Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Covid-19 and Blue Economy of Bangladesh: Resilience, Opportunities, and Challenges []

Covid-19 has become the total destructive way of all economic sectors of almost all countries of the globe. Almost all countries are affected and mesmerized due to attack of corona virus or Covid-19. More than 54 million people are infected and more than 1.3 million people are died due to corona virus pandemic globally. Bangladesh is no exception. Already numerous number of people are infected and many of them have taken their last breathe. Like the other sectors of the economy, blue economy which is one of the most emerging sectors of the economy of Bangladesh has been severely impacted due to Covid-19 and deadlock as well as lockdown situations. There is no certainty of vaccination confirmation from the global medical experts. But this situation can not be far longer for the overall macroeconomic situation and for the sake of sustainable development and the successful completion of SDGs. Like the other economic sectors of an economy, Blue Economy activities should also be resumed and strengthened horizontally. The article has a focus on the resilience measures to adapt with the horrible nature of Covid-19 to sustain blue economy. At the same time, the study has a sanguine effort as well as sincere endeavour to address the opportunities for reshaping and redesigning of blue economy of Bangladesh from the lessons of Covid-19. The study has also an effort to detect the challenges of blue economy impacted or created by the demon Covid-19 and finally the study extracts some recommendations for the overall adaptation or development of blue economy of Bangladesh during the pandemic Covid-19 period as well as post pandemic Covid-19 proper functioning of blue economy of Bangladesh.

Macroeconomic Stabilization Effect of Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe []

Countries in the world undergo turbulences in economic activity known as economic or business cycles. It is the length of the cycles that differs depending on the economy’s macroeconomic strengths in policy and implementation. Zimbabwe is one economy that has been faced by various episodes of economic cycles. Zimbabwe has undergone decades of economic and financial crisis. The study seeks to analyze the macroeconomic stabilization effect of foreign direct investment inflows in Zimbabwe. When national income undergoes some fluctuations some inflows may help stabilize the trend and hence aid in smooth economic growth and stability in the macroeconomic environment. The study uses annual data for the period 2009 to 2019 for its analysis. Appropriate data transformation was done to ensure good results for policy derivation. The study used a trend and correlation analysis to determine the stabilization effect of FDI. A positive correlation between national income and FDI of 78.87% was obtained, implying that FDI inflows are pro-cyclical. The correlation results have been consistent with the observed trend of the transformed data. The pro-cyclicality nature of FDI inflows means that they follow the same trend with national income; in times where national income is high (low), FDI inflows are also high (low). FDI inflows has no macroeconomic stabilization impact on fluctuation in national income in Zimbabwe. The study results, however do not imply that FDI is not crucial, the levels of inflows might only be too weak to support stabilization, and hence the levels should be raised. There is greater need to attract more FDI in the economy to reap the much cited benefits of the inflows especially for less developed nations like Zimbabwe. Macroeconomic policies overhaul is required in order to create a stable and hospitable investment climate in the country that fosters export competitiveness, trade openness and domestic capital formation. Issues of property rights should be correctly addressed not to deter potential foreign investors.

Reducing of radiation activity index for quarry dust waste located in industrial zone for marble and granite Shaq El Thobaan Egypt []

Building materials industry like marble and granite, ceramics, cement and bricks produce a huge amount of wastes that have an adverse effect on environment. The protection of environment and inhabitants from harmful wastes received more attention from environmentalists all over the world. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in different industries is very important trend to keep environment and inhabitants from harmful effects. The aim of the present study is evaluated the activity index of radionuclides of quarry dust (marble and granite) from Shaq El Thobaan region Cairo, Egypt. The samples of marble and granite were analyzed for U, Th, and K in radiation measurement laboratory (Institute of graduated studies and researches) Alexandria university using a pre- calibrated high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The radiation activity for marble waste samples equal to 0.296 less than 1 but for granite samples equal 1.488 more than 1 the permissible limit. So, samples of granite dust mixed with the mixture of cement and sand (1:3) with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%. the results showed that the activity index for radiation 0.552, 0.656, 0.760, 0.864, 0.967and 1.07. So, the granite can have used up to 50% in cement mixtures.

