examined the effects of human resource management functions on the performance of Non-Governmental Organizations in Iringa Municipality. The current study specifically focused on three human resources functions namely recruitment, staff training and staff motivation. Both quantitative and qualitative research approach involves. In quantitative research approach 95 respondents were employed while in qualitative 10 were involved. Regression analysis was used to test the relationship of variables while in qualitative thematic data analysis employed. Findings revealed that the regression analysis output confirmed that there is a significant positive relationship between recruitment, staff training and staff motivation with organization performance, as the p-values less than 0.05. The study recommend NGOs to make sure they recruit skilled, committed, hardworking, experience and ethical people to their institutions. The study also recommends the management to increase budget for training activities as it has been revealed that training equip employees with knowledge and skills for them to perform well. Furthermore it is recommended that management to ensure their employees are highly motivated in terms of recognition, fair treatments, job security, compensations and provisions of working tools.


Contribution of Motivation Practices in Employees Job Satisfaction in Public Servant Social Security Fund Southern Highland Zone Branches []


This study examined the contribution of motivation practices on employees’ job satisfaction at PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches. Specifically, the study assessed the contribution of financial incentives on employees’ job satisfaction at PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches; examined the contribution of work environment enhancement on employees’ job satisfaction at PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches; and investigated the contribution of management support on employees’ job satisfaction at PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods; the sample size of the study was 102 employees from PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches. Survey data were analyzed using regression analysis meanwhile interviewed data was analysed by thematic analysis. The results indicate that financial incentives found with positive and significant contribution on job satisfactions since the score was (β = .107, p = .036), work environments have positive and significant contributions job satisfaction with (β = .034, p = .016) and also managements support was found with positive and significant contribution on job satisfactions since the score was (β = .049, p = .034). The study has evidenced that financial incentives, work environments and managements support had significant contribution on employee’s job satisfactions employees’ in PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches. Therefore, the practical implication is that these financial incentives, work environments and managements support do facilitating employee’s job satisfactions in PSSSF Southern Highland Zone branches. Based on the findings from these study financial incentives, work environments and managements support in PSSSF should be improved since have significant contributions on employees’ job satisfactions.


Prevalence and Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use Among Female Adolescents in Selected Secondary Schools in Gasabo District, Rwanda []


Globally, adolescent pregnancy represents a public health challenge. Sub-Saharan Africa, which experiences a continuous increase in female adolescents, is highly concerned about this problem. Rwanda experiences the same challenge, where 21% of its female adolescents become mothers before their 18th birthday. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of contraceptive use and the factors that influence it among female teenagers in Gasabo District secondary schools. An adolescent was defined as someone between the ages of 10 and 19. The study's findings depict contraceptive use among female teenagers and will provide insight into the factors that influence contraceptive use among this age group. Decision-makers and policymakers could use these findings to take appropriate action in light of the situation. In Gasabo District, a descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in two secondary schools (one in the rural area and the other in the urban area). A sample population of 385 adolescent girls from the two institutions was selected using a simple random sampling method. A quantitative approach was used and questionnaires served as a tool for data collection. The willingness of participation was confirmed by a signed consent form from each pupil or a signed assent form from a parent/ guardian whose child is under 18 years, and confidentiality was kept. The study was conducted during the month of April 2022. With the use of SPSS 22.0 in data analysis, descriptive statistics like percentages and frequencies were analyzed. Association between variables was assessed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis respectively. The study participants were between 10 and 19 years old and 37.1% of them belonged to the age group of [10-15] years. The urban participants were represented at 53.2%. According to the finding of this study, the prevalence of contraceptive use was 16.4% among females of two selected secondary schools in Gasabo District. Condoms (77. 8%) were the widely used contraceptive method, followed by pills (19.0%) and injectables (3.2%). The researcher has found that the source of information about contracep-tive use (AOR=4.934, 95%CI: 1.846 –13.186, p=0.001) and the age of respondent at her first sexual intercourse was associated with contraceptive use ((AOR=5.265, 95%CI: 1.625 - 17.058, p=0.006) and (AOR=14.603, 95%CI: 3.687 – 57.842, p<0.001) for the age [14-16] and [17-19] respectively) were associated with contraceptive use. Therefore, female adolescents need parental education about contraceptive use and encouragement to avoid early sexual intercourse in order to improve contraceptive use among this group of people. Further research, particularly that at the global level, is needed to better understand the barriers adolescent girls face in contraceptive use.


