Volume 10, Issue 9, September 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study focused on the implementation of Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management in Barangays Matuber and Penansaran in Datu Blah Sinsuat and Barangays Lower Taviran and Upper Taviran in Mother Kabuntalan, Maguindanao. It aimed to determine the approaches of each barangays in their implementation of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. The status of implementation of Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management in selected barangays of Maguindanao appeared that it was poorly implemented in the barangay in all of its components. In prevention and mitigation, it had the lowest mean score of 2.03 where the implementation of BDRRM in these four (4) barangays was poorly implemented. Its target to reduce the risk of being affected by a disaster through capacity building, establishment and improvement of early warning system (EWS) and implementation of social and structural development policies and plans were not addressed accordingly. In preparedness, the respondents believed that there was poor implementation of the program in the community level. The results of the survey also captured that in response, there was poor implementation. In the Rehabilitation and Recovery component, the surveys showed that the implementation of BDRRM on this aspect was also poorly implemented.The status of the BDRRM implementation in the barangays of Datu Blah Sinsuat, Maguindanao captured and drew positive and relevant effects and contributions to some aspect of peacebuilding and development. These included the strengthened awareness on peace and security, strengthened referral system and inclusion of peace issues in planning, strengthened promotion on peace advocacy, increased participation of the community in peacebuilding, secured awareness on security issues and lessened the vulnerabilities of the community. Budget is considered the primary concerns of the barangays in the implementation. Along with other problems encountered, the barangays identified that communication, and security treats were considered to be other problems contributory to the delayed or poor implementation of the BDRRM. Indeed, the DRR implementation increased the resilience of the communities in facing the impacts of calamities both natural and human-induced. Thus, it positively contributed to peacebuilding in various aspects at all levels. Keywords: Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management(BDRRM), Province of Maguindanao


Volunteering, Learning at Home, and Decision Making ; determine the level of pupils’ Academic Performance when categorized as Outstanding, Very Satisfactory, Satisfactory, Fairly Satisfactory, and Did Not Meet Expectation; and test the relationship between the teachers’ perspectives on teacher-parents’ role engagements and the level of pupils’ academic performance. A quantitative research design was implemented where participants were selected through purposive sampling since all teachers and all pupils of Camp Evangelista Elementary School were the respondents of the study. Descriptive statistical tools were utilized. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to get the significant relationship of the teachers’ perspective to teacher-parents’ role engagement and pupils’ Academic Performance. The instruments used in this study were adapted from Epstein parental involvement framework and the SF6 of School Year 2020-2021 for the pupils’ Academic Performance. Results revealed that there is a Significant Relationship between the teachers’ perspective on teacher-parents’ role engagement and pupils’ Academic Performance. It can be suggested that the school shall organize teachers and parents to craft strategic plans that would enhance the level of Academic Performance of the pupils like organizing the School’s Governing Council and School Parent -Teacher Association.


The study aimed to attain the following objectives: To find the extent of practices of the School Feeding Program (SBFP) in terms of: Strategy, Food Safety, and Hygiene; to ascertain the teachers’ level of assessment on the implementation of the SBFP; to de-termine the significant relationship between the extent of practices of SBFP and the teachers’ level of assessment on the imple-mentations of SBFP and to propose an action plan based on the results of the study. The study was conducted at West City Cen-tral School of Cagayan de Oro City Division, School Year 2020-2021. The study utilized the descriptive-correlational research de-sign and used a questionnaire as the main instrument to gather the necessary data to realize the objectives of the study. Purpos-ive sampling was employed to determine the respondents of the study. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to determine the practices in the implementation of the SBFP. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was employed to find the signifi-cant relationship between the extent of practices in the implementation of the SBFP and the level of assessment. Results revealed that the school has best practices in implementing the SBFP specifically on strategies, food safety, and hygiene. The strategies and food safety practices are statistically associated with the teachers’ assessment of the program. It is recommended that Gulayan sa Paaralan will be revived with the collaboration of the parents and other stakeholders. A regular orientation to the parents about their roles in the implementation of the SBFP to get their full support. Establish linkages and partnerships with Government and non-government organizations for possible funding to improve the school’s health equipment and facilities.