The effect of corporate governance on the quality of financial report with the capital structure as moderating variable []

MARYAM P. The effect of corporate governance on the quality of financial report with the capital structure as moderating variable. (Guided by Mr. Gagaring Pagalung and Mrs. Andi Kusumawati) This study aims to find out the effect of corporate governance on the quality of financial report with the capital structure as moderating variable. The subject of this study were listed manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The population of this study were 132 companies that amount listed manufacturing company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) since 2015-2019. The sampling method used Nonprobability sampling technique. Samples taken amounted 47 companies. The data collection method using documentation technique. The analysis method used descriptive statistical analysis, clasic assumption tested, hypothesis tested consists of multiple linear regression analysis, moderated regression analysis, F tested, T tested and determination coeficient tested. The results showed that (1) The independent board of commissioners has positive effect on the quality of financial report (2) The board of directors has positive effect on the quality of financial report (3) The managerial ownership has positive effect on the quality of financial report (4) The institutional ownership has positive effect on the quality of financial report (5) The capital structure moderating the effect of the independent board of commisioners, the board of directors, managerial ownership, institutional ownership on the quality of financial report. Keyword: the independent board of commisioners, the board of directors, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, the capital structure, the quality of financial report.

Survey on challenges and solution in application of boyer moore and its enhanced versions, algorithms in snort intrusion detection system IDS for pattern matching or packet inspection []

The paper present challenges of snort intrusion detection, different techniques used by the tool, its historical background in detecting malwares, and as well, different approaches to intrusion detection(snort) implementation in a network i.e hardware or software. Also the paper present the review of the current used algorithms in snort, its challenges and its enhanced versions for performance improvement. The paper also reviewed different snort components.

تعليم أبناء المسلمين في أراكان: المشكلات والحلول []

ملخص البحث: موضوع البحث: تعليم أبناء المسلمين في أراكان: المشكلات والحلول الباحث: خالد الإسلام بشير أحمد عدد صفحات البحث: 20 يتكون البحث من مقدمة وثلاثة فصول وخاتمة وتحت كل فصل مبحثان المقدمة: أهمية الموضوع، وسبب اختياره، وأهداف البحث، ومنهجه، والدراسات السابقة الفصل الأول : التعريف بأراكان والأوضاع التعليمية فيها المبحث الأوّل: أراكان: جغرافيا وتاريخيا المبحث الثاني : الأوضاع التعليمية في أراكان الفصل الثاني: مشكلات التعليم الإسلامي في أراكان المبحث الأول: مشكلات مناهج التعليم في المدارس الإسلامية المبحث الثاني: مشكلات المعلمين والطلاب والتمويل للمدارس الإسلامية الفصل الثالث: المشكلات العامة للتعليم في أراكان وحلولها المقترحة المبحث الأول: المشكلات التعليمية العامة للتعليم في أراكان المبحث الثاني: الحلول المقترحة الخاتمة: النتائج و التوصيات المراجع والمصادر

Computer Assisted Instructions As A Strategy In The Management Of Technology-Driven Change In Secondary Institutions In Githunguri District, Kiambu County, Kenya []

ABSTRACT This study sought to explore how computer assisted instructions (CAI) may be used as a strategy to Manage Technology-Driven Change (TDC) in Secondary Institutions. The study sought to fulfill the following objectives; i. To assess the effects of Computer Based Instructions {CBI} in Managing School Practices in Secondary Schools, ii To establish the extent to which Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) are utilized in the Management of Teaching’ Practices, iii. To examine the relationship between Computer ~Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Academic Performance, iv. To assess the general strategies of enhancing Instructional Delivery through Computer Based Instructions {CBI}, v. To examine the link between Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Students’ Attitude towards various subjects, vi. To assess the effects of Technology-Driven Change Management {TDC} in the usage of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI). The study was guided by Keller’s, (1999) Theory of Motivational Design of Instruction. This Theory has four components: thus, attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. Related literature has been reviewed on, organizations’ strategies, computer assisted instructions in organizations, management theory and organization theory, theoretical foundations of change management, management and management of change, technology-driven organizational change, technological change in an organization and agents of change. Descriptive research survey was used in this research.. Target population comprised of 30 Public Secondary Schools in Githunguri District. .Piloting was conducted on Two homogeneous Secondary Schools. These Institutions did not form part of the study, hence, were used for the purposes of validation of the Research Instruments only..A sample size of Six Schools with 6 Head-Teachers {HT}, 6 Computer Teachers, 6 Store-Keepers, 6 Bursars, 6 Librarians and 120 Students were randomly and purposively sampled for the study. The final sample size of 156 respondents were studied. Questionnaires, interview guide and observation schedule were used as tools for data collection. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 21 (SPSS). Qualitative data were analyzed thematically based on the type of research questions. The findings were presented in bar graphs, tables of frequency distributions and percentages. The study concluded that the use of computer assisted instructions enhanced efficiency in managing Technology-Driven Change (TDC) in secondary schools. Majority of teachers used CAI in the preparation and analysis of examination results. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education should encourage schools to embrace the use of CAI in school departments so as to enhance efficiency in managing technology-driven change (TDC).

