Volume 11, Issue 8, August 2023 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The goal of this research is to determine the importance of integrating computer skills in the basic education program in the new normal. Recognizing that computers are a 21st century tool available to all, that computers represent a significant impact to society, it is necessary to conduct the research on how computers can be used to increase and enhance student’s education and development. With this, the researchers sought to answer the following questions (1) how is computer skills integrated in the program of the basic education in the new normal? And (2) what are the problems encountered in the integration of computer skills in the basic education program in the new normal. Based on the findings integrating computer skills in the Basic Education Program honed and improved the computer skills of teachers and students. On the other hand, the problems encountered in the integration of computer skills in the basic education program were cheating most likely happen in an online setting, when supervising students is much more difficult. In addition, one of the main aspects that come with the Hybrid-Flexible modality in the new normal is the ability to collaborate such as sending their classmates answers to task through group chats and the use of gadgets to take notes and sharing them with their friends and classmates. Overall, Integration of Computer skills in the new normal have positive and negative impact on the overall teaching and learning process.


This study focuses on the impact of leadership style and workload on employee performance in the maritime and shipping industry. The performance of workers in shipping companies plays a crucial role in the efficiency and reputation of the company. The data shows a de-cline in employee performance, indicating a need for attention to improve their performance. The study analyzes how leadership style and workload affect performance, with organizational commitment acting as a mediator. The conceptual model illustrates the relation-ships between these variables. The hypotheses propose positive and significant direct effects of leadership style and workload on organizational commitment and performance. The research uses a quantitative approach, collecting data through questionnaires at PT Kanaya with a sample of 44 employees. SPSS is used for data analysis and path analysis to test the hypotheses. The study aims to understand the interrelatedness of the variables and develop a conceptual model for further insights.

An In-Depth Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Snort and Suricata IDS/IPS Functionality in pfSense []

As cyber-attacks become more frequent and complicated, having strong network security solutions is essential. The main components of good security are firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS). Firewalls protect the network by acting as barriers between internal and external connections. IDS systems closely monitor network traffic and promptly alert administrators if they detect anything suspicious. This study examines two widely used open-source IDS systems, Suricata and Snort, in conjunction with the pfSense firewall. We aim to understand their accuracy, speed, and memory requirements. The results show that Suricata is better at handling large amounts of network traffic while maintaining accuracy. Additionally, the research helps us comprehend how Suricata and Snort function, leading to potential improvements in network security. With this research, network administrators can compare Suricata and Snort to select the best IDS system for their security needs. The study also proposes a cost-effective approach to enhance enterprise network security, reducing the risk of cyber-attacks. In conclusion, this evaluation equips organizations with the knowledge and tools they need to safeguard their networks from security breaches. It promotes a safer cyber environment and protects critical data from cybercriminals.


Abstract Managing a plural society has been a taxing exercise due to suspicious and lack of trust among the federated units. The case of Nigeria is even alarming that a sixty-two years old independent state is still wallowing in the ocean of mistrust. Today, in spite of interrelationship and sociocultural connectivity in the country, division and ethnic domination continue to be the popular narrative. It then demands comparative methodological attention which is the flagship of political science to vividly discuss the federal governmental configuration aimed at deepening connectivity towards peace and nation-building. Putting it into proper perspective, this paper deployed descriptive analytical discourse using elite-instrumentalist perspective as the theoretical escapade to unveil the intrigues of Federal Character principle (FCP) as experimented during the Jonathan 2011-2015 and Buhari 2015-2022 administration in terms of appointments into ministries and the military/police agencies. The work therefore concluded that the principle has always been an instrument of the elite to mobilize and defend few of their group interests and more of their own personal interests. Hence, there is the need for elite consciousness to promoting national development and patriotic representation of the country rather than causing mayhem when they are denied of political offices as observed in the country today. Keywords: Policy, Federal Character Principle, Instrumentalism and ‘Juicy offices’