Measuring Lithium solubility in LiFePO4 grains boundaries After oxidation using atom probe tomography []

Poor oxidation resistance is a key contributor to material failure within extreme environments. Understanding oxygen solubility is important for computation aided design of new battery electrode material LiFePO4 especially when Lithium is important to define the suitability of electrode material. Lithium mobility within compound, such as LiFePO4, has been studied using Atom Probe Tomography (APT). APT is the only technique offering both a high chemical sensitivity (<10 ppm) and resolution (<1 nm) allowing for a composition measurement within nanometers of the oxide/metal interface. APT was employed to measure the Lithium and oxygen content at different depths from the oxide/metal interface as well as on grain boundaries at different temperature and check the mobility of lithium on grain boundaries. The results reveal <10 s of ppm oxygen solubility within LiFePO4 at all depths and 100 s of ppm Lithium within GBs.

Selection of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Varieties Using Participatory and Mother-Baby Methodology in Gedeo Zone at Wonago, Ethiopia []

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a short season annual crop, which is under production in both main (meher) and short (belg) growing seasons. It is produced by over 4 million smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. Common bean is one of the most important food legume crops which has high starch, protein and dietary fiber and is an excellent source of minerals and vitamins including iron, zinc, calcium, thiamine, vitamin B6, and folic acid. Large Red speckled seed common beans are more demanded over the white beans at Dilla Zuria district. However, the farmers mainly depend on the local varieties and other species like lima bean. Therefore, farmer’s participatory varieties evaluation and selection methods were applied to identify preferred common bean variety in Dilla Zuria district. Fourteen released common bean varieties were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design as mother trial replicated with three at Dilla on station to identify farmer’s selection criteria; to popularize the variety and to enhance seed produces capacity in managing varieties portfolios. Twenty surrounding farmers were selected for the baby trials for qualitative evaluation. Farmer’s preference related data was collected for seven common bean traits. Common bean pre harvest traits such as earliness, seed per pod (>5 seed per pod), pod load, up right growth habit and height of basal pod from the soil are identified as the best descriptors to accept and reject the varieties. Uniformity of red speckled seed color was identified as major decisive criteria for accepting and rejecting common bean variety after harvest. Gegeba and Remeda were variety scored the best ranks for all criteria. Farmers selected and discarded the varieties at various stage of common bean growth with fairly high degree of precision.

Data Science and Machine learning: A survey on retail sales forecasting and prediction in Rwanda Supermarkets []

This article focuses on how supermarkets choose to stock products at different times of the year, in most supermarkets there is no real formal system in place it is just a case of the person in charge of stock making their own decisions based on their past experiences and what they know and have observed from their clientele. So, most of the estimations are done by people. This is where the proposed research comes in. Instead of solely depending on people making their own estimations we can now utilize trusted calculations and analysis of the previous sales in a supermarket using python libraries and built in functions to make accurate predictions of which products will sell more than others and by what margin.The article aims to find and define the spending patterns of consumers to help shop owners stock products more efficiently and reduce on stock waste. This article also aims to see if the future purchases of consumers can really be predicted. The recommendation is that this prediction tool can be helpful to local supermarkets to possibly increase sales and cut down on products expiring on shelves. This will also help local supermarkets to better plan their financial years.

Potentials of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Leaf Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor of Medium Carbon Steel in Sulphuric Acid []

The inhibitory activities of Azadirachta Indica leaf extract on medium carbon steel corrosion behavior were observed in electrolyte solutions at room temperature and the inhibition effectiveness was estimated using the potentiodynamic polarization technique. Before being ground to micron size for potentiodynamic polarization investigation, the leaves were collected, dried, and ground. Reflux ethanol extraction was used to extract the leaves, and the weight of each leaf that was removed was calculated. The quantities for different extract concentrations were also calculated and put to the acidic medium, where the test for different extract concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5g/L was conducted using the medium carbon steel coupons. Utilizing Icorr and Icorr(i) values for corrosion current densities, the inhibition efficiency was computed. As the concentration of the plant extract rose (from 0.0g/L to 0.5g/L), the corrosion rates decreased (from 4.58 mm/yr. to 0.29 mm/yr.). Azadirachta indica leaf extract is a superb inhibitor of medium carbon steel corrosion, with inhibition efficiency rising from 72% to 90% as the inhibitor concentration rose, according to the potentiodynamic polarization method. Due to their availability, biodegradability, low cost, and lack of toxicity to humans and the environment, plant extracts make good corrosion inhibitors. This study discovered that Azadirachta Indica leaf extracts can increase the service life of medium carbon steel when utilized in the right concentration.

