Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Role of logistics management on the operational performance of organizations in Rwanda []

Organizations strive for efficacy, cost efficiencies, and economies of scale in today's highly competitive business climate. Most of these firms carry out numerous logistical operations in order to suit the needs of their consumers. However, managing these operations in order to achieve their goals has proven to be a significant task for the corporations. Many businesses have yet to determine how much to invest in logistics and the appropriate combination of responsiveness and efficiency. To investigate the impact of multinational corporations' warehousing management on operational performance, to analyze how inventory management affects multinational corporations' operational performance, and to evaluate the impact of multinational corporations' transportation management on operational performance. The study used a descriptive survey design and was limited to the B Rwanda organization in Kigali. Data was gathered from 65 people working in Kigali, Rwanda. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data, which was then analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the support of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A pilot study and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability were used to assess the research instrument's validity and reliability. Data was evaluated using frequency distribution tables and presented using means, percentages, and frequencies. According to the study, B Rwanda management should revise its cost-effective product transportation strategy, adjust and implement internal policy directives to track the use of inventory items, and strengthen network and route planning for transportation in consultation with all relevant parties

Assessment of Background Ionization Radiation and Associated Health Risk in Oil-Producing Belt of Ondo State, Nigeria []

An assessment of background ionization radiation and associated health risk in Oil-Producing Belt of Ondo State, Nigeria was carried out using a well calibrated portable radiation detector (Radalert 100) and GPS (Garmin GPS 72H) for the measurement of the geographical locations. The study covers Ese-Odo and Ilaje Local Government Areas with eight notable communities assessed, and is the longest coastline in the riverine area of the current part of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria which is crisscrossed with oil fields operated by national and multinational companies. The exposure rates ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 mRh−1 (AWY-1) to 0.019 ± 0.001 mRh−1 (ARM-4) with overall mean value of 0.011 ± 0.003 mRh−1. The computed absorbed dose rates ranged from 30.45 ± 5.14 nGyh-1 (AWY-1) to 163.56 ± 6.62 nGyh-1 (ARM-4) with overall mean value of 91.31 ± 26.88 nGyh-1. The estimated overall mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) for the LGAs was 0.14±0.04 mSvy-1, while the overall mean excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was (0.49±0.14) x10-3. The dose received by organs was highest in the testes (0.09 mSvy−1), while the liver had the lowest dose values of 0.05 mSvy−1. Among all the estimated risk parameters, mean absorbed dose rate in Ese-Odo LGA and overall mean ELCR for the study area were higher than the safe world average values while all other risk parameters were found to be below the safe world standards. Hence the exposure may not constitute any immediate health risk to the resident of the study area. Keywords: Excess Life Cancer Risk, Background Ionizing Radiation, Radalert-100, Exposure Rate, Absorbed dose

Microplastics Abundance in anchovy (Stolephorus indicus) and gulamo fish (Johnius belangerii) in the Musi River Estuary, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia []

Microplastic pollution in all parts of the ocean has become a global problem; therefore, we aimed to determine the amount and form of microplastics found in anchovies (Stolephorus indicus) and Gulamo (Johnius belangerii) in the mouth of the Musi River, South Sumatra, Indonesia. This study consisted of four stations: 12 anchovy and gulamo samples were collected from fishermen catches using fishing nets. To degrade organic matter and enable detection of microplastic particles, both anchovy and gulamo gastrointestinal contents and gills were subjected to hydrogen peroxide digestion, followed by the addition of NaCl to separate the organic matter from microplastics so can be see more clearly. There were 3 types of microplastics were found in anchovies and gulamos: fiber, the most common type (91,54% in anchovies; 97,87% in gulamos), followed by films (5,03% in anchovies; 1,6% in gulamos) and fragments (3,43% in anchovies; 0,53% in gulamos). In anchovies, the greatest abundance of microplastics was observed at station 4 with 141±6.42 particles/individual and 828 particles/g. In Gulamo, a large abundance of microplastics was found at station 4 with 422±6.03 particles/individual and 111 microplastics/g. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using withe Spearman test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Spearmaan test showed no correlation between anchovy and body mass, whereas in gulamo, the correlation to body weight was directly proportional. The Kruskall-Wallis test showed no significant difference in the number of microplastic particles in anchovies, whereas the gulamo had a significant difference.


