Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Text Mining Techniques/Problems in Subjective Examinations []

In this Era of Fast-Moving Digital World, the world is still lacking the availability of Subjective E-Examinations System where a Bundle of Text can be submitted as a Subjective Answer & Subjective Evaluation may be performed. However, there are couple of Systems have been designed for Multiple Choice based Questionnaire Exams, although due to the Lack of Text Mining Techniques and Their problems, the world is still Lacking in Subjective Online Evaluations of Students either in English Text or Mathematical Solutions. There are various Natural Language Processing Techniques being used to Facilitate such issues but still we don't have a fool proof system for Online Score Calculations Based on Subjective Text. Our Survey will cater most of the recent Research works related to this aspect of Technology with their acquired solutions and the Deficiencies in those Solutions as Why we are still unable to have such a System which we can implement in Various Government and Private institutions for Online Examinations.

Resisting and Boosting Factors of Municipal Government Asset Management (Study towards the Government of Pangkajene dan Kepulauan District) []

Regional Financial Management is a series of stages consisting of planning, implementation, administration, accountability, and reporting. Planning is important and strategic in realizing the creation of regional financial management that is accountable, transparent, participatory, and democratic. However, to realize these hopes, local governments such as Pangkajene Regency and the Islands are still facing several problems, including limited resources for managing regional property according to their needs. Evaluation of the success of the UNHAS Community Service Program - Regional Partnership Program by comparing the results of the pre-test and post-test assessments. Based on the results of the tests carried out, the mean value of 82.50 percent correct for the pre-test increased to 96.52 percent after the post-test was carried out.


Abstract This paper investigates the physico-chemical characteristics and anatomic properties of African Bamboo, an evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. Assessment of its potentials to substitute wood for the production of pulp and paper was also investigated. Sample preparation was conducted in accordance with TAPPI Standard T12 – OS – 75, which specifies that samples be grinded to a fine particle size to permeate 0.4mm screen and retained on a 0.6mm screen. The Moisture content, Lignin, Extractives, Alpha cellulose, Ash content and fiber dimensions were investigated. The pulping investigation had three (3) factors at three (3) different levels each: Factor 1, cooking temperature (150, 160 and 170oC); Factor 2, cooking time (60, 90 and 120minutes); Factor 3, liquor concentration (10%, 15% and 20% NaOH charge). Consequently, the experimental design had 27 treatments (3×3×3) and 2 replicates. By using a central composite factorial design, equations relating the dependent variable (pulp yield) to the different independent variables (cooking temperature, cooking time and liquor concentration) were derived; reproducing the experimental result for the dependent variable with errors less than 15%. Pulp Screened Yields was in the range of 32.16 to 47.90% calculated on oven dry (O.D) basis. The resultant pulps obtained from the cooking operation had very good feel, appearance, and consistency and exhibited fairly bright color, with slightly slow tendency to felt, thereby making drainage and consequent paper making time short. It is recommended that the cellulosic pulp obtained from soda pulping of bamboo is appropriate as virgin fiber for strengthening secondary fibers in recycled papers and also for developing certain types of writing, printing and packaging paper materials. Over-all parameter achieved asserts that bamboo fiber have a promising future (when used in blend with certain long fiber plant i.e. kenaf) in substituting wood in the pulp, paper and fiber- board industry. Keywords: Bamboo, Anatomy, Lignin, Tappi standards, kappa number, Pulp screened yield, Soda pulping; Oven dried, Optimization

The Contribution of Tourism to The Host Community’s Human Capital Assets on Mara Naboisho Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya. []