Bakuchi - A review []

Bakuchi (Psoralia corylifolia) is a medicinal herb which has lots of bioactive properties. It is the most conventional herb that has been used from past hundreds of years. Each part of Bakuchi has its own therapeutic importance. It is mainly used for treating skin problems like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo etc. The organic compounds obtained from the various parts of the Bakuchi plant are being used as remedies for many diseases because of its properties like anti-diabetic, anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant etc.

Radiation dose assessment and radon removal efficiency of water treatment phases in some selected table water production factories in AdoEkiti, Southwest, Nigeria []

The natural occurrence of radon in drinking water can be hazardous to human air pathways and stomach. Assessment of radon removal efficiencies of drinking water processing phases for public consumption is therefore very important. Measurement of radon concentration has been carried in drilled wells sources for table water production and across the three treatment phases at ten water plants in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. Average activity concentrations of 222Rn of drilled well source, aeration/dosing, sand-granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration and ultraviolet sterilization phases are 63.6, 27.0, 25.8 and 17.1 Bq L-1 respectively. Cumulative average radon removal efficiencies at the three phases are 60.0%, 64.2% and 80.7%, respectively. Radon concentrations in all the processing phases exceed the 0.1 Bq L-1 maximum permissible level set by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Estimated radiation dose to the stomach through table water ingestion and occupational dose to water treatment plant workers are 0.0247 mSv y-1 and 0.044 mSv y-1 respectively.

Conceptual and Legal Frameworks on Gender Equality and Affirmative Action []

Human rights in general and gender equality in particular enjoy legal protection through codification in several international and regional treaties. Some of the treaties are corroborated by optional protocols dealing with specific issues with special emphasis. They altogether provide protection against actions and omissions that interfere with human dignity, fundamental freedoms and entitlements regarding of any irrelevant ground including sex.


This paper focused on the effects of parent participation in the academic performance of the learners in a public elementary school. The proponent aimed to discuss diverse themes on parental involvement in children’s education by studying a wide range of related literature and studies. Individuals have been accustomed that family is the basic unit of society. In relation to education, the teaching and learning process starts in the family context. Home serves as the first school of children and parents/guardians/caregivers serve as first teachers. This depicted the key concept of the essential role of parents/guardians/caregivers on founding the pillars of education among young individuals. In light of this, the following article indicated topics such as parents’ profile and effects of parent participation in the academic performance of the learners. Both were found out to be crucial in the course of discussion. On the one hand, for parents’ profile, results exclaimed key indicators which influenced parent participation in child’ education; namely, parents’ economic status, educational attainment, and personal background. Results elaborated that the aforementioned indicators had a great impact on parental involvement in child’ schooling. It was evident that families with low economic status had low participation in school-led and home-based activities aligned with child’s education. Another notable finding was parents/guardians/caregivers with high expectation and aspiration for their children showed high level of involvement in the school performance of the learners. Findings recommended that schools foster diverse strategies to accommodate parents’ individual differences and be able to exemplify better school-and-home relationships. On the other hand, the effects of parent participation to the academic performance of the learners were supported by the related literature and studies gathered in this scholarly endeavor. Findings identified that parents/guardians/caregivers with high involvement in their children’s education resulted in increased academic performance of the learners. This entailed the positive relationship of parent participation and academic performance. Results suggested that school administrators, leaders and teachers might provide avenues to increase parents’ experiences in school-led and home-based activities aligned with the child’s education. This paper targets to enlighten readers to reignite the vital roles of the family in primarily establishing effective, efficient and lifelong learning among children. Hence, school administrators, leaders and teachers were called to respond and reach out to the parents/guardians/caregivers to create a harmonious relationship between home and school towards betterment of learners and attainment of their maximum potential.