Wheat pest management (Aphid and armyworm) through natural enemies in climate change scenario []

A study was conducted in two successive seasons during 2020 and 2021 at Adaptive Research Farm Rahim Yar Khan. The objective was to control the wheat aphid and armyworm through natural enemies. Aphids are major pests of wheat crop in Pakistan. The dominant aphid species i.e. Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis and Sitobion avenae. Various species of natural enemies, mainly Coccinella septumpunctata, C. undecimpunctata, Menochilus sexmaculata, Chrysoperla carnea, Syrphidae and parasitoid mummies were inconsistently observed in agro-ecological zones of wheat. It is concluded that the population of aphid was controlled much by the lady bird beetles (grub & adults), syrphid fly and yellow jackets (hornets), while armyworm was controlled much by the yellow jackets (hornets), chrysoperla and lady bird beetles during both years. Keywords: aphid, armyworm, natural enemies, chrysoperla, lady bird beetle and syrphid fly.


Abstract Recruitment and training are indispensable in every police organization such as the Police Regional Office of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (PRO BAR), Unfortunately, with all their good intent and purposes, people with ill motives grabbed them as opportunity to execute their crookedness to include personnel of the PRO BAR and their cohort. And for so many years, these allegations had been shadowing the recruitment and training in PRO BAR, So this study, through the qualitative research method, aim to investigate the issues relative to the recruitment in PRO BAR and the training at the Bangsamoro Autonomoun Region Training Center (BARTC). It follows to cover how the qualification and requirement of recruitment and training serve as springboard for unlawful schemes and the peaceful strategies that were put in place at preventive measures. An observed, it appeared that personnel of PRO BAR and BART and their civilian cohort enterprised from the recruitment process but not necessarily the “3 applicants-in-one million pesos" scheme. Applicants in their desperateness to join the PRO BAR had submitted fake Transcript of Records (TRs) and other documents such as height waiver and eligibility and even noting that NAPOLCOM examination are taken by another person in behalf of the would-be PNP applicant. Long before, Psychological examination can be acquired from a NAPOLCOM accredited testing center, the only requirement is to pay. The same is true that in the past, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region Training Center (BART) personnel dipped their hands on the "issuematic" of training supplies and materials. But let it be emphasized that the cases of corruption in the PRO BAR recruitment and BARTC training processes are not institutional but personal. And these police officers who were doing these anomalies have long empowered themselves that they were indestructible. However, nowadays, these anomalies in the recruitment and training decreased especially with the resolve of the national government to eliminate corruption. Be that as it may, it is recommended that the intelligence machinery of the PRO BAR i.e. the Regional Intelligence Division and Regional Intelligence Unit 14 must sustain, if not enhanced, their monitoring to eliminate this abhorred corrupt practices and to adopt the peaceful strategies this study contributed. Keywords: Peace Strategies, Recruitment and Training, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region


This study was conducted to know local ways of resolving cases of disputes by our traditional leaders that could be integrated to the conflict transformation framework and in particular, to identify the socio-economic profile of the respondents and existing dispute mechanisms in the province. The study also seek to know cases of conflict being transformed, the different modes of settlement utilized and the approaches used by these traditional leaders. The research was conducted in the Province Maguindanao. There were twenty five (25) traditional leaders chosen and served as a respondents coming from the TFCRM as officers and members, traditional leaders as partners of MAPAD in resolving conflict and elders from their different respective areas in Maguindanao. The conflict transformation mechanism in resolving disputes in the Province of Maguindanao was determined through qualitative research design which was employed and utilized the questionnaire and key-informant interview in data gathering. The questionnaires were translated into tagalog or Maguindanaon dialects to ensure they understand it. One-on-one Interviews and focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted by the researcher and analyzed. Data was also taken from a review of existing documents from TFCRM and MAPAD and online research. The descriptive research design was employed and utilized the questionnaires and interview in data gathering. Frequency counts and percentages distribution, were the statistical tools applied in analyzing the data. This study documents present local dispute settlement bodies and mechanisms that address rido and other community-based conflicts. It presents the local ways of resolving conflicts through the traditional leaders and the Task Force Conflict Resolution Management, a mechanism body patterned after the Shariah concept of justice in areas occupied specifically by the MILF. It has seven members of investigating teams which consist of CCCH, AHJAG, Shariáh, MILF- BIAF, IMT et al. Based on the summary of finding of this study, it is concluded that Moro in its culture still shows that men are most likely dominant in resolving disputes. Generally, land disputes ranked as the number one causes of conflict. Existing political and business rivalries that leads to the proliferation of guns and armed men being used on the grounds had resulted in the escalation of these local conflicts and committed murder in some cases. Often times, these actions leads to prevalance of the Maratabat of the Maranao and Iranuns as a contributory factor. Keywords: Conflict Transformation, Shariah, Maratabat, Province of Maguindanao