Tourism in Kenya has been developed and promoted as a major source of foreign exchange. The industry has also been identified as an integral part of Vision 2030 in order to spur wealth creation for various sectors of the economy as well as create jobs. Similarly, tourism is a major economic activity for Narok County and specifically to those host communities’ conservancies adjacent to the Maasai Mara National Reserve such as Mara Naboisho Conservancy (MNC). In most rural areas in Kenya, tourism, based on the Community-Based Tourism paradigm, has been promoted as a strategy for the improvement of livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. However, there is limited information on the contribution of tourism to the livelihoods of the people who are the custodians of the tourism resources, including wild animals. The purpose of this study was to establish the contribution of tourism to the host community’s human capital assets. This study employed qualitative research design. The target population for this study included the host community, tourism investors, camp managers, Narok County tourism officers and area chief of Mara Naboisho Conservancy. Both purposive and snowball sampling methods were used to select the respondents and information. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of information. Primary sources included interviews, observations and Focus group discussions. The findings from the study revealed that Tourism in Mara Naboisho has contributed a lot towards job opportunities, entrepreneurial skills and income generation to the host community. It was also found out that tourism contribute significantly to human capital assets to the community in terms of employment creation as well as market for the products and services. This study also recommended that the local community should be empowered to collaborate with the Mara Naboisho Conservancy authorities to set up a location whereby the tourist on their way to the park can make a stopover and have a look at the display of their souvenir and purchase them. The Mara Naboisho Conservancy authorities should support the local community through funding in order to improve the community-based projects and also improve the local sport activities. The study findings are anticipated to provide an insight that will be used by the stakeholders to improve the livelihoods of the community who are directly involved with tourism in Narok County.

Cultural Polarization: Trans-humanistic Curse []

Transhumanism is sharply influencing every aspect of human life; especially the relationships across society. In this very context, the balance between organizations and society seems shattered. Trans-humanistic organizations are dictating a new code of conduct to society; a new culture is in making. This paper is an initial attempt to encircle the notion of organizational objectivity that impacts the subjective compendium of societal totality. Social norms, cultural values and human relations are at the brink of disconnection and rejection. Every novel scientific invention is turning humans into robots and people are being swayed to be more mechanistic than socialistic. It drives further towards alienation, dejection, loneliness and isolation. The conceptual and analytical paradigm of this paper strives to explore the imbalance in this relationship and invites management experts to contribute further to strengthen this intellectual movement against onslaught of technology.

Determinants of Pharmaceuticals Procurement Performance in Jimma University Medical Center []

Public procurement is a key tool to the overall achievements of reducing poverty and providing health, development of infrastructure, education and other services. The purpose of this study was to assess the determinants of pharmaceutical procurement performance in Jimma University Medical Center. The study adopted a descriptive and explanatory research design to assess determinants relating to the procurement performance for it requires deeper investigation. The study involved 113 employees. Mixed research methods were used. The sample was drawn using stratified sampling method. Primary and secondary source of data were used. Both descriptive and inferential data analysis methods were used using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) 20 versions. The study revealed that there is poor trend of giving training on procurement planning for pharmaceuticals, Poor Procurement process to support timely procurement of pharmaceuticals, low level of ICT utilization of pharmaceuticals procurement and had poor budget policies that monitor budget spending in Jimma University Medical Center. The study found out that procurement performance has strong positive correlation and significant associated with the determinants of pharmaceutical procurement. The model depicts that Planning accounts for 16.2% of variations in procurement performance, procurement process accounts for 26.2%, resource allocation accounts for 19% and lastly information technology accounts for 38.2% of variations in procurement performance. Finally it was recommended that pharmaceuticals procurement function at Jimma University Medical Center needs, good culture of developing pharmaceuticals procurement planning and implementations, reduces internal red tapes through improving communication and information exchange; Participatory budgeting enhance Culture of budget policies that monitor budget spending and adopting of information technology.


During the last years, the incremental need of accurate Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) has led to rapidly growing changes in the operational status and practical exploitation of the systems, including the United States' Global Positioning System, Russian GLONASS, European Union's Galileo, Chinese BeiDou, and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs). The status of these systems, as new satellites, new civil signals, and new monitoring stations, including the issues of compatibility and interoperability among them, are reviewed. Certainly, the modernized GNSS will provide the new possibility for the users' positioning, provided that all the satellite navigation systems coexist. The key requirements for this coexistence are compatibility and interoperability of these systems. Interoperability and compatibility are discussed at two different levels; system and signal. Considering signal interoperability; with identical center frequencies, reference stations can precisely measure the time offset between satellites of different systems and these differences can be communicated to user equipment as part of the satellite message. Given that every provider moves their internal reference coordinate system ever closer to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), the problem of interoperability of Satellite navigation systems, with respect to coordinate reference frame for majority users, does not exist. Following international cooperation, Signal In Space can be considered to not affect interoperability. International GNSS cooperation has improved radically so that users will experience the full benefits of compatible and interoperable signals. Because receivers will, without a glitch, combine signals with different digital characteristics, the user perception will be that all GNSS signals are completely identical. This study will be relevant to receiver manufacturers and space users.