Dans les villes de Côte d’Ivoire d’aujourd’hui, la tendance à la périurbanisation et le fait que la forme urbaine est de plus en plus polycentrique, nous conduisent à penser le développement urbain dans un cadre plus vaste. Dans la construction de villes nouvelles en Côte d’Ivoire, il est intéressant d’examiner dans quelle mesure l’urbanisation coloniale des villes du rail constituent ou pourrait constituer l’armature principale de ces villes. On entend par villes du rail, toutes les villes qui doivent leur naissance ou leur développement grâce au tracé du chemin de fer. C’est dans ce contexte, que notre étude vise à étudier le modèle urbain du noyau colonial d’Agboville. En nous appuyant sur l’étude de sa trame ancienne, l’objectif de cette étude, est de fournir des idées nouvelles pour la construction de villes du futur en Côte d’Ivoire. Pour y parvenir, plusieurs techniques de recueil ont été combinées dont l’enquête de terrain, et l’examen de sources écrites, orales, archéologiques et visuelles. Les résultats obtenus à la suite de ses recherches ont permis de faire la présentation du noyau colonial d’Agboville et ses composantes, et de déduire des leçons architecturales pour la création de villes novelles. Mots-clés : Agboville, urbanisme colonial, villes nouvelles, Côte d’Ivoire. THEME: STATE OF PLAY AND ARCHITECTURAL LESSONS OF THE COLONIAL URBAN FABRIC OF THE RAIL CITIES OF IVORY COAST : THE CASE OF AGBOVILLE. Abstract In the cities of Ivory Coast, the trend towards peri-urbanization and the fact that the urban form is increasingly polycentric, lead us to think about urban development in a broader context. In the construction of new cities in Ivory Coast, it is interesting to examine the extent to which the colonial urbanization of rail cities constitutes or could constitute the main framework of these cities. Rail cities are all cities that owe their birth or development through the route of the railway. It is in this context that our study aims to study the urban model of the colonial core of Agboville. Based on the study of its ancient fabric, the objective of this study is to provide new ideas for the construction of cities of the future in Ivory Coast. To achieve this, several collection techniques were combined, including field investigation, and the examination of written, oral, archaeological and visual sources. The results obtained as a result of his research made it possible to present the colonial core of Agboville and its components, and to deduce architectural lessons for the creation of novel cities. Keywords: Agboville, colonial urbanism, new towns, Ivory Coast.


COVID-19 has affected many economies across different sectors and governments have taken different containment measures across the world to protect lives. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of COVID-19 containment measures taken by the government of Rwanda on performance of construction projects with case study of Green Hills School expansion project in Kigali. Many researches are done across the world to analyze this effect but not in Kigali, Rwanda and that's the gap this research filled. In order to reach the research objective, the study used descriptive and correlational design method to study the complex relationships of the dependent variable (project performance) and the independent variables (restriction of non-essential movements, curfews, social/physical distancing & closure of international borders). The study findings indicated that the four COVID-19 containment measures, that is non-essential movement, curfews, social / physical distancing and closure of international borders negatively affected performance of construction projects in Rwanda up to the tune of 58.2%. It was also established that apart from curfews, all the other measures had a significant effect. Specifically, it is was demonstrated that social / physical distancing had the strongest effect followed by closure of international borders then restriction of non-essential movement. Given the study findings, the study recommends that in order to have a balance in the performance of construction projects while also maintaining COVID-19 measures, the government should review the containment measures, that is non-essential movement, curfews, social / physical distancing and closure of international borders. Specifically, more emphasis should be placed on curfews compared to the other measures given its insignificant effect.