Logistics Management Practices And Operational Performance Of Multinational Corporations In Rwanda, Case Study Of Nelsap -Cu( Rusumo Project) []


Background: This study examines the effect of logistics management practices and operational performance of multinational corporations in Rwanda using the case study of NELSAP-CU Rusumo project for the period 2016-2021. The specific objectives of the study were to analyze how warehouse management affects the operational performance, assess the effect of inventory management on the operational performance and to establish the effect of transport management on the operational performance of NELSAP-CU Rusumo project. Materials and methods: The researcher used a quantitative research design involving both descriptive and inferential analysis. Data was collected from 52 people who included 29 junior staff, 18 middle-level managers and 5 senior managers from NELSAP-CU Rusumo project by use of the questionnaire survey. There was no sampling because the population size (65) was small. Validity was ensured by using the content validity index while internal reliability was ensured by using pilot-testing. Only quantitative data was used and this was analyzed using descriptive statistics (minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (multiple linear regression analysis) which were conducted using Microsoft Office Excel Data Analysis ToolPak. Results: For the first hypothesis, findings from the regression analysis show that warehouse management had a negative (β1= -0.208) and statistically significant (p=0.000<0.05) effect on the operational performance of NELSAP-CU Rusumo Project at a 5% level of significance. Therefore, the study fails to accept the first hypothesis by stating that warehousing management has a statistically significant effect on the operational performance of NELSAP-CU Rusumo Project. The test for the second hypothesis shows that inventory management had a positive (β2=0.230) but not statistically significant (p=0.063>0.05) effect on the operational performance of NELSAP-CU Rusumo Project at a 5% level of significance. For the third hypothesis, it is observed that transport management also had a positive (β3=0.003) but not statistically significant (p=0.977>0.05) effect on the operational performance of NELSAP-CU Rusumo Project at a 5% level of significance. Conclusion: The significance of the study lies in its potential to inspire the management of NELSAP-CU (Rusumo Project) to become agile and continuously improve their logistics management practices based on the prevailing changes in the operating environment. This study recommends that the management should consult the relevant stakeholders and engage in decision-making when selecting the mode of transport to ensure effective and efficient delivery of material supplies. Key Words: Logistics Management Practices, Operational Performance, Multinational Corporations, Nelsap-Cu, Rusumo Project, Rwanda


A Literature Review on Music Therapy for paralysis patients []


Background: Physical Therapy is a science of restoring health through doing exercise and using special equipment to keep the patient back to normal movement as much as possible. Nowadays, there are more and more new forms of treatment being invented. One of those treatment modalities is using music to help in the therapy which is also known as The Music Therapy. It is an alternative to improving the efficiency of treatment and healing for patients. Objective: To study information about Music Therapy for future’s medical benefits. Methods: To analyse academic and related research papers. Result: Gathered information about Music Therapy which can be used for patients. Conclusion: Music Therapy is used to increase the efficiency of treatment and thought to have an effect on the brain. This may help reduce the symptoms of dementia for paralysis patients. It can be applied in a variety of ways. However, Music Therapy is not widely used nowadays. There should be more studies on using music along with the Physical treatment Keywords: Music Therapy, Physical Therapy, Paralysis, Stroke


The typology of the women’s movement identity in Afghanistan After the year 2001 []


The Afghan women’s movement after the Bonn first conference, with the coming and introduction of new system and presence of the international community in the country, it gained new prosperity and was able to raise its demands at the highest level of the society and with the help of international institutions to force them to obey. On the contrary, it has not been very successful at the lower levels of society and rural areas in a way that we are witnessing more violence and more misogyny in the country. According to some of the researchers, the demands of the activists of this movement are not based on the needs of the women and socio-economic condition of the country and are limited to a specific group of women. The purpose of this study is to explain what social groups of activists in the women’s movement in Afghanistan consist of and what their views are on the situation of the women. In this study, after analyzing the interviews of 80 activists women, we found that the Afghan women’s movement is a movement by educated and intellectual women that are living in the capital and other major cities or abroad and they believe in gender inequality and oppression of Afghan women that are led and they want the gender equality and the promotion of women in society


Political Gaslighting of Trolls under the Duterte Regime []