Abstract The paper investigates perceived impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria. The study is based on historical data between 1990 and 2018. Government expenditure is analyzed in the study in its aggregate form and constituent parts, while controlling for inflation. The ordinary least square (OLS) was applied to ascertain the short-run relationship between variables, however, the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, was used to examine long-run relationship between variables in the equation. Results of the test show that only expenditure on information and communication technology is stationary at all levels while expenditure on education and agriculture was stationary at first difference. Also, GDP, expenditure on health and administration were stationary after second difference. The paper recommended that government and policy Makers should implement policies to ensure that funds earmarked for the education sector is judiciously utilized. Key Words: Government Expenditure, Social Economic Growth, Nigeria. No of Words: 153


This paper contains a review of the use of several growth pattern models including von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, and Logistics in vannamei shrimp culture. Vannamei shrimp have several advantages, namely, responsive-ness to feed / high appetite, more resistance to disease attacks and poor environmental quality, relatively faster growth, higher survival rates than other shrimp, able to live with the stocking density is quite high and the maintenance time is relatively short, about 90-100 days per cycle. The use of the growth curve model can measure the optimiza-tion of growth and determine the right time to harvest, so that cultivator are expected to be able to optimize production factors efficiently, and get the maximum level of profit from vannamei shrimp cultivation. Many types of growth curve models have been written, but the best curve model for growth is characterized by a small standard error and the largest coefficient of determination. Based on the review, it can be seen that partial harvest can provide the maximum amount of biomass and the von Bertalanffy growth pattern model is the most suitable model for estimation because it has a small error rate, especially when combined with the Bayesian hierarchical model approach.

Advantage of Small Incision Cataract Surgery in Eyes with White Mature Cataract: A Hospital Based study: Experience as a Beginner []

Aim: To assess the safety & advantage of MSICS in cases of white mature cataract with the use of trypan blue as a supplement for performing continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. Material: A hospital-based, prospective study was carried out on 50 eyes of 50 patients with uncomplicated white cataract. 50 eyes with cataracts were allocated into two groups; 25 SICS with use of trypan blue (group A) and 25 without (group B). The result in terms of UCVA and BCVA after six weeks with the degree of complications in the two groups were studied. Results: The success rate of CCC was 85% with use of trypan blue dye and remaining 15% were converted to can opener or envelope capsulotomy. All 25 patients (100%) where we had used trypan blue, could put PC IOL in capsular bag. In patients, where we had not used trypan blue, 85% of cases we could put PC IOL in bag, 10% of cases we had put PC IOL in sulcus and in one case (5%) we had put ACIOL. Post-operative UCVA of 6/18 or better at end of 6 weeks were seen in 75% (group A 90% and group B 60%). Post-operative BCVA of 6/18 or better at 6 weeks were seen in 92.5% (group A 100% and group B 85%) Conclusions: MSICS is safe and effective treatment for patients with white cataract, especially with the use of trypan blue dye, even in rural population.

Out Break Investigation and identification of FMDV-Serotype Circulating in south west showa zone of Oromia region in Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT Ethiopia is one of the countries in Africa with huge livestock resources. Despite this large resource base, the benefit derived from the livestock sector in Ethiopia is relatively low. Livestock diseases are among the many constraints which hinder the proper utilization of the resources for food security and national development. In Ethiopia Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the contagious viral diseases that have great impact on economic development both in terms of direct and indirect losses. Despite the occurrence of several outbreaks in Ethiopia, only very few outbreaks are investigated for their economic impact and Confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Proper outbreak investigation helps to identify the circulating serotype in the area to implement efficient vaccine-based FMD control strategy. Hence outbreak investigation was conducted from April 28 to May 10, 2020 in three districts of South west showa zone of Oromia region with the objectives of, detection and serotyping of FMDV circulating in the area. Purposive sampling was carried out and total of 150 accessible cattle were examined in the three districts and in the respective kebeles. 36% (n = 25/69) showed clinical signs of the disease. Appropriate Samples (7 tissue,8 probang and 10 swab) were collected from 25 clinically sick and healed cattle and processed in pool (pooled in to 15),first submitted for viral isolation in the cell culture laboratory and detection and serotyping of the virus has been done in the viral serology laboratory of NAHDIC. CPE is detected in 10 of the fifteen pooled samples.Atotal of 10 samples Four from Woliso, four from Ameya and two samples from Goro districts are positive for FMDV serotype SAT 1 tested with sandwich ELISA. Vaccination has been the main strategy of control of FMD in endemic area, therefore effective vaccination with formulated compatible vaccine containing SAT 1 recommended in each kebeles of the study area. Regular monitoring and early detection of FMD outbreaks is necessary to have further molecular based studies. Keywords: Cattle, Outbreak, FMDV, Southwest showa, Oromia, cell culture, Sandwich ELSIA, Ethiopia