This study focused on Procurement Management Practices and Performance of USAID SOMA UMENYE Project, Kigali-Rwanda. This study analyzed the effect of procurement management to project performance in Rwanda, specifically in USAID Soma Umenye Project as the main objective. The study used descriptive, explanatory and correlational research design and the researcher administered questionnaires to 110 respondents including project employees in different positions working in this project and beneficiaries of the project. The research used purposive and universal sampling technique where all necessary people in the population have the same profitability of being included in the sample. In this research study, primary and secondary data were used for the purpose of obtaining necessary information relating to the study. The research used the descriptive and correlational research design to analyze the collected data. Mean, standard deviation, and regression were taken into consideration to make the analysis. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyze the data collected using questionnaires. For the first and the third objective, Descriptive statistics were used because they enable the researcher to meaningfully describe distribution of scores or measurements using few indices whereas for the second objective, inferential data analysis was done using multiple regression analysis to establish the relationship between the variables. As presented in the table 6 an overall mean of (M= 4.39, SD= 0.35) which described the perceptions of respondents on procurement planning to a large extent. From the Table 7, Perceptions of respondents on price solicitation and evaluation presented an overall mean of (M= 4.71, SD= 0.34) indicating that it was practiced to a large extent. From the Table 8, perceptions of respondents on contract management presented an overall mean of (M= 5.14, SD= 0.32) which meant that it was applied to a very large extent. The study focused on establishing the relationship between procurement management practices and performance of USAID Soma Umenye project, Kigali- Rwanda. The research findings indicated that there is a strong relationship (R2= 0.844) between procurement management practices and project performance. Therefore, the recommendation of the research will go to Soma Umenye Project management team in USAID to make further decisions on improving performance as far as project procurement management is concerned.


The general objective of the study was to assess the effect of budgeting practices on financial performance in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Rwanda. It intended to achieve the following objectives: To Investigate budget process how affect financial performance of WfW-Rwanda, to examine how the budget implementation process affect financial performance of WfW- Rwanda and to assess how budget monitoring and evaluation effects financial performance of WfW- Rwanda. For this study, descriptive and correlation analysis used. Due to the nature of the topic, the researcher used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The data was collected from a sample size of 171 respondents who are the employees and beneficiaries of WfW- Rwanda, selected using convenient sampling technique. The data was collected using interview for key informants who are top managers and questionnaire for others. Data was analyzed using multiple regression to test the hypothesizes of the research. Regression analysis revealed a positive relationship (R = 953). The R coefficient of 0.953 indicates that the predictors of the model which budget preparation process, Budget implementation and budget monitoring and evaluation, have a correlation of 95.3% with the dependent variable (financial performance of Women for Women Rwanda ) The study also revealed that a combination of budget preparation process, Budget implementation and budget monitoring and evaluation together contributed to 90.8% (R2= 0.908) of the financial performance of Women for Women Rwanda. The findings showed that a unit change in budget preparation process, would lead to increase in financial performance of Women for Women Rwanda by a factor of 0.212 which is the most predator of the research, a unit change in Budget implementation, lead to increase in financial performance of Women for Women by a factor of 0.237 and a unit change in budget monitoring and evaluation would lead to increase in financial performance of Women for Women by a factor of 0.452.The study also found that all the p-values were less than 0.05, this indicates that all the variables were statistically significant in influencing the financial performance of Women for Women Rwanda. That was indicated by the fact that there is relationship between the variables of the research and null hypotheses rejected. With all mentioned above, researcher conclude that budgeting practices contribute to financial performance of NGOs. The study recommends that Women for Women Rwanda, its performance can be affected by budget monitoring and evaluation, budget preparation process and the Budget implementation which are critical on its performance. With the study findings the researcher recommends to Women for Women Rwanda , should engage its self-more in budget preparation process, Budget implementation and the budget monitoring and evaluation which are helpful to its performance.