This research studies the influence of online social media platforms on customers' buying behavior in Poblacion, Tagoloan, and Misamis Oriental. It assesses the extent on the use of Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok on customers' attitudes, decision intentions, and product preferences. This study uses a total of 2,278 households within the area where this study is conducted. A Raosoft calculator was used to determine the total sample size and used different statistical tools. The findings show that in the advent of the social media age, the use of online social media platforms has a significant influence on buying specifically to young people, single, and predominantly female. With a majority of the respondents belonging to this demographic group, these platforms likely play a crucial role in shaping their product preferences, attitudes, decisions, and intentions to buy. It can be concluded that the use of social media platforms for shopping is primarily driven by the younger generation. This finding could have implications for businesses and marketers who target this demographic group. Furthermore, the null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that there is a significant relationship between social media platforms and customers' buying behavior. Thus, businesses need to leverage these platforms as a means of reaching and engaging with their potential customers. With the foregoing information and to strengthen this mode and to effectively serve the target market, the online platforms being used by modern business enthusiasts should identify their target audience to effectively cater to their needs. Provide some sort of business incentive mechanism such as promotion and the like to customers who turn out to be loyal. Effective strategies are needed to stabilize business as the growing competition is evident. The social media platform has created a continuing patronage hence, the mandate to have strong customer engagement and quickly adapt to the changing customer preferences brought about by environmental factors is vital.


This study aimed to analyze the salient features reflected in the content of modern and traditional Dayunday on marriage and courtship in terms of form, sound, imagery, and figurative language. The study employed a qualitative method using discourse analysis to analyze the traditional and modern Dayunday. This study was conducted during academic year 2019-2020. The corpora of this study were the two (2) Dayunday videos: one (1) traditional Dayunday and one (1) modern Dayunday videos downloaded from YouTube Channel. This study utilized content analysis instrument in analyzing lyric poetry that was patterned from Berry (2016). The results show that the content of modern and traditional Dayunday on marriage and courtship has reflected salient features. The content of the modern and traditional Dayunday uses form, sound, imagery, and figurative language to express its meaning to the listeners. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the content of modern and traditional Dayunday on courtship and marriage have reflected salient features. The content of the modern and traditional Dayunday uses form, sound, imagery, and figurative language to express its meaning to the listeners. Keywords: Dayunday, Traditional and Modern Dayunday, Folks, Discourse Analysis

The Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation of Financial Resources on Implementation of Infrastructure Projects In Public Secondary School in Kakamega County, Kenya []

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation of Financial Resources on implementation of infrastructure projects in public secondary school in Kakamega County, Kenya. The target population was principals, Board of Management chairpersons, Parents Association chairpersons and Sub County Education officers. Stratified sampling and purposive sampling technique were used to select respondents. A sample size of 316 respondents was selected comprising of 101 principals, 101 Board of Management chairpersons, 101 Parents Association chairpersons and 13 Sub County Education officers. Primary data was collected from the respondents using questionnaires and interview schedule. Qualitative data was analyzed qualitatively using content analysis based on meanings and implications emanating from respondent’s information. Data from questionnaires was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Descriptive statistics consisted of frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics consisted linear and multiple regression analysis. Findings reveled that there is clear allocation of finance for every stage of the project and financial resource provider are clearly identified at planning stage. Further, there is clear allocation of contingencies funds and funds for projects supervision are allocated in the budget. From the linear regression model, (R2 = .119) showed that financial resource account for 11.9% variation in implementation of infrastructure projects. The financial resource predictor used in the model captured the variation in the implementation of infrastructure projects. The study hypothesized that there is no significant effect of financial resource on implementation of infrastructure projects. There was a positive significant effect of financial resource and implementation of infrastructure projects (β2=0.302 and P-value <0.05). Therefore, an increase in financial resource led to an increase in implementation of infrastructure projects. The null hypothesis was rejected. The financial resource had a significant influence on implementation of infrastructure projects. This implies that for each increase in financial resource, there was an improvement in implementation of infrastructure projects. The study recommended that schools should ensure that all the stakeholders are involved in the M&E of school projects. The study also recommends that there should be clear allocation of finances for M&E, staff hiring, staff training, equipment, environment setting, project supervision and the budgeting of financial resources by stakeholders. Key words: Monitoring and Evaluation, Financial Resources, Implementation of Infrastructure Projects, Public Secondary Schools, Kakamega County