Research paper on Smart Villages With a Two Way Digital Governance For an Atma Nirbhar Bharat []

As of 2018, there are 649,481 census villages in India. Smart villages have been a great initiative by the Government of India. The Prime Minister’s thrust on Atma-nirbhar Bharat is a step towards making India for a self-reliant and self- developed economy, a dream that was first envisioned by Mahatma Gandhi that covered aspects of agriculture, village industry, animal husbandry, transport, basic education, health and hygiene, core towards a larger goal of economic development of the nation. However the progress of 72 years after independence has just been a pipe dream with no significant progress. The present research paper aims at smart governance in the Government Sector particularly of the elected representative using a two way digital technology in which the citizens and the government administration communicate with one another with the use of digital dashboard on a day to day basis by providing status report and feedback. This digital smart governance could results in the development and progress of the rural India with the help of geo-spatial technology. The paper also proposes the design of a dashboard that is a major challenge for determining performance parameters of elected representatives during their tenure. The research is purely based on secondary data. The digital mode can bring about a better commitment for a progressive India where 60 percent population live in villages. Keywords—Smart villages, smart governance, digital, dashboard, India

Potential of Mobile Phone-Based Decision Support Systems on Selecting of Sorghum Varietal Seeds in Homa Bay County, Kenya []

Decision Support System (DSS) is critical in interactive and quick decision making as it reduces uncertainty due to its compatibility or interactivity, expandability, accessibility and functionality. Several mobile-based DSS have been developed over the years, but little evidence on whether sorghum farmers are consulted in the development of mobile apps that aid in selecting sorghum variety seeds. A baseline survey was conducted in Homa Bay County to establish the user requirements for mobile-based DSS to reduce uncertainty for sorghum varietal seeds formulating a total of 150 sorghum farmers. SPSS computer-based software was used to analyse the data. Results revealed that 73.3% possessed basic phones while 26.7% owned smartphones. Majority of the farmers (60%) made phone calls while 28.7% used SMS, to access agricultural information. About 82% farmers did not use mobile-based apps (SMS, calls) but 80.9% would consider using a sorghum varietal seed selection app. Majority of the farmers (42.7%) planted seredo variety while 34.7% preferred indigenous varieties (Ochuti, Obama, Andiwo). There was a positive relationship between occupation and three mobile apps (WhatsApp, Facebook and Calls) implying, there was increased use of three apps as occupation level got higher. The correlation findings showed that as education level increased there was also increased use of WhatsApp and Facebook, however, calls, internet and SMS usage had negative relationship with education of respondents. End-user involvement and requirements consideration during system development is paramount for DSS adoption. Hence, DSS should be interactive with real time sorghum information, sensitize farmers on different platforms and farmers to consider smartphones technology due to different features applications.


The present study evaluates the atherosclerosis downsizing effects of sildenafil citrate on lipid profiles indices of male rats treated with aluminum chloride with a view to evaluating the risks of atherosclerosis which may lead to coronary heart disease and stroke. Since the advent of sildenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), its use has enjoyed wide patronage the world over, following reported effectiveness. Indeed, the advent of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors saw to the management of erectile dysfunction, thus leaving the male folks with having to battle with the other common male sexual dysfunction-premature ejaculation (PE). In this study, an attempt was made in assessing the effects of sildenafil on serum and heart lipid profile using male albino Wistar rats induced with aluminium chloride. Twenty (20) healthy and active male rats (Wistar rat) of average weight 140±176 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5), thus; control, negative control (35 mg/kg AlCl3), 50 mg/kg of Sildenafil, 50 mg/kg of Sildenafil and 100mg/kg AlCl3. The drugs were administered every day orally for two weeks. All animals had access to food and water. Blood was collected from each animal via cardiac puncture and blood lipid profile (serum and heart) were assessed. Standard lipid profiles method was adopted in assessing the lipid profiles. Heart triglycerides, HDL, LDL and cholesterol increased significantly (p<0.05) following administration of sildenafil. Serum HDL, LDL and cholesterol decreased significantly (p<0.05) following administration of sildenafil. Conclusively, considering the serum cholesterol depleting effects of sildenafil (anti-atherosclerosis), it is important to tame their abuse, as this could affect processes that depend largely on serum lipids for their proper functioning such as synthesis of steroid hormones.