When communication in social media platforms is used as a means for political control, it allows for a culture of truth manipulation and historical distortion to exist. The creation of troll armies as part of the government operations in countering critics and dissidents alike was to engage them in futile discourses. Composed of digital influencers, fake accounts, and algorithmic bots, their goal is to seemingly inflate Duterte’s supporters, while also practicing a messianic culture in public opinion. Examining the psyche of online political trolls during the Duterte regime, this study explores how disinformation campaigns thrived through the social phenomenon of political gaslighting. Danah Boyd’s concept of “attention hacking” elaborated how trolling is used as a psychological warfare against information in digital media spaces. Through a psychological approach, this study discusses the culture of influence, how trolls have the power to manipulate narratives to a convincing degree, which eventually translates to additional voter support. Rather than showing the large comprehensive network of trolling, this study contributes to the moral particularities and justifications that understands the developments of their interpersonal relationships as online political trolls. As the strategies of political deception in populism continues to advance, the troll presence and impact welcomed a wide support base of Duterte that carried over after his regime, which argues trolling as a propaganda used as a response to arguments and grievances, as well as to form beliefs, sentiments, and opinions.


TRANSFORMATION EXPERIENCES OF THE FIRST BATCH OF MAPD STUDENTS OF THE BANGSAMORO AUTONOMOUS REGION TRAINING CENTER []


The study described the transformation experiences of the MAPD students as they journey towards completion of the academic degree, given that they have had so much exposure experiences with communities, had been exposed to many forms of conflict in the camp and the wider community and to ethnic groups that had been marginalized. The transformation experiences considered were analyzed based on the six elements of the culture of peace, namely: Compassion and Social Justice; Dismantling of the Culture of War; Protecting and Promoting Human Rights, Living in Harmony with the Earth; Intercultural Solidarity; and, Building Inner Peace. The most important of the changes that led to the transformation is the changed in values. These values were aligned with the elements of the Culture of Peace. The researchers sees all the changes as leading to transformation. I am not saying everyone has totally transformed. But they are on the right track. Complete transformation is a very long process. They have properly begun the process. Keywords: Transformation, MAPD Students, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Training Center


MOW BOT []


While the world becomes more globalized, so will the need for faster and effective agriculture increases. It is essential to use modern agricultural approaches that are less time consuming, harmless to both crops and agricultural fields, and also save energy and manpower in order to improve crop production. To enhance productivity, one way could be to identify and remove weeds in the field. Weeds compete with harvests for resources such as water, nutrients, and light, affecting crop yields. As a result, it is necessary to decrease weed spread in farms. Quack grass is the most widespread weed, but it might be observed in almost every agricultural field. The primary purpose of this project is to develop an autonomous solar-powered Mow-Bot that can detect and cut/mow weeds in farmlands. Apart from weed removal, the Mow-Bot also functions as a pesticide sprayer, allowing farmers to avoid inhaling the harmful chemicals sprayed during the process. To prevent wild animals and other humans from entering the field, the Mow-Bot is equipped with a security alert. Because the Mow-Bot is automated, it saves time and money while also being ecologically friendly because it runs on solar power.


THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF TILE AND CARPET CENTRE []


Human capital management today is managing every facet of employee talent and creativity, and labor which requires a detailed examination of all segments of the workforce against every area of operational detail. This study aimed at investigating the effect of employee creativity and organization performance at Tile and Carpet Centre (T&C) in Kenya. The human resource management theory anchored the variables of the study. The study adopted descriptive research design. The study population was 750 staff working in 3 T&C locations while stratified random sampling technique was used to sample 100 respondents. The pilot testing was conducted using the questionnaire on 10 staff from ICD warehouse, Nairobi County. The measure of reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha at 0.7. The study was a descriptive research and primary data was collected using a questionnaire. Frequency distribution tables and figures were used to present the findings where interpretation was done in prose form. The researcher conducted simple regression analysis to find out the relationship between employee creativity and organizational performance of T&C. The inferential results on effect of employee creativity on organization performance show R=0.588 indicating a strong positive correlation and R2=0.346 and there was a significant effect between employee creativity and organization performance (t=6.866, p<0.05). The study established and provided evidence that work well being positively affects employee creativity and organization innovation capability thus having a positive influence on organizational performance. The study recommends that T&C should take the issue of employee creativity seriously to facilitate effective job delivery and performance.