The purpose of this study was to see if there is a link between project management approaches and project performance in Rwanda's hydropower projects. This study included 429 participants from Mukungwa II, Rwaza, Subcontractors, Comeca, and EPC/Vizor. The sample size was calculated using Slovin's formula, and the sample size was 207. Data was collected using documentary and questionnaire techniques. Data analyzed by SPSS. The results indicate R square was 0.632 means that power productivity was initiated by the effectiveness of cost management at 63.2%. Results on regression analysis between effective communication and capacity factor of hydropower projects in Musanze District showed that R square was 0.391 means that capacity factor was increased by effective communication by 39.1%. This agrees that this model is acceptable as an effective communication has a significant impact on the capacity factory. Model summary of risk management and energy-based availability of hydropower projects in Musanze: The value of R square was 0.649 means that energy-based availability is affected by risk management at 64.9%. This specifies that the model is acceptable as risk management moderately affects the energy-based availability of hydropower projects in Musanze District. Model summary indicates R square was 0.363 means that time based availability increased by cost management at 36.3%. This agrees that this model is acceptable as cost management has a significant impact on time-based availability. It is recommended that greater effort should be put into classifying project management practices as per their significance.


The purpose of this survey was to assess the effect of monitoring and evaluation activities on project performance in Rwanda. The population of this survey was 591 stakeholders of Twigire Muhinzi project in Rulindo District. The sample-size determined with the help of the Solvin formula which provides a simplified formula to calculate sample-sizes. The sample size was 240. The study needed the proper sampling approach to select the sample. The following data-collection tools were used in the study: documentary study, but primarily questionnaires. To analyze the gathered data, the researcher used the statistical method computed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings showed that Correlation value of 0.802 and R-square show a fairly significant association between M&E Planning process and satisfying beneficiaries with of 0.643 indicating that the model explains for 64.3% of total observations. R value of 0.643 confirmed that there is a relationship between M&E Technical expertise and acceptance of output while R-square 0.413 clarifies that the model explains for 41.3% of total observations. R value of 0.799 and R-square shows a significant association between management participation in M&E and lesson learnt with of 0.638 indicating that the model explains for 63.8%. R value of 0.512 and R-square shows a significant association between M&E stakeholders involvement and goals achievement with a value of 0.263 indicating that the model explains 26.3% of total observations. It is recommended that the Twigire Muhinzi Project should continue providing training and reinforcing staff capacity or retraining operational participants.


The general objective of this study was to assess the effect of agile project management approach and project success. Specifically the study found out the effect of project capacity building on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector, the effect of project monitoring on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector and the effect of project mediating variables on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector. The study population consisted of 30,648 (30,528 beneficiaries (people of Nyamirama sector based on 2012 Rwanda population census,100 community health workers of Nyamirama Sector and 10 staff working in Nyamirama health center and 10 local leaders of Nyamirama sector and 10 SFH Rwanda staff working on the project), Kayonza District, Rwanda. For determining a sample-size, a Slovin’s formula was used-to calculate a sample-size out of the whole study. The formula resulted that the sample-size was 155 respondents. The researcher applied a stratified sampling-technique where sample-size of population in each sampling-frame selected to participate in the survey. A random sampling-technique required where it offers every member of population an equal chance of being included in the sample-size. Primary data collection involves using designed while secondary data was gotten via the existing documents in related field. During the procedure of collecting the data, the questionnaire required to find out the information needed. The statistical-package for social sciences (SPSS) software tool used for data analysis. The findings for overall high mean of 4.10 from heterogeneous of responses, p-value <0.05 and correlation coefficient of 0.813 indicated there is effect of project capacity building on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector. The findings for overall high mean of 4.12 from heterogeneous of responses, p-value <0.05 and correlation coefficient of 0.805 indicated there is effect of project monitoring on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector. The findings for overall high mean of 4.24 from heterogeneous of responses, p-value <0.05 and correlation coefficient of 0.667 indicated there is effect of project mediating variables on success of Malaria SBCC project at Nyamirama Sector. Regression analysis results which indicate the effect of project mediating variables, project monitoring and project capacity building on project success. The results as measured by R-square of 0.679 show that 67.9% of total variation on project success of Malaria SBCC Project at Nyamirama Sector can be explained by agile project management. It is essential that SFH Rwanda performs regular monitoring of its projects to verify that the goals of helping recipients improve their socioeconomic well-being are met. Before entering into a partnership it is essential to do an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks offered by each particular organization.