In light of globalization, the invention and innovation processes have known a massive change in the last decade. Industries and businesses are coping with the new environment changing the personal and professional habits of individuals, groups, and organizations; Consequently, leading the global market revolution. In this paper, we are studying one of the fundamental antecedents of innovation that is knowledge management processes. The purpose is to demonstrate how the proper implementation and use of the construct can ensure the capability to innovate in Chinese high-technological industries; Likewise, highlighting the impact of the individual’s behavioral factors on promoting this linkage. The investigation took the case of the implementation of 5G technologies services to Moroccan leading telecom operators while conducting semi-structured interviews supported by open-ended questions with employees currently working on the project. The empirical data collected has endured the grounded theory method to analyze the text to be able to extract an attribute for the conceptual model of this study. After analyzing the results, we were able to explore the relationship between knowledge creation, knowledge sharing processes, and innovation capability to answer the question of what factors of KM processes enables innovation capability. Besides pre-existent behavioral factors from previous studies like motivation, trust, learning, collaboration, leadership, will to help each other, and trust in own abilities. The findings revealed more factors that enable the capability to innovate in technological firms, listing recognition and work appreciation, openness to change, communication skills, and the feel of belonging. This paper is offering a conceptual model that shows the linkage between knowledge creation and knowledge sharing processes and the capability to innovate but mainly how this relationship functions in the appearance of behavioral factors presented by individuals.


Abstract Teaching Practice as major component of a teacher education programme occupies a key position in the process of training teachers. The aim of this work is to design a framework for Student Teaching Information System, which will serve as a tool for teacher training institution in managing information related to teaching practice exercise. The objective is to develop a comprehensive system that will keep, manage and maintain records of both student-teachers and teacher-supervisors. In addition, the system is designed to automate the posting of supervisors for student teacher supervision, automate the posting of student teachers to the schools they intend to undergo their teaching practice exercise, as well, compute their results. A centralized database for adding users to the system was developed using MYSQL database engine. The Object Oriented Analysis and Design method was used to achieve a system that is broken down into modules for future modification.

Web based learning Modalities for Distance Learning Success: A comparison of 4 universities []

This study examined factors that contribute to Web based learning success in Distance Education using eLearning platforms from students and faculty perceptions. The study examined student’s self-efficacy, online self-efficacy, motivation, prior knowledge and course expectations (Kölmel &Würtz, 2015). Eight well-known factors that comprise of student support, social presence, direct instruction, learning platform, faculty interaction, student interaction, learning content, and course design and three outcome factors that include what students receive from their Web based learning experience like student satisfaction, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge transfer were examined Kölmel &Würtz, 2015). A questionnaire was completed by 396 students and 80 lecturers from four universities in Ghana namely University of Cape Coast, University of Ghana, University of Education Winneba and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The results revealed that from students’ point of view, course design, learning content and prior knowledge were significant predictors of student success. faculty specified that there are six main factors that are important in creating an effective Web based learning classroom: course design, instruction, learning platform, learning interaction, learning content and social presence. The findings of this study will be helpful for educational stakeholders in planning distance learning through blended mode strategies.

Analysis of Nutritional Content in Frozen Fishery Products of Mackerel Infected by Anisakis sp. []

Scomber japonicus mackerel is an imported commodity that has a high nutritional content as a raw material for traditional fish processing industries in the form of steaming in Indonesia, however imported fish can be infected by diseases due to infection from endoparasites caused by worms. This research aims to analyze the nutritional content which includes moisture, ash, protein, and fat content of mackerel that are not infected and infected with the parasite Anisakis sp.. This research uses an observational method by taking 15 samples of mackerel randomly. Then the organoleptic condition was examined referring to (2014) SNI 4110: 2014 concerning frozen fish to determine the difference between infected and uninfected mackerel Anisakis sp.. Furthermore, it is examined to determine the number of parasites that infect and the number of samples infected with the parasite Anisakis sp.. Next the samples were tested proximate according to (AOAC) 2005 to compare the nutritional content of the mackerel fish that are not infected and infected with the parasite Anisakis sp.. The results of the research were analyzed descriptively and comparatively. It showed that there was no difference between uninfected and infected mackerel with Anisakis sp. when viewed from an organoleptic point of view. The results of identification of parasites from 15 samples of mackerel, 10 positive fish were infected with the highest infection intensity in the intestine. The results of the proximate content analysis showed that the mackerel samples were not infected with the parasite Anisakis sp. has water content of 62.00%, ash content of 12.96%, protein content of 23.52%, and fat content of 12.28%. While the SM09 sample infected with the parasite Anisakis sp. has a water content of 62.81%, an ash content of 10.23%, a protein content of 21.32%, and a fat content of 10.73%.