Avanafil has anti-inflammatory and anti apoptotic effect through amelioration of TLR4, MAPK P38, NF-кB, TNF-alpha and IL-1β signaling pathway. []

Doxorubicin (DOX ) nephrotoxicity is a fatal case that deprives us from the therapeutic benefits of DOX against cancer. This study aimed at showing the potential protective effects of avanafil; a novel phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor on doxorubicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced by administration of DOX (2.6 mg/kg, i.p. twice per week for 4 weeks). Avanafil was administered in a daily dose of (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. DOX nephrotoxicity was evident by the significant increase in the kidney function biomarkers (creatinine, urea, albumin and total protein), oxidative stress markers (glutathione reduced (GSH), lipid peroxides (MDA), Nrf-2, catalase and superoxide dismutase SOD), inflammatory markers (TLR4, MAPK P38, NF-кB, TNF-alpha and IL-1β) and the apoptotic biomarkers (BAX and Bcl-2). All these parameter were significantly attenuated by avanafil treatment. Moreover, avanafil prevented the histopathological alterations induced by doxorubicin. This study proved a novel significant nephroprotective effect of avanafil


Hampal fish is one type of fish that lives in public waters (such as the Cimanuk river) and has the potential to be developed as a consumption fish. This fish has many spines and bones, and in terms of processing has not been utilized properly, for that it needs to be processed in a different way where one of them can be done using presto techniques. The purpose of this study was to set a warming time to make the hampal fish presto most preferred by panelists. This research was conducted in Fishery Products Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran and Food Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Pasundan University in July 2019. The research method used was an experimental method with 3 warm-up time treatments of 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes with 20 panelists as repeats. Observations were made on the level of fondness which included appearance, aroma, taste and texture by semi-trained panelists. The results showed that the treatment with a heating time of 120 minutes was the most preferred treatment by panelists compared to other treatments with an average appearance value of 7.1, aroma 7.5, texture 7.8, and taste of 7.9. Proximate test results for presto hampal fish with a treatment of 120 minutes is water content of 36.38%; protein 25.64% ; fat 9.27% and ash 3.43% mg/100g. Keywords: Hedonic, Hampal, Organoleptic, Presto, Proximate


ABSTRACT Intestinal parasites are common healh problems in Ethiopia and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Hookworm, Entamoeba histolytica, hymenolopsis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strogloides and Trichuris trichiura occur in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to January 2016 to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and its associated risk fators among school age children at Deneba primary school of Deneba town, Central Ethiopia. A total of 384 schoolage children were selected from Deneba Primary School by using random sampling technique. The specific objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, to identify major intestinal parasitic species and to assess the associated risk factors. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infectios was 49.7% (191/384). The majior intestinal parasites identified in the study area were Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepsis nana, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis with prevalence rates of 33.3%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 3.1% and 1%, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections (36.5%) were higher than intestinal helminthic infections (8.1%).The most significant risk factors for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections were using of toilet (AOR:2.048; 95% CL: 1.089-3.852; p-value= 0.026) washing hands before eating food (AOR:0.572; 95% CL: 0.304-1.076; p-value=0.043) and washing hands after using toilet (AOR: 4.736; 95% CL: 1.001-22.408; p-value=0.05).The current study revealed that there was relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study area.Therefore, schoolage children in the study area should use toilet, wash their hands after tiolt and before meal with clean water and soap. Keywords: Children, Deneba, Central Ethiopia, Helminths, Protozoa, Prevalence, Risk factors

Nigeria’s Creative Industry (Nollywood) in the Quest for Economic Diversification and New Sustainable Development []

The spate of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria is alarming and this situation has informed serious efforts from all stakeholders from private and public sectors to ensure economic diversification to ensure sustainable development. Nigeria’s creative industry (Nollywood) has been attracting attention in a bid to improve the sector’s contributions to the national economy of the country. The qualitative approach adopted in the paper reviewed the past studies on the contributions of Nollywood to gross domestic product (GDP) of the country and the gaps that are identified between the policy statement and its execution. Nollywood has been contributing effectively to national economy for sustainable development because the government has not been proactive to harness the potential of this creative industry for national economic recovery and sustainable development. Nollywood’s viability for sustainable development should not be compromised by the policy makers.