The Mountain of Cardinal Emile Biayenda : Place of Spiritual Consecration and Symbol of one-party Political Violence in Congo Brazzaville []


In 1977, Marien Ngouabi, president of the republic since 1968, was assassinated in his palace in broad daylight. In the aftermath, Alphonse MASSAMBA-DEBAT, former President of the Republic and Cardinal Emile BIAYENDA, Archbishop of Brazzaville suffered the same fate. The latter was assassinated, according to official statements, at the top of a mountain, in the far north of Brazzaville. Since then, this mountain, which has become the property of the Catholic Church, has been transformed from the place of the crime, to the place where almost all the religious communities meet to pray. The reasons can be twofold: The representation that we have of the mountain in the Bible with all the edicts pronounced in these places by Jesus and other prophets. The sacrifice of a man of this trunk, for political questions, devoid of any foundation can explain this craze on this mountain which has become one of the high tourist places of Brazzaville. Keywords : Political violence, spiritual consecration, single party, mountain, Cardinal Emile Biayenda


Research "The Impact of Building Digital Culture on Employees' Engagement in the ICT Sector" []


Digital transformation is a cultural transformation that affects the majority of people who work, and it will never be realized unless companies instill confidence in their employees that digitalization can help organizations, people, and society achieve a better future.


EFFECTIVENESS OF AU STRATEGY TO COMBAT AL SHABAAB IN SOMALIA []


Abstract Somalia is named the world’s most dangerous country (Global Peace Index, 2011), following decades of conflict between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) supported by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and a number of armed groups led by al-Shabaab. Despite the African Union’s concerted efforts to quell the Al Shabaab insurgency in Somalia, conflict dynamics have become more complicated and more difficult to deal with overtime. This article analysed the effectiveness of the AU’s strategies in mitigating al Shabaab phenomena in Somalia using a desk review of available literature. The article argued that given the globalised typology of terrorism, the AU has a central role to play in harnessing the efforts of member states, development agencies including the UN to couch befitting multi-faceted strategies to combat the pandemic. The article proffered insights and recommendations on how the AU can alternatively and effectively address issue of al Shabaab in Somalia.


Media’s framing of Pandemics: A Case of the COVID-19 coverage in the Pakistani Press []


This paper investigates how COVID-19 has been presented in the Pakistani media. It explores media behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study examined the usage of framing strategies in the newspapers discussing COVID-19 using a cross-sectional design in conjunction with a content analysis method. The results showed that the Pakistani press during the time of the pandemic have more courage in conflict, uncertainty, and consequences frames. The results also showed that during the pandemic the press followed the issue attention cycle, according to extensive coverage to COVID-19 related frames during the period when the issue of COID-19 was at its peak. The findings are a significant contribution to understanding the media's role in pandemics. The media gave more coverage to conflict, uncertainty, and consequence frames compared to the remaining three frames. Therefore, it is indicative that media content needs to be organized in such a way that avoids sensation and creates a sense of communal cohesion during the time of pandemic such as COVID-19.


Problématique de la conception d’un Entrepôt de données (Data Warehouse) []


Résumé D’entrée de jeux, cet article est destiné à ceux qui ont une certaine maitrise en ce qui concerne un environnement décisionnel avec comme concept central l'entrepôt de données ou le Data Warehouse. Nous nous sommes vraiment intéressé à présenter comment concevoir un entrepôt de données ou le Data Warehouse. Sur ce, nous nous sommes posés les quelques questions suivantes : Quelle structure permet-elle d'avoir les fonctionnalités requises pour un entrepôt de données ? Quelles sont les techniques utilisées pour bien concevoir ? Quels sont les indicateurs d'une bonne conception ? Dans cet article nous allons commencer par introduire les concepts fondamentaux de l'informatique décisionnelle (nécessaires pour la compréhension de cet article), nous continuerons par l'explication des méthodes de conception d'entrepôt de données via une étude de cas, et nous terminerons par une critique de ces techniques et une conclusion mentionnant les indicateurs d'une bonne conception d'entrepôt. Abstract From the outset, this article is intended for those who have a certain mastery regarding a decision-making environment with the central concept of the « entrepôt de données » or the Data Warehouse. We were really interested in how to design a « entrepôt de données » or the Data Warehouse. With this in question, we ask the following questions: What structure does it allow to have the functionality required for a data warehouse? What techniques are used to design well? What are the indicators of good design? In this article we will begin by introducing the fundamental concepts of decision-making computing (necessary for understanding this article), we will continue by explaining data warehouse design methods via a case study, and we will end with a critique of these techniques and a conclusion mentioning indicators of good warehouse design.