Introduction: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) continues to overload the world’s health systems, regardless of the availability of well-tolerated drugs and an effective vaccine. Most youths in Iwawa Rehabilitation Center (IRC) had been in behaviors such as injection drug use, unsafe sex with multiple partners, and all sorts of physical violence. The levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding HBV infection among youths in IRC are not known. With poor knowledge, a negative attitude, and poor practice, youths in IRC are at high risk of catching or spreading HBV infection. This study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice towards HBV infection among youths in IRC. Methods: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study that took place from 7th to 31st March 2022, and targeted 1914 youths who were attending rehabilitation programs at IRC. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the study respondents. Inclusion criteria were being admitted to IRC, youth, and consent for participation. Not consenting and having severely ill were the exclusion criteria. Data were collected by using a computer-assisted face-to-face interview with a pretested structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 26. Results: Totally, 404 youths were included in this study. All respondents were male with ages ranging between 18 and 35 years and an average of 25.6 years (SD = 4.5). More than half (53.7%) were aged 18 to 25 years while 46.3% were 26 to 35 years old. Most (74.0%) of respondents were single and 26% were cohabitants. The majority (59.2%), reached primary school, 25.2% reached secondary school, and 15.6% were illiterate. Approximately 60% of respondents had a good level of knowledge, 56.44% had a positive attitude, and 37.13% had good preventive practices against HBV infection. Respondents with a good level of knowledge had 1.84 higher odds of having good practice than those with poor knowledge (OR = 1.84, p = .005, 95% CI = [1.19, 2.84]). The level of attitude was not significantly related to the level of preventive practices. Conclusion: Youth in IRC lack the necessary level of knowledge to effectively perform preventive practices against HBV infection. Health education should be incorporated into rehabilitation programs provided to youth in rehabilitation centers.


HIV-positive women who live longer with HPV infection, left untreated, run an increased risk of cervix premalignant lesion. The risk of acquiring invasive cervical cancer in HIV/AIDS positive women is ten years earlier than in HIV/AIDS negative women. Cervical cancer poses intense and chronic risk to women lives, losing one woman to cervical cancer every two minutes. This paper focuses on the level of screening for cervical cancer among HIV/AIDS patients in Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design employing quantitative approach. 750 HIV/AIDS women patients attending the Comprehensive Care Centre at Nandi County Referral Hospital during the month of July to October 2020 were targeted. A sample of 196, based on Fisher’s formula, was drawn. The study used systematic and purposeful random sampling techniques to recruit participants. Primary data was collected using open- and closed-ended questionnaires. Data was coded and entered into Microsoft Excel 2016 and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 25.0. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. The study results revealed that 77.4% of women had heard about cervical cancer and its screening, whereas 47.4% had received information from mass media. Of the respondents, 83.2% and 62% had heard of cervical cancer screening and knew any of the screening procedures, respectively. Majority (57.1%) mentioned Pap smear test as a method of screening. Moreover, half (51.05%) reported that they had been screened for cervical cancer while many (48.94%) had never been screened. Furthermore, majority (69.89%) mentioned fear that they had the disease as a reason for not being screened. The study concluded that awareness of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening has not translated to uptake of screening. Therefore, there is need to increase education on cervical cancer screening and integrate screening with HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Care services.

Assessment of Mean Performance, genetic Variability, Heritability and Character Association of Cane and Sugar yields and Their Components of 30 advanced Sugarcane Genotypes at Three Cane Production Schemes, Sudan []