A study with the objectives of assessing on Rangeland Browse Woody Species Biodiversity and productivity was conducted in the grazing and browsing areas of the pastoral and agro-pastoral rangeland production systems in Shinile District of Somali Regional State. Plots were laid under two rangeland production systems (Pastoral Production System and Agro-pastoral Production System) with three grazing types (Riverside, Enclosure and Communal). The Statistical Analysis Software was used to analyze the vegetation and soil data. In the study district, a total of 23 species were identified. Woody species evenness was significantly higher in the Pastoral Production System than Agro-pastoral Production System. Woody species diversity and evenness were significantly increased from the communal, enclosure and then riverside grazing areas of the rangeland. Potassium and sodium content of the soil were significantly higher in the Agro-pastoral Production System as compared to the Pastoral Production System. From the result, this study implies that a process of degradation maybe undergoing in the Pastoral Production System more than in the Agro-pastoral Production System, most likely due to poor grazing management practices and recurrent drought in the area. Therefore, this demands due attention on integrated management for the conservation of the soil, productivity of the rangeland and appropriate plan of biodiversity conservation such as establishing, designing and implementations of watershed management for physical and biological conservation should be planned to minimize loss of biodiversity, which also require the support of appropriate rangeland vegetation monitoring and evaluation systems based on the participation of the pastoral and agro-pastoral communities.


The article examines the energy factor in India's foreign policy in Central Asia, analyzes the place of India in the energy market of Central Asia, Indian energy strategies in Central Asia, and factors in India's energy policy. In addition, the author studied the priorities of India's foreign policy in Central Asia.


Varicose veins are conditions in which the enlargement of the superficial veins is protruding and tortuous at the lower extremities. Until now, varicose vein treatment is based on medical administration, scleroteraphy, the use of stocking compression and surgery. The surgical method for varicose veins is known as vein stripping. At this time, laser-based management has been developed, namely Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA). EVLA technique is performed without sedation so that the patient is fully conscious. This procedure takes one to two hours and after observation the patient can immediately go home without requiring hospitalization. The benefits obtained from this laser therapy such as short post-operative treatments, do not cause scars or surgical sutures and the success rate reaches 97%. EVLA with a wavelength of 1470 nm has the side effects of postoperative inflammation and minimal bruising because the absorption coifficient of 1470 nm is 40 times greater than the laser energy of 810-980 nm, so that the wavelength of 1470 nm the heat energy is more easily absorbed and venous ablation will be more effective.The management of varicose veins continues to develop until now with the utilization of laser energy known as endovenous laser ablation (EVLA). EVLA continues to evolve from year to year by increasing laser wavelengths ranging from 610 nm, 810 nm and 940 nm to 1470 nm which have better intracellular water absorption than other wavelengths. This causes post-operative side effects such as pain, hematoma, ecchymosis, long treatment can be minimized. Keywords: Varicose vein, endovenous laser ablation, stripping vein.

L'exploitation minière artisanale au Sud-kivu : Malédiction ou bénédiction ? []

Résumé : Les minerais exploités par les artisanaux miniers constitueraient une tragédie des ressources naturelles dans le sens que lorsque le creuseur s’approche des sites miniers et/ou des puits miniers ; au fur et à mesure il s’attire la pauvreté et lorsqu’il s’en écarte ; il s’attire la richesse. Cette étude démontre comment cette activité aussi importante pour les exploitants miniers, la province et le pays est caractérisée par la malédiction politique et économique tout en faisant allusion à la capacité limitée de l’Etat pour la redevabilité et la redistribution des revenus issus de l’exploitation minière artisanale(EMA). Il ressort de ce papier des propositions palliatives pour que l’EMA profite réellement aux creuseurs et aux communautés riveraines du milieu où sont extraits les minerais. Cette étude démontre qu’il est possible que ces minerais ne soient pas non seulement considérés comme source de malheur de la population et de conflits mais comme une source de bonheur, de développement et de paix afin de lutter contre la pauvreté et promouvoir le développement local et communautaire. Mots clés : Exploitation minière artisanale(EMA), exploitant minier artisanal (creuseur), malédiction, bénédiction, redistribution des revenus, développement communautaire, Sud-Kivu.