Background Mass LLINs distribution campaign and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have been identified by the WHO as effective approaches for malaria prevention and control. Despite the scale up of interventions towards control and elimination of malaria, it’s still endemic in 91 countries worldwide with 3.3 billion people at risk of developing. In 2015, 212 million malaria cases occurred globally resulting into 429,000 deaths, 92% were in Africa. In 2019, 409,000 people died of malaria, mostly vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A community based, cross-sectional research design using quantitative data collection method was used. Semi-structured questionnaire were employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to identify factors associated to the prevalence of malaria among <5yrs. Results The intended respondents (238) were interviewed and up to 44.1% (105/238) children tested positive for malaria. At multivariate analysis, Children living with married caretakers (AOR=2.54, 95% CI=1.23-5.25) had statistically significant association with malaria prevalence, Children of caretakers with poor perception towards LLIN use had 68% increased odds of getting malaria. Whereas, children who stay far away from water bodies (AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) had reduced odds of getting malaria Conclusions and recommendations Malaria remains the major public health problems among children under 5 years in Amolatar district. Children living with married caretakers, Caretakers with poor perception towards LLIN use and living near water bodies were the risk factors to malaria. DHTs to strengthen malaria prevention and control strategies among children <5 years, health information dissemination about eliminating stagnating water bodies, and addressing poor perception of mothers of children <5years.


Improving the quality of human resources can be pursued by developing human resources. This development will increase the competence of human resources in managing organizations in an organization. What is the strategy for developing human resources at the North Konawe District Education and Culture Office to improve performance in carrying out government and development tasks. In line with the formulation of the problem, the purpose of this study is as follows. To seek Human Resource Development strategies at the Education and Culture Office of North Konawe Regency to improve performance in carrying out government and development tasks. This type of research is qualitative research with a descriptive method that produces written/oral data from the subjects and actors observed. The research location is the Education and Culture Office of North Konawe Regency. The analysis technique is limited only by using SWOT analysis for mapping strategic factors in human resource development to improve employee performance at the Education and Culture Office of North Konawe Regency is SWOT analysis. From the calculation results, the difference between the weighted value of strength and the weighted value of weakness is a positive difference of 0.80 and the difference between the weighted value of opportunities and the weighted value of threats is a positive difference of 0.40, so the organization's position is in quadrant I, and suggestions for using the strategy under the strengths possessed and the number of opportunities that are still available. Office of Education and Culture of North Konawe Regency. For the implementation of education and training activities for Civil Servants within the Education and Culture Office of North Konawe Regency, in addition to carrying out structural training, it is also necessary to carry out functional technical training to increase competencies related to staffing.


This study aims to determine, test, and analyze the performance of public service state civil servants in Wawotobi District, Konawe Regency. This type of research is qualitative, which is based on data analysis. The data source used is research data that comes from media information that has relevance to research problems and deserves to be used as a reference, internal documents in conducting research, and data obtained by researchers collected from observations, literature studies, interviews, and documentation. Performance Evaluation Analysis of State Civil Servants Public Services in the Wawotobi Subdistrict, Konawe Regency is categorized as good but there are still some deficiencies such as service support facilities and infrastructure, disciplinary problems for State Civil Apparatuses.