Revisiting of chemical fertilizers by using suitable plant growth regulators and nano fertilizer []

A key challenge for sustainable intensification of agriculture is to produce increasing amount of food and feed with minimal mineral fertilizers usage for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing the excessive utilization of undesirable plant growth regulators like gibberellins. The current study was focus on the use of plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid and proline) in presence of two sources of boron (B–NPs and boric acid) to reduce the consumption of mineral fertilizers, minimize the hazard effect of using plant growth regulators and increasing the yield productivity and quality of sugar beet plants. An experimental field was conducted at Giza Agricultural Experimental Station, Giza, Egypt, on sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris L. var. Sara poly). Plants applied with gibberellin and proline as foliar application at three rates of zero (control), 100 and 200 mg l-1, 100 and 75% from full dose of macronutrients with boron sources at 0.48 B kg acre-1 as recommended dose. The obtained data showed that the foliar applications of gibberellin (GA3) at rate of 100 mg l-1 and proline at 200 mg l-1 were the most effective for plant yield, growth parameters under study, sucrose yield and macronutrients uptake may be those due to increased N use efficiency, especially at sub-optimal macro nutrient fertilizers. Regard to boron sources, boron-NPs had positive effects on all parameters under study due to sugar transport, cell membrane synthesis, nitrogen fixation, indole acetic acid metabolism, respiration, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolisms, root growth and functional characteristics and development. Moreover, obtained data revealed that the applied mineral fertilizers at rate of 75% from recommended dose was more response than that applied at rate of 100 % as a recommended dose. On the other hand, obtained data also showed that 75% applied from macronutrients fertilizers when accompanied with proline at 200 mg l-1 and B-NPs was more responses and effects on all plant characteristics and quality compared to the other treatments under study.


This paper examined the epicurean of government bridle and performance in the abia state environmental protection agency (ASEPA). . The study was informed by the reality that many public sector organizations have not done well enough due to poor performance occasioned by poor funding and political patronage resulting in the recruitment of staff some of whom are without the requisite competences. The broad objective of this study is to examine how ASEPA as a public service agency can be engaged in efficient service delivery in Abia state. To that extent, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and primary data were also utilized. The descriptive survey method was adopted while Taro Yameni formula was used to determine the sample size. Data collected were presented in tables by way of descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); a parametric statistical test was used to test the hypotheses. The research found that poor funding and political interference which negates competences of staff limited the performance of ASEPA as appointment of members of staff especially the governing board including the chief executive officer is mostly on political patronage. Consequently, quality of guidance and directions that are required to achieve organizational goals are compromised. Therefore, the study recommends that public sector agencies should be people oriented as to provide solutions to the reason for which it was created in the first instance and thus reduce political interference. In like manner, that the agency should be properly supported financially such that it is adequately funded to enable it meet financial obligations like repairs and acquisition of new equipment apart from remuneration and it further recommended that a feedback, complaint or redress mechanism be instituted such that members of the public who feel aggrieved or dissatisfied by services provided or not rendered can be reported and that way, it becomes a useful management information that will help to improve service delivery.

Ambulatory surgery: A new clinical path []

Outpatient surgery has become increasingly popular in recent years as an alternative to inpatient surgery. Our work aims to study and evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on an outpatient basis. 65 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed over a period of one year, out of a total of 645 hospitalized cholecystectomies. 10.7% had to be hospitalised for the night and 4.6% were readmitted the next day, and no patients were re-operated. In conclusion, our results confirm the feasibility of this clinical pathway in in a each universitary department of surgery.