ABSTRACT The success of improving the sugarcane crop and its production activities of sugar and cane can only be achieved with the scientific information that results from the study of genotypes, environments and genotype by environmental interactions (GEI). In this study, 30 genotypes were evaluated in the seasons 2018/19 and 2019/20 at three locations, viz Kenana, White Nile and Guneid sugar schemes, Sudan, with the aim of studying genetic variability, heritability in broad sense and characters association of yield and quality traits. genotypes were tested using a randomized complete block design with four replications. The characteristics of cane yield were measured, were the number of stalks (1000/ha), stalk thickness (cm), number of internodes, stalk height (cm), stalk weight (kg) and cane yield (ton cane/hectare) and quality characters that included the percentage of fiber in the cane (fiber%), moisture percentage in cane (Moisture%), percentage of soluble solids in cane juice (brix%), sugar percentage in cane juice (Pol%), percentage of purity of cane juice (purity%), estimated recoverable sucrose percentage in cane juice (ERSc%) and sugar yield (tons of sugar / hectare). The study also included genetic variability, phenotypic and genetic coefficient of variation, mean performance of characters of sugarcane, heritability in the broad sense, simple phenotypic correlation coefficient analysis. The results of the genetic variability analysis showed that there were significant differences among the genotypes, seasons and location for all of the traits studied. The study showed that the genotypic and phenotypic variance was high for the characters of stalk length, stalks number and cane yield. The traits that showed a high degree of heritability were stalk thickness, stalk weight, stalks number, number of internodes, sugar yield and cane yield. The results of the study showed that the relationship of cane yield is positive and significant correlation with the stalk number, internodes number of and stalk weight, but it is negative correlation and significant with the stalk thickness (diameter), and negative with the stalk height. The relationship of sugar yield was positive and significant with Pol% cane, Brix% cane, purity% cane, ERSc% cane and it was negative and significant with Fiber% cane. These results indicate that the selection process based on the stalk number and stalk weight is effective for increasing cane yield. The genotypes that produced the highest cane sugar yields were KnB 02- 0554 (145.2, 20.3 t/h), VMC 95- 37 (140.6, 19.2 t/h), respectively, were recommended for further more evaluation under field condition in the sugar production schemes.


There has been a limited effort directed towards research on the customer relationship management characteristics and the performance of five-star hotels. This was the main objective of this research. A cross sectional descriptive survey design was adopted with target population which comprised of 400 managerial staffs from 8 five-star hotels in Nairobi. Semi-structured questionnaires aided in collection of the primary data from the 120 respondents. The main findings from this study established that CRM systems features significantly affected the performance of five-star hotels and thus managers and operators should ensure that their CRM systems enable them to improve their performance outcomes.

Governance pillars and project performance: A Case of Bugesera District Building Construction []

The aim of the study was to measure the impact of Project Governance Pillars on Project Performance was the main objective of this study. More specifically, the research addressed the specific objectives of the effect of the structure pillar on Bugesera district building construction project performance, the effect of the people pillar on Bugesera district building construction project performance, and evaluated evaluate the effect of the information pillar on Bugesera district building construction project performance. According to the results obtained from data analysis in structure, people, and information pillars, the predictors were not able to change something significant in project performance. The data collected was analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive statistics to measure the relationship between project governance pillar independent variables and project governance dependent variables, and using regression analysis to measure the effect of independent variables on project performance, with the structure pillar (p = 0.002 and beta = 0.53) the analysis resulted that there is the significance and low power to change something on project performance, with people pillar (p = 0.013 and beta = - 0.545) the analysis resulted that there is a significant and negative effect on project performance, with information pillar (p = 0.002 and beta = - 3.188) the analysis resulted that there is a significant and negative effect on project performance. According to the research findings, the research recommended that construction project managers adopt the principles of project governance, and respect project ethics, through better structure construction, engage the right people for the right job, and provide accurate information in order to support effective communication during construction project implementation.


Toxic odour causes pollution to environment. Removal of odour from wet processing sections of leather tanneries is important to preserve safety and occupational health. Such odour causing gases are identified in nature and are identified mostly as ammonia, Hydrogen sulfide and Volatile organic compounds. These gases, evolving from tanning drums, were experimentally quantified and analysed. Techniques for the abatement of odorous gases are designed using chemical methods. Scrubbing towers based on absorption of gases by liquid are designed and fabricated to evaluate the performance of the system in laboratory scale. Those gases were reduced in the concentration by absorbing through the packed bed vapour phase absorption using the activated carbon as the adsorbent. Results are helpful to conclude that the absorption technique presented here to reduce these toxic emission loads, seems to be simpler and economically cheaper especially in Uganda.

Review paper to enhance authentication of IoT devices in Industrial Control Systems []

Industrial Control Systems are hardware and particular manipulating structures used to automate and modify diverse industrial operations and procedures. ICS incorporates devices, networks, and configurations applied to operate and optimise more than one strategy withinside the manufacturing chain. However, this layout no longer meets trendy commercial enterprise necessities for working with cutting-edge technologies like big data analytics. Therefore, to meet the industry requirements, various ICSs had been linked to agency networks that permit commercial organisation customers to get the right of entry to real-time statistics generated using power plants. Which led to the extinction of the air gap in ICS; thus, many ICS security challenges arose. This paper reviewed cyber security issues related to ICS and decided to solve one specific problem. Weak authentication of IoT devices in ICS is the only problem proposed to be solved in this research by implementing an algorithm using the MATLAB simulator to enhance the authentication of IoT devices in ICS.