The NORM radioactivities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the marine surface sediments collected from 20 sampling points in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a Ponar grab sampler and measured using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer was studied. The objective of this work is to evaluate the radiological health hazard effect of natural radioactivity associated with sediments at study area. Generally, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration index and other radiological hazard parameter were found to be lower than their maximum permissible limits. The conclusion is made that the sediments in the region confirmed were not posed radiological risks to the public and; sediments are suitable and safe to use in any activities. Furthermore, the results of this study could serve as an important radiometric baseline data upon which future epidemiological studies and environmental monitoring initiatives could be based.

The Socio-economic Consequences of the Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon (November 2016-August 2019), A Cause for an Indispensable Concern []

Abstract The Anglophone problem is not a novelty in Cameroon’s political landscape. It is an identity conflict which owes its roots from the colonial era. The nature of the conflict makes it both protracted and intractable due to the inability of its protagonists to reach at a compromise. This is because the measures being put in place to end the conflict at every analytical level does not take into consideration basic ontological human needs, which apart from the basic biological needs for food, shelter, clothing, includes inter alia the need for security, recognition, esteem and self-actualization. These needs are genetically inherent in every human being and are thus imperative for human development. Any society that wants to maintain a healthy life must ensure the gratification of these needs. The crux of the Anglophone crisis rests on unsatisfied genetically endowed human needs. Thus any attempt to address the situation must take these needs into consideration by critically examining the root causes of the problem. This paper therefore revisits John Burton’s (1990) approach to conflict resolution which is inextricably linked to the human needs theory, inspired by the works of Abraham Maslow and Paul Sites, to justify the nature of the Anglophone crisis which is characterized by the resistance to obtain a sustainable solution. The paper further examines the socio-economic consequences of the crisis and proposes recommendations inspired by Burton’s Problem-Solving approach to conflict resolution. Key words: Cameroon, Anglophone Crisis, Socio-economic Consequences, John Burton’s Approach to Conflict Resolution, Examination of the root causes of the crisis, Frank and inclusive political dialogue.

Tuberculose mammaire primitive chez un homme de 55 ans : à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature Primary breast tuberculosis in a 55 years old man: a report case and literature review []

Mammary tuberculosis is a rare form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It can be primary or secondary and can be difficult to diagnose. Sir Asley Cooper first described mammary tuberculosis in 1829 as a "cold mammary tumour". To date only 725 cases have been recorded. It is often mistaken both clinically and mammographically for a cancerous lesion, the diagnostic confirmation of which can only made by anatomo-pathological and bacteriological examinations report the observation of a patient with primary mammary tuberculosis.

The effectiveness of independence and assessment of internal audit Control Systems in Organizations and Institutions []

Independence and assessment of internal audit Control Systems in every institution in the world, determines ways of evaluating staff of the institutions and organizations to find out the independence/objectivity of internal auditors in public university-organisation (PUO) and to ascertain whether top management in the institution support the activities of the internal auditors. However, this study explored the Capacity of Workers Influence of Management’s Acquiescence to Internal Controls at the level of Organizations and Institutions. The research design employed was characterized and analyzed the purpose of the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The sample size for the study was two hundred (200) participants and following eight (8) units under the finance department. The procument unit, treasury unit, pensions and endowment unit, budget unit, bills and claims unit, pay roll management unit, stores and inventory management unit and financial reporting and assurance unit were used respectively. Descriptive research design was employed for this study. The Pearson Correlation and regression analysis was used to find out whether there is a relationship between the variables to be measured (effectiveness of internal audit and the determinants) and also to find out if the relationship is significant or not. The data analysis was done with the aid of the descriptive statistics approach emphasizing mainly on the percentage (%) technique. The Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software was used in the data processing as well. A simple regression and correlation analysis through the use of Spearmen’s rank correlation was also used to determine the relationship between effectiveness of internal audit and its determinants. This resulted the following findings; to establish the proficiency of internal auditors at PUO, the study revealed that, the internal audit function within the PUO is of quality and it shows the significance of internal audit function quality in the study organization. Again, to evaluate the quality of work of the internal auditors in PUO, the study found that, the internal audit staff at PUO have the necessary knowledge and skills in carrying out their job. On independence of internal audit function, the study further revealed that, internal audit reports to the highest level within the organization and also internal auditors within the PUO for the purposes of this study, had unrestricted access to all departments and employees in the organization and that their independence is strictly adhere to. Finally, the results revealed that “competence of internal audit team” influence positively “internal audit effectiveness.