Leadership Styles. []

The Leadership style a leader chooses to use plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness and outcomes of their leadership. In this paper, I provide a comprehensive overview of various leadership styles, exploring the definitions, key features and characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and examples of prominent world leaders associated with each style. The leadership styles examined include : transformational, transactional, autocratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, servant, democratic and pace-setting leadership. Each of these styles is analyzed and dissected in terms of its unique characteristics and features and its suitability in different contexts. By understanding the diverse range of leadership styles, individuals can develop their leadership capabilities and organizations can adopt effective leadership practices to drive success and create positive work environments.

Engaging local Community in peace building: The case of the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon []

The current crisis in the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon has been characterized by violence, loss of lives, and destruction of property. In this article, the paper explores the role of community engagement in peace building in these regions. The paper draws on literature review and qualitative data from focus group discussions and interviews with community members, civil society organizations and government officials. This study was carried out within the ambit of the Participatory Development Theory (PDT).This theory is a widely used approach in community engagement for peace building. The findings suggest that community engagement is crucial in building sustainable peace in these regions. This is so because the community can better understand where the problem lays. The paper went further to identify the various community groups that could be engage in the process among which is Religious leaders, traditional rulers ,youths ,women and civil society organisations.The paper recommend the development of peace education programs, the promotion of intercultural dialogue and the inclusion of women and youth in peace building efforts especially those resident in the communities . Key words: Conflict resolution, community-based peace building

Performance characteristics of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed I. batata leaf inclusion meals []

This study aimed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Clarias gariepinus fed Ipomeoa batatas leaf inclusion meals. Fresh I. batatas leaves were harvested and prepared for analysis by standard methods. Feeds were formulated using the Pearson’s square standard method. A total of two hundred and seventy (270) fingerlings were used in the study and grouped into six (6) groups of forty-five (45) each and administered feeds as follows: Group 1-(control 1-Coppens feed), Group 2-(control 2-ARAC feed), Group 3-(10% I. batatas leaf), Group 4- (20% I. batatas leaf), Group 5-(30% I. batatas leaf) and Group 6- (100% I. batatas leaf). The fishes were administered the respective diets ad libitum for a period of 90 days. Physicochemical parameters of the water were determined using LaMotte Fresh Water Aquaculture Test Kit (USA), lengths and weights of the fingerlings were measured using a graduated ruler and electronic weighing balance respectively. Proximate composition was by standard methods while performance characteristics were obtained by calculation. Proximate composition of the formulated fish feeds showed the following ranges: protein (35.16±0.23% to 43.75±0.30%), lipid (6.18±0.60% to 11.93±0.13%), moisture (6.04±2.13% to 9.33±0.82), ash (5.39±0.36% to 9.44±0.12%), NFE (19.41±0.87% to 34.23±0.40%) and fibre (2.15±0.76% to 7.98±0.14%). Proximate content of I. batatas leaf was as follows: crude protein (16.60±2.13%), crude fat (0.16±0.00%), moisture (40.62±3.16%), ash (11.92±0.54%), crude fibre (12.28±1.22%) and carbohydrate (18.42±2.17%). Proximate composition of the experimental feeds showed the following ranges: protein (35.16±0.23 to 43.75±0.30%), lipid (6.18±0.60 to 11.93±0.13%), moisture (6.04±2.13 to 9.33±0.82%), ash (5.39±0.36 to 9.44±0.12%), NFE (19.41±0.87 to 34.23±0.40%) and fibre (2.15±0.76 to 7.98±0.14%). Physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite and total hardness) of the water used for the study were within acceptable limits for fish survival and optimal growth. Performance indices (feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate, nitrogen metabolism) were very good for all groups of fish. Condition factor (K) of the fish was better at 10% concentration than the ARAC control group while survival rate of 94% at 10% concentration was the best among the formulated feeds. The results support the potential use of Ipomoea batatas leaves as a nutritious and sustainable feed ingredient, promoting efficient growth and improved overall health in C. gariepinus farming. Keywords: Clarias gariepinus; Ipomeoa batatas; proximate; fingerlings; physicochemical;