Management is a skill that a school leader needs to improve over time. To expand this skill, a school leader should practice benchmarking strategies. Hence, this study described the implementation of SOLCP activities among the public secondary schools in Caba, La Union for the Academic Year 2020-2021, and employed mixed method using survey questionnaire, a structured interview questions, and document analysis which were treated using frequency count, mean, and codes and themes. As to the findings of the study, all of the SOLCP activities were implemented by the schools to a very high extent. Meanwhile, identified necessary programs, projects, and activities based on uniqueness, location, and geographical locations included provision of learning support technologies, construction of additional facilities, social awareness program, and intensified school-community partnership. From the merits of the findings, the study concluded that there was budget insufficiency, lack of monitoring tool, and no periodic giving of technical assistance. Therefore, this research humbly recommended to increase budget allocation for school, devise monitoring tool for SOLCP activities, and consistently provide episodic technical assistance for school heads and teachers. Thus, a training design was formulated to equip all schools about practices and success stories in the implementing SOLCP, a proposed monitoring tool to supervise different SOLCP activities, and a sample enhanced SOLCP. Keywords: Management Practices, SOLCP, Implementation, Projects, Programs, Activities


The study focused on the impact of cash management strategies on the financial performance of CAAZ, by evaluating the cash management techniques which are implemented by CAAZ, and Cash Conversion Cycle levels. The literature reviewed was centered on cash management practices and strategies which are implemented by companies and their impact on business performance. The research was both descriptive and qualitative in nature, hence the researcher opted for the mixed approach that of using both quantitative and qualitative methods, to better capture, describe and explain the complex cash management strategies and the business performance. A sample of 36 respondents was selected through the use of stratified random sampling. The total number of questionnaires sent was 36 and the response rate was 92%. The data collected through questionnaires and secondary data from financial reports were presented, analyzed and interpreted in chapter four through the use of Epi Info system, Microsoft Excel and descriptive statistics. Correlation and coefficient of determination were carried out on the data to determine the relationship between components of cash management and financial performance. Presentation of the findings was in the form of tables, pie charts, line and bar graphs. The study established that liquidity or cash flow had a positive impact on the financial performance of the company It is recommended that the CAAZ should tighten its credit policy implementation and ensure cash collection improves to shorten the cash conversion cycle. CAAZ should adopt cash management strategies that include electronic e-commerce business platforms that allow its customers to access their ledger accounts from wherever they are. The study further recommends strategies CAAZ should implement systems that determine the optimum cash balances and plans to invest the excess cash so that it improves the business performance.

Factors Affecting Entry Modes of Manufacturing Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Zambia. []

The main motivational forces for globalisation are the giant economies of the world,developed countries and foreign Multinational Corporations (MNCs).Inspire the Zambian government been able to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), many problems arise.The economy of the country is declining, lack of my employment and low human development index.The major problem is lack of capacity to attr act meaningful manufacturing Investment which could help in raising economic development. The research paper was intended to study the relationship between factors that are involved in determining manufacturing MNCs and the entry strategies chosen by manufacturing MNCs.The research first concentrated on the factors that affect the choice entry entry modes of manufacturing MNCs into the Zambian market.For this purpose, literature review was done for the study.An explanatory methodology was adopted in this research and a multi-method(qualitative and quantitative were used to analyse multi-source data). A sequential mixed method was used for the research design for the study.In qualitative,semi-structured interviews, questionnaires was used and time series data was collected from government departments,books and journals and international statistics on internet.In quantitative,questionnaires were used to collect primary data.Triangulation analysis was appropriate for multi-source data.The data be was analysed using the app Ordinary Least Squares(OLS) Multiple Regression Statistical technique and T-test of means of independent variables.A correlation matrix was also used to check the relationship between all the variables.The following are the findings: 1. Availability of infrastructure in Zambia helps to attract manufacturing MNCs; 2.There is direct relationship between manufacturing MNCs inflow and economic growth. The results of this research could assist the Zambian Policy makers to take aggressive approach in attracting credible manufacturing MNCs.The findings are also beneficial to the future prospective investors.The research also contributed to the already existing models of theories.