Background: Hearing impairment (HI) is estimated to adversely affect about 32millions children worldwide. The condition has serious implications for a child‘s development in speech, learning, and academic achievements. Studies on prevalence and risk factors for HI are limited in North Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the current burden of HI as well as its predictors. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 240 pupils aged 5 to 15 years from six randomly selected public primary schools in Moshi rural. Pupils whose parents did not consent and those known to have hearing loss were excluded. Clinical otologic assessment and audiometry screening was carried on all participants. Hearing of more than 30 dB was regarded as a hearing impairment. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for an association between the selected risk factors and hearing impairment were estimated using multiple regression models. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of hearing impairment was 37.8%. The dominant type of hearing loss was conductive and the commonest cause being wax impaction (68%), otitis media with effusion (30%), and chronic suppurative otitis media (19%). Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing impairment was significantly high compared to other developing countries and the independent risk factors were male gender, low income, wax impaction, otitis media with effusion, and chronic suppurative otitis media. The study calls upon more efforts to the health professionals on hearing screening methods as well as community sensitization on the importance of adhering to otological healthcare.


This study focused on the assessment of the competencies of BPSU graduates vis-a vis Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry job requirements. Competency signifies the sum total of skills, knowledge and attitudes manifested in the respondent’s behavior. Utilizing a convenient sampling, a total number of 377 graduates from varied programs in Academic year 2016-2017 served as respondents. The study employed a qualitative and quantitative method of research utilizing interview and survey questionnaire as research instrument. With a descriptive method the demographic profile accounted age, sex and curricular program of the respondents. The respondents verified their degree potentials for employment in an outsourcing industry. The findings of the study revealed an evident index of their basic, technical, behavioral and leadership skills. Validation of the framed competencies consigned with the interview and observations of the actual recruitment process by the researcher in a multinational business process outsourcing company. Further, the data were counter validated using a modified questionnaire which assessed the communication, behavioral, technical and leadership skills by the BPO employer. Hence, the findings revealed that behavioral skills ranks first, communication skill ranks second; technical skill ranks third, and leadership skill ranks fourth when it comes to the order of their relevance to BPO industry .The findings were used as input in the formulation and implementation of the competency-based enhancement training program for integration in the course and add on to the curriculum. Proposed enhancement training program focused on the identified employability skills in this study to ensure that graduates will have competency on the skills essential in the BPO industry, thus, may raise employability and job opportunities to the graduates.

Exploring the Level of Diaspora Remittances Flows in Zimbabwe []

International migration has increasingly been debated in various policy fora. Zimbabwe for the past decades, have seen many of its people moving out to other countries around the globe. In return, the migrants do send monies and goods back home for various reasons including altruistic purposes. There exist pessimistic views and optimistic views about migration and diaspora remittances. The study seeks to observe the trend of annual diaspora remittances flows into Zimbabwe from 2009 to June 2020, and trend of monthly diaspora remittances for January 2018 to July 2020. The study observed that there exist variability within the period, significant drops and rises worth to be examined. Diaspora remittances flows are not stable, making it difficult for planning around them. There is no match between volumes of migration and levels of diaspora remittances flows into the country. To activate a win-win situation for the nation and the migrant, the study recommends increased diaspora engagement, improving the investment climate for diaspora and other investors in general, working on the socio-political environment, and loosening remittances channels.