The unavailability of art galleries with well-designed daylighting functions is a problem in Bayelsa State, as most of the state's art galleries are housed in shopping malls or hotels with poor and defunct daylighting systems. In order to deal with this issue, an understanding of how natural light impacts a space, with careful consideration of the amount of daylight entering an exhibition hall was required, prompting the study of daylighting design models to know their effects on the general layout of art galleries; carrying out case studies on some existing art galleries, with emphasis on the daylighting design models adopted; and also evaluating the sensitivity of users on the related problems on the daylighting experienced in art galleries. Deductive research was carried out on similar cases, highlighting the concepts of daylighting and the different daylighting patterns and models adopted in each case. In order to deal with this issue of defunct daylighting systems in art galleries, an understanding of how natural light impacts a space, with careful consideration of the amount of daylight entering an exhibition hall was required, prompting the study of daylighting design models. This required an approach that would take into consideration the improved sensitivity of the fine details on artworks (Schielke, 2020), the different stimulating effects in that specific space (Hunt, 2009) as well as the deterioration caused by direct sunlight (Ajmat et al. 2011). The study proved that the use of daylighting in art galleries could be achieved without a worry for its effects on both the artifacts and the users; only if there is a resolution between the enhancement quality of daylighting and the undesirable effects it has on artifacts and users alike. Keywords: Art gallery, circulation, daylight, user experience.

Appling Blockchain for Success in ESG Business []

Critical impact on corporate management and value are intensely demanding ESG (Environmental, Social, Governance) management, and advanced companies in developed countries are pursuing sustainable management by applying new technologies to solve various issues faced by companies. This study examines the concept, importance, and critical issues of ESG management and introduces ways to use fourth industrial revolution-related new technologies to address significant ESG issues. Additionally, by investigating Starbucks' "Bean to Cup" project, this utilizes blockchain technology for supply chain management, this study aims to find insights to overcome internal and external risks through ESG management, create new value, and achieve sustainable growth. Finally, several additional ideas beyond supply chain management will be proposed.


This study aims to determine the internal factors that affect the effectiveness of financial management of PTNBH Hasanuddin University. The internal factors studied in this study are human capital competence, information technology, and their influence on the effectiveness of financial management. This research uses quantitative research with a sample of 55 respondents. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis using the SPSS application. The results showed that the human capital competency variable partially had a positive and significant effect on the effectiveness of financial management, the information technology variable partially had a positive and significant effect on the effectiveness of financial management, and human capital competencies, and information technology simultaneously had a positive and significant effect on the effectiveness of financial management. Keywords: Effectiveness of Financial Management, Human Capital Competencies, and Information Technology.


The study aims to know and analyze: (1) the effect of financial compensation on motivation. (2) The effect of non-financial compensation on motivation. (3) the effect of financial compensation on work productivity. (4) The effect of non-financial compensation on work productivity. (5) The effect of motivation on employee productivity. (6) the effect of financial compensation on work productivity through motivation. (7) The effect of non-financial compensation on work productivity through motivation at Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Kendari Branch, Southeast Sulawesi. This research is explanatory with a sample of 76 people. The research data were collected using a questionnaire and processed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of the research show that: (1) Financial compensation has a positive and significant effect on motivation. (2) Non-financial compensation has a positive and significant effect on motivation. (3) Financial compensation has a positive and significant effect on work productivity. (4) Non-financial compensation has a positive and significant effect on work productivity. (5) Motivation has a positive and significant effect on work productivity. (6) Motivation plays a role in mediating the effect of financial compensation on work productivity. (7) Motivation plays a role in mediating the effect of non-financial compensation on work productivity

The Impact of Covid-19 on Gender, School Types, Social and Emotional Wellbeing of School-aged Children in Minnesota, USA. []