The chief motivational forces for globalization are the huge economies of the world, western countries and Multinational companies (MNCs). The study set out to create the impact of government regulatory environment on the business operations of MNCs in Zambia. The study involved the analysis of the different types of laws that govern the operations of MNCs in Zambia, how these laws affect their business operations when compared to their local rivals. For this purpose, literature review was done for the study A trend analysis was set on the basis of which a descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the legal environment. An overall analysis showed that MNCs operate in a complex legal environment characterised by their home and host country laws. This regulatory environment impacts their competitiveness and governance and as a consequence, these MNCs face some limitations that do not affect the local companies. These MNCs have setup structures to ensure completeness and consistency with these set of laws. The research however, established that some of these MNCs do not have internal legal departments. The research was also able to establish that Zambia borrow a lot from the home country regulations of these MNCs for purposes of reinforcement of governance.

Regulating the Real Estate Companies by Standardizing the Valuation Methods and Empowering Real Estate Association []

Implementation of a standards is essential in any sectors or industries in order to assure the competition amongst all sectors is fair with ethical practices as well as to regulate the industry in a professional manner. Real estate is one of these industries that needs to be regulated and standardized in the Sultanate of Oman which currently trying to implement the International Valuation Standards (IVS). Oman real estate industry is facing challenges in terms of professional practices and transparences of the properties data that it imposes a lack of knowledge and lack of properties historical data. Most of the real estate companies in Oman are with brokerages mindset which is creating a gap in the industry’s practices. Unprofessional practices and lack of data availability is leading most of the time to lose in businesses, especially when it comes to the mortgage products in the banking sectors. Valuations are used widely in the financial and other markets in which it supports the incorporation of financial statement, regulatory compliance, secured lending, and transactional activities. Property valuation had been guided through Royal Institution Chartered Surveyors (RICS) since 1976 in which it developed comprehensive standards for Valuation (IVS) for its members, known as RICS Red Book 2017 edition. IVS enhanced the transparency and consistency in the real estate market globally. The IVS have been implemented in different countries around the world like (British, USA, China, UAE, Egypt, KSA, etc.). The purpose of this research is to study the possibility of implementing the IVS in the Sultanate of Oman by which it will elaborate the advantages, the role, and its impact in the Oman real estate market. The research will explore the role of empowering the existing real estate authority and how it will play a vital role in regulating the real estate industries in Oman as well as to have a transparent property historical data. The research will be conducted using different literature reviews on the subject of valuation methods and a survey method using a questionnaire. More than 50 experts in the Oman real estate market will be targeted in the survey. This survey will show the importance of implementing the IVS in Oman and empowering the current real estate authority. The research will standardize the real estate practices and framework which will help the companies to follow a professional standard in their valuation assessment. On the other hand, the research will encourage to establish platform to help the companies to easily implement the standard valuation methods and find the required data. This research will elaborate the most unethical practices that is currently followed by real estate companies and how to change it to an ethical practice by recommending the RICS standard to be followed. The results of this survey and other resources will enable the researcher to suggest recommendations that can enhance the current valuation methods by implementing the IVS and its suggested methods. Finally, this research will help the real estate companies to standardize their methods of valuation, improving their mindset toward professionalism, and help the market competition to be fair by using the best practices advised by the RICS. Also, the research will be concluded by having a summary along the suggested recommendations. Findings: -The results from the data analysis found that the hypothesis are totally correct in which the valuation standards will lead to have a tangible impact in Oman real estate market while remaining with the current practices will not lead to expected improvement the industry. Keywords: RICS, IVS, valuation standards, Property historical data, Oman Real Estate Association.

Sociological Assessment of the Effects of Online Sessions in the Pandemic Phase []

The concept of education got revolutionized and realigned in tune with the aspirations of an emerging social order which was truly internationally recognized and got many and multifaceted dimensions of which online learning was a part and parcel of the larger entity. In 2020, the onset of a pandemic (now even a disease has an international dimension) transformed and rearticulated everything and almost everyone including the very process of how and where we receive and give education. The traditional educational scenario which was classroom based and purely teacher centered with all its multiple ramifications got a shock right from the onset of this worldwide pandemic which has become nothing but a pandemonium in the real sense of the term. This shock and awe was soon replaced by a sense of realization that we are badly in need of an adaptation process without which we cant deliver or ensure the educational transformation of our children which is impossible provided we follow the routine classroom sessions

Law of بلهل يوم in Physics []