Modeling Significance Impact of Vaccination of Meningitis Transmission Dynamics on Children in North-western Nigeria []

ABSTRACT Vaccination plays an important impact in preventing against disease spreads. In this study, the significance impact of vaccination modeled on the transmission dynamics of meningitis infections. Even though many authors carried out researches on modeling impact of vaccination on different diseases and meningitis in particular, but none of the researches uses data on meningitis outbreaks on children under 15 years in the northwestern Nigeria. In this paper, mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of meningitis to determine the significance impact of vaccination by interchanging the rate of carriers and vaccination. The model describes meningitis transmission designed into seven compartment which leads to a linear system of differential equations, the model used data on meningitis outbreaks on children in the northwestern Nigeria. The model distinguished between female and male children population: between infected females and males, recovered with deficiency and without deficiency. All eigenvalue are found negatives and R0 (the threshold parameter) is greater than 1 Equilibrium points are found and their stability based on a threshold value (R0) is investigated as 57.999,50.624 and 50.526 by adjusting the rate of carrier from natural carrier rate of 25%,60% and 90% and vaccination respectively during outbreak. But obtained value of R0=12, whose are far greater than 1 shows the significance impact of vaccination during no outbreak on meningitis transmission dynamics. Therefore, since R0 is greater than 1 the endemic equilibrium is stable both locally and globally.. Key words: Meningitis, Infected Carrier, Vaccination and Threshold value.

Modeling Negative Effect of Carrier on Meningitis Transmission Dynamics of Children in north-western Nigeria []

In this paper, mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of meningitis to determine the effect of carrier by interchanging the rate is formulated. The model describes meningitis transmission designed into six compartment which leads to a linear system of differential equations, the model used data on meningitis outbreaks on children in the northwestern Nigeria. The model distinguished between female and male children population: between infected females and males, recovered with deficiency and without deficiency. Equilibrium points are found and their stability based on a threshold value (Ro) is investigated as 45.947,24.812 and 19.743by adjusting the rate of carrier from natural carrier rate of 25%,60% and 90% respectively during outbreak. But obtained value of Ro=11.4, whose are far greater than 1 shows the negative effect of carriers on meningitis transmission dynamics. Therefore, since Ro is greater than 1 the endemic equilibrium is stable both locally and globally. The numerical simulations and graphical solutions of the differential equations were carried out with Matlab application software. Keywords: Meningitis, Carrier, Threshold value

Growth and Yield of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) as Influenced by Combinations of Varying Levels of Nitrogen and Foliar Fertilizers []

Purpose: Various foliar fertilizers are used alone or in combination with soil-applied inorganic fertilizers in Nigeria to increase crop growth and yield. Information on the mixture of foliar fertilizers and soil-applied nitrogen on sesame is scanty. This study investigated the growth parameters of sesame under the various combination of foliar fertilizer with nitrogen. Materials and methods: Five levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N/ha) of nitrogen were combined with three foliar fertilizers (Maxiforce, Supergrow, and Plantzyme) using a 3 x 5 factorial in a complete randomized block design and replicated three times. Results: The nitrogen levels significantly influenced the number of leaves produced, leaf area, number of pods per plant, and seed yield. There were no significant effects among the foliar fertilizers on the growth and yield of sesame. Application of super grow in combination with 60kgN was appeared promising. The results of the study showed that mixing foliar fertilizer with nitrogen was found to improve the growth and yield of sesame. Keywords: nitrogen, max force, plantzyme, supergrow, seed yield.


Diabetes mellitus is caused as a result of insulin deficiency. It is chronic progressive endocrinological disorder of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism characterized as hyperglycemia. The incidence of diabetes mellitus in the human population has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of type2 diabetes mellitus among male and female adult 50 years above of outpatient in Ekiti state, south west Nigeria. Descriptive research design method was adopted. Questionnaires were designed and used to collect demographic data of one hundred and fifteen confirmed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of Ekiti State Specialist Hospital, Ikere-Ekiti by simple random sampling technique. SPSS 19 software was used to analyze data. Data were expressed as mean and frequency expressed as percentage. A total of 115 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, aged between 50 and 80 years and above were analyzed. Their age mean ± standard deviation is 3.48 ±1.93 years. There were male 43 (37.4%) and female 72 (62.6%), male and female ratio of 1:1.67. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus among outpatients at Federal Medical Center, Ido-Ekiti aged ≥ 35≤85 (n=308) was higher among female (59.4%) than male (40.6). The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was similar among female (62.6%) than male (37.4%).Therefore, the previously and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was higher among female than male. Nature of job, nutrition, hereditary and lifestyle differences may be contributed to the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus among female than male. Key words: Diabetes mellitus; Endocrinological; Metabolism; Hyperglycemia; Epidemic