This research aims to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender and school types, not forgetting the social and emotional wellbeing of school-aged children in Minnesota, USA. The research utilized stratified random sampling. A sample of 400 school-aged children were randomized from a population of 955,000 school-aged children in Minnesota metropolis. The first stage involved the population being stratified into male and female, as well as public and private schools before a sample of 400 school aged children were randomly selected. Two instruments were utilized namely, The Social Well-Being Scale (SWBS) and The Emotional Well-Being Scale (EWBS). The result revealed significant results for male (β = .770, t = 11.715, p < .05) and female (β = .363, t = 4.903, p < .05) children leading to the conclusion that there was a significant difference between male and female in the impact of COVID- 19 on social wellbeing among school-aged children in Minnesota, USA. It further revealed that this impact is stronger among male children (β = .770) than among female children (β = .363). Also, the result revealed significant effect for private schools (β = .738, t = 12.372, p < .05), but non-significant results for public schools (β = .110, t = 1.237, p < .05). Thus, there was a significant difference between public and private schools in the impact of COVID-19 on social wellbeing among school-aged children in Minnesota, USA. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: School authorities and other stakeholders should tailor interventions to meet the specific needs of male and female children. Also, Government and school proprietors should strengthen support systems in private schools, including access to mental health resources, counselling services and social support networks, to help mitigate the negative effects of COVID-19 on children's wellbeing. Keywords: Gender, School types, COVID -19 Pandemic, Social wellbeing, School Aged


This study aims to analyze BUMDes development efforts, the obstacles experienced, as well as solutions for developing BUMDes in the Menui District. There are 23 BUMDes in Menui sub-district registered in 2021. When compared to the total BUMDes in Morowali Regency, which are 126, the percentage for Menui Sub-district is only 18%. This is what underlies the need for research. The method used is descriptive using the analysis of the Miles and Hubberman models in Sugiyono (2016: 246). Research results show that development efforts have been carried out through organizational strategies, resource support strategies, and program strategies. Constraints are experienced in the form of limited human resources, lack of community participation, and local government. The suggested solutions are selecting priority programs and HR training.


Abstract: This work discusses the potential of providing financial support to Africa in order to promote sustainable practices and combat climate change. It suggests that offering tax credits to individuals and businesses adopting energy-efficient practices, green banking, and bonds can benefit both the environment and Africa's economy. The government could lead the way by using blended finance, attracting private capital to support green initiatives despite the high upfront costs. Climate change also presents opportunities for Africa to utilize its natural resources and work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The paper highlights the importance of economic growth and the contribution of the private sector and institutional investors to address climate change and explore new market opportunities. It discusses how financial technologies, such as blockchain, the Internet of Things, and big data, can enable green finance and support the Paris Agreement and the SDGs. The paper also mentions various potential applications of fintech in the green finance sector, such as green bonds, blockchain for sustainable development, renewable energy, decentralized electricity markets, carbon credits, and climate finance. Investments in debt and equity funds dedicated to environmental protection are seen as common and effective ways to fund green projects. However, the paper emphasizes that organizational plans for using green money must be transparent, measurable, and free from fraud to ensure the intended positive impact on Africa's development. The work concludes with a suggestion for additional studies, urging investigation into the mental health consequences of climate change, particularly for vulnerable communities. It highlights that climate-induced hardships may lead to desperation and criminal behavior in the face of survival challenges, making it crucial to explore and understand the extent of these mental health impacts.


Political instability is principally defined as a state of volatility, violence, and social unrest due to a series of numerous factors such as corruption, weak bureaucratic institutions, and a lack of consensus by political actors or the leadership of a sovereign state. Africa has suffered from numerous waves of instability as a result of frequent and recurring disruptions in its political systems much of which are a result of its colonial legacy, weak institutions, economic factors, and corruption to mention a few. Niger is a landlocked country predominantly covered by the Sahara Desert. During the colonial era, this West African country was part of the French colony. Niger’s diverse ethnic formation is made up of people groups ranging from the Hausa, Zarma Songhai, Taurey, Fulani, and Kanuri to mention a few. On the 26th of July 2023, President Mohamed Bazoum of Niger was ousted and detained by the country’s presidential guard. The commander general of the presidential guard went on to proclaim himself the leader of the new military junta. Hence, this article will establish contemporary perspectives of political instability in Africa as well as give an account of the 2023 Niger coup with evaluations of its implications in Africa. Keywords: Coup, Niger, Political, Instability, ECOWAS, President, Military, Mohamed Bazoum.