The Law بلهل يوم will discuss the experimental and Theoretical phase of بلهل يوم equations and describe why Atomism =Ac2 in Islamic Science. Islamic and Western combine will be said as Az=ac2 as Physico-chemical in Law بلهل يوم .The Law will describe all phases of equations and formula with evidence of Western Science to prove the Values. En Physico-chemical properties in order to study in detail its behavior in combustion reactions atomic theory capable of explaining the line spectrum of atom substance which give us evidence that En photon frequency in duality of wave and particle in (بلهل يوم) which back in Islamic Science called atomism in quantum dilemma mechanism. However, this lack of knowledge prompted the physicists to acquire additional spectroscopic data and to improve the measuring apparatus in order to get information that, otherwise, which not be provided by the theory. It was just as well that it was discovered the fine structure of hydrogen spectrum or the splitting of spectral lines in presence of an external magnetic field (φ). Hydrogen atom is that planetary where the electron of mass me and charge q e rotates on a circular orbit around the atomic core of mass mN and charge qN. The two particles interact by a central force of electrical nature. As a whole we have to study the motion of a particle in a conservative central field. According to the classical physics (electromagnetism) the rotation of the electron around the charged core leads to the progressively loss or maintain energy as radiation till to the maintenance of the whole atomic system! The experience, however, shows that the hydrogen atom is physically stable and the electron never fall on the nucleus. Hydrogen atom, according to the Lagrangian formalism, is characterized by six degrees of freedom. However, choosing the reference frame with the origin coinciding with the atomic center of mass, the degrees of freedom are reduced to three, since the translational motion( State interaction) of the center of mass is just that inertial of the reference frame.“Hal” can be describe in Quantum Time evolution and Time independent as Light and matter can behave like waves or particles depending on the nature of experiments (photoelectric effect, double slit experiment, Compton effect, etc.).Electromagnetic wave propagating in the vacuum in the direction given by the wave vector k, C2 term square root is always greater than 1, which implies that phase velocity of material wave reach to light (photon) ! Such a result is meaningful and to solve the problem assuming that the ‘particles’ velocity is not correlated to that of travelling wave. When the motion of the particle is relativistic we need consider it as a group of waves, usually called wave packet (photon=La).

SMARTBIN WITH IoT Notification using Blynk App []

Owerri City in Imo State of Nigeria is usually tormented by wastes littering the streets, especially with the migration of more people into the city, the waste bins provided by the state government gets filled quickly and the trashes in them begins to overflows, littering the surrounding and this situations forms a haven for harmful animals like rodents, birds, etc. The rotten trashes also emit very foul smell all of which are very unhealthy to humans’. This situation could last from several days and into months, sometimes it takes the intervention of the media house to inform the Waste Agency of such scenario before they will come and evacuate this waste. It then becomes imperative to go into this project which is Smart bin with Internet of Things (IoT) notification using Blynk app. It is a new system which consists of network of wireless sensors on an Arduino board which automatically opens the lid of the waste bin on sensing a nearby presence, and also monitors the trash level in the waste bin such that once the trash gets to the preset fill level it will trigger a reaction via the Arduino microcontroller with an Internet connection to the blynk IoT Cloud then to the blynk app which will then invoke a notification to alert the Agency at real time, that the waste is full and it should be evacuated. The researchers employed the Object Oriented Analysis and Design methodology (OOADM). This new system will ensure that wastes are evacuated once it is due thus leading to clean, rodent and disease free environment Keywords:, Smartbin, Adruino, Blynk App, microcontroller, waste, notification,


Cultural difficulties have been a big barrier for Oman in its digital development. Transforming the digital platform necessitates process re-engineering and the removal of multiple authorities. The transition may result in organizational mergers and the emergence of new organizations. It is difficult to find a decision-maker in the community who is willing to embrace the cultural change. All network operation centers (NOCs), service operation centers (SOCs), and digital operation centers must undergo technological transformation (DOCs). Oman's telecom sector aspires to digitalize operation centers in order to provide the best technological services to its citizens and the Middle East as a whole. The selected leading telecom company is the country's first telecommunications provider. It has played an important role in improving Oman's telecom industry technology. The study project's principal focus is on the most current breakthroughs in changing technology in the telecom industry. The project's objectives were to increase knowledge of how transformation occurs in the telecom sector in Oman, examine the advantages of NOC and the necessity for the transformation to SOC within the Oman telecom sector, identify the difficulties encountered with SOC that force the Oman telecom sector to advance to DOC, and evaluate and examine the advantages of technology transformation to DOC in the Oman telecom sector. Most market-based fundamental requirements are based on the most recent technology advancements, which can increase connectivity speeds and stability during the course of service use. As a result, it is said that businesses in the telecom sector must stay up with technological advancements in order to gain greater consumer confidence.