In this study, the effect of effect of aqueous leaf extract of Annona senegalensis was evaluated in vivo on male fertility using albino rats. The effect of the extract on sperm count, sperm morphology, was determined. The testosterone enzyme immunoassay was also carried out from the serum of the sacrificed rats using test kit. The results indicated a significant decrease in week 2 in the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kgbwt and in week 4 in the 100 and 200 mg/kgbwt. There were significant increases at weeks 2 in the 300 (7.740 ± 0.8414 mmol/L) and in week 3 in the 100 mg/kgbwt; 200 mg/kgbwt (1.240 ± 0.2191; 3.800 ± 0.7483 mmol/L) respectively and in week 4 in the 400 mg/kgbwt (1.780 ± 0.3564). There was an increase in testicular sperm count and head of epididymis but there was decrease in the tail. Similarly, there were significant increases in total sperm count in the testis at 100 mg/kgbwt (2.702 ± 0.13 X 10 6) in week 2 while in week 3 at 300 mg/kgbwt (3.650 ± 0.23 X 10 6) and in week 4 at all the doses respectively. In head epididymis significantly increases in week 2 at 100 mg/kgbwt (0.668 ± 0.06 X 10 6) and in week 4 at 100 mg/kgbwt and 400 mg/kgbwt (0.790 ± 0.05 and 0.620 ± 0.02 X 10 6). The sperm morphology revealed more than 80 % for normal head and abnormalities constitute 8-9 %. The study suggests that the aqueous extract of Annona senegalensis leaf might improve male fertility with reasonable increase of sperm count in both testicular and head of epididymis and high percentage of normal head sperm morphology.


Public management contributes to the development process through the improvement of the management system, which delivers the service to the public. Currently, in the Ministry of the Interior and Local Government (MILG) and in Maguindanao Province in particular, no study yet has been made regarding the correlates on the implementation of the of seal of good local governance and its attainment of objectives among local government units. This study aims to determine if the Seal of Good Local Governance influence the local government units in improving government service delivery and the capacity of local governments. A survey questionnaire was utilized in the gathering of data of different local elected and appointed officials of the Municipalities of Datu Abdullah Sangki; Datu Paglas; Guindulungan; Matanog; and South Upi all of Maguindanao Province. A correlation analysis of data shows that there is a positive significant relationship between the seven assessment criteria implemented (financial administration; disaster preparedness; social protection; peace and order; business-friendliness and competitiveness; environmental management; and tourism, culture and the arts) to seal of good local governance (SGLG) attained in terms of integrity and good performance. The Ministry of the Interior and Local Government – Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and other Local Government Units in the country would find the results of this study valuable as basis of setting policies, systems and procedures which may strengthen the performance of the local government units towards the Seal of Good Local Governance. Keywords: Seal of Good Local Governance, Local Government Units, Public administration, MILG, BARMM, Correlation analysis, Maguindanao, Philippines

la pédagogie Montessori au service du FLE: Cas du Maroc []

L’apprentissage/enseignement du FLE dans un contexte linguistique aussi complexe que le nôtre, nécessite la synergie de plusieurs stratégies sur différents volets : pédagogique, social, éducatif, culturel, économique, politique, etc. La pédagogie Montessori, s’inscrivant dans le cadre des pédagogies alternatives incarnant un ensemble de valeurs universelles et en matière de l’apprentissage des langues et en termes d’autres disciplines, se présente ainsi comme une des solutions pratiques pour remédier aux « séquelles » induites par les politiques d’enseignement de la langue française au Maroc.


To survey and established the profile of the educational manpower resources of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in Maguindanao Division for the school year 2000-2001. Specifically. It sought to satisfy the following objectives: (1) To determine the profile of the educational manpower resources in the Maguindanao Division based on the following levels: division, district, and school. (2) To describe the demographic characteristics of educational manpower resources in terms of age, sex, civil status, ethnic classification, religion, and designation. (3) To identify the qualification of employees in terms of the highest degree obtained and school attended, length of service, in-service training, eligibility, and professional services; and (4) To identify the training needs related to their work assignments as perceived by the respondents. Twenty-five school districts and twenty-eight secondary schools including their teachers, head teachers, principals, supervisors, and staff were utilized as sources of data. The data were taken from the documents, such as DECS Form 3 and Personal Data Sheet. Interview schedule was likewise employed for corroboration purposes. The gathered data were tabulated and analyzed using basic statistical tools, like frequency and percentage. In conclusion, the research study revealed that the educational manpower resources of the DECS Maguindanao Division are dominantly Muslim. Majority are married in status. Islam is the common religion among Muslims while non-Muslims are either Protestant or Catholic. The Muslim employees occupied mostly the key positions in all levels. Passing the Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) appears as the dominant for of eligibility. Finally, employees in all levels primarily serve as resource speakers in seminars. Regardless of cultural group, the employees call for more innovative in-service training to suffice their felt needs. Keywords: Educational Manpower Resources, Department of Education, Culture and Sports


The Floodplains are reckoned to be vital in the biological diversity, maintenance of river productivity and provisions of ecosystem services that are directly and indirectly profitable to human being. The project was intended at evaluating the effects of Ndiegoro floodplain on the socio-economic characteristics of residence in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. The study employed questionnaires for data collection; analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and the result presented using simple descriptive statistics, particularly frequency and percentages. The research hypotheses were tested through inferential statistics; Chi-square and Students T-test at 95% level of significant. The participants were majorly represented by male (59.80%), age ranges of 30-40 (35.2%), married (58.9%), Christian (73.70%) and salary worker (27.90%). Furthermore, the study revealed that the major land-use was subjected to industrial and housing activities and it has impacted loss of farm siltation to the floodplain. The problem associated with unsustainable use of floodplain resulted to flooding. The various land-uses have impacted both floodplain and the residents. Also, revealed was problem connected with the unsustainable uses of the floodplain in the study such as flooding. The study concluded that unsustainable usage of the floodplain led to flood disaster. Therefore, recommended effective land-use planning and buffer zones regulation must be adhere to. KEYWORDS: Floodplain, Flood and Disaster

Environmental Impact of Mine tailings from the Betare-Oya Gold Area (East Cameroon) On Surface water Sources []

Trace elements are regarded as an important contaminant of the environment, if present in amounts exceeding natural concentrations. This study aimed at determining the environmental impact of mine tailings from the Betare-Oya Gold Area (East Cameroon) on surface water Sources using trace element pollution indices and physicochemical parameters. Surface waters are tested in-situ for (pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids) and chemically by the determination of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cr, As, V, Cd, Co, Ba, Li, Au, Sr, and Pb). The results of physicochemical parameters reveal that waters of this gold mining zone are slightly acidic to alkaline (5.92-9.52), mineralized (4-332 μs/cm), and made up of total dissolved solids (2.68-222.4 mg/L). The determination of trace elements in water samples shows that manganese, gold and lead concentrations are above the World Health Organization limits. This indicates pollution. The pollution indices of surface waters from Betare Oya were characterized by DC as considerable degree to very high degree of contamination, PLI<1 indicates that there is no pollution while Igeo indicates moderate to extreme pollution. The government and other stakeholders could implement measures to prevent trace element pollution as a matter of urgency, particularly in relation to Mn, Au, and Pb whose concentrations are above permissible limits. Keywords: Pollution indices, Mine tailings, Surface water, Betare-Oya, Cameroon