This study examines the univariate analysis of volatility of stock market returns using GARCH model and also determines a causal relationship between volatility and stock returns. The data is a real time data directly obtained from yahoo finance with seven thousand eight hundred and ninety-four observations. The preliminary examination of graphical results show that stationarity was achieved at second difference, so also unit roots test (Augmented Dickey Fuller test) and correlogram conducted show that the series was stationary at second difference. The correlation between the high (highest price at which a stock was traded during a period) and low (lowest price at which a stock was traded during a period) opening stock is high and heteroscedasticity between the opening and closing stock is high. Lastly, GARCH (1,1) model was chosen as it produced the least Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value. So also, GARCH (1, 1) model applied gives parsimonious results which establishes a very significant ARCH (1) and GARCH (1) relationship and shows that the markets returns are significant since probability level is less than 0.01. Thereafter, we subjected the results obtained to forecasting evaluation indices where it was discovered that Theil-U produced a better fit, the bias and the variance proportion are very close to zero and covariance proportion is very close to one. All pointing to the fact that the model GARCH (1, 1) will have a very good forecasting ability in stock returns. Keywords: ARCH, GARCH, volatility, stock returns, financial markets, performance measure

Smart Customer Analysis System for Supermarket []

Researchers are focusing on making grocery shopping safer and more enjoyable for customers because of the pandemic. This system will have both a mobile and a desktop application developed. We employ a webcam and an image processing model to determine whether or not a consumer is wearing a face mask. The system will issue a voice command warning if they don't have a face mask on. An image processing model is used to figure out how many people are using the system. It is possible to forecast what customers will buy based on their previous purchases as soon as you enter the store. Customer satisfaction and new customers can both be improved by using this module. This program can also send customers to the location/rack where the relevant goods are housed. The barcodes on the product can be used to determine the product's location, which is then displayed as an augmented reality representation. By using data from a bigger set of customers, this system can forecast what customers will do in the future based on their current behavior.

Rainfall Dynamics , People’s Perception about Flood and Indigenous Adaptation Practices : A study from Sarlahi and Rautahat, Nepal []

Flood is seriously affecting local people in Terai, Nepal. Local people have perceived and adapted indigenous practices to protect from flood due to rainfall. Limited research is carried out to analyze rainfall and flood impact where people have adapted indigenous practices. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the trend of rainfall, people’s perception about flood and indigenous practices against flood. Bagmati Corridor of Rautahat and Sarlahi district of Nepal was selected for this study. Primary data were collected through house hold survey using random sampling technique with 25% (182 HHs in total) sample size, focus group discussion (6) and key informant interview (15) carried out to collect the data about effect of flood and indigenous practices in Rautahat and Sarlahi districts. The secondary data were collected from published and unpublished documents. Rainfall data from 1990 to 2019 were collected nearby three meteorological stations namely Karmaiya, Ramoli and Gaur and these data were analyzed descriptively to link with flood and indigenous practices. The result showed that, there was about 7.68 mm decrease in annual rainfall based on record of Karmaiya meteorological station and similar result was about 6.69 mm rainfall decreased based on Ramoli meteorological station but this was high rate with 15.51 mm decline based on Gaur meteorological station. The high rainfall was recorded in 2004, 2007 and 2017 at all meteorological stations. The respondents were opined that the flood is serious problem in these areas which was very shocking in 2004, 2007 and 2017. The flood in 2004 was very worst destructive, never seen before. The indigenous practices and adaptation strategies were explored based on the people’s opinion. This includes the predicting flood, protecting physical structures, storing crops, saving livestock, emergency materials and saving life. Each category was explored for pre-flood stage, during flood stage and post-flood stage. This also indicates that communities have well perception and indigenous practices adapted to protect themselves from flood. This study helps scientific community to understand differential effect of flood due to rainfall and how people have perceived it and adapted indigenous practices to cope it. This research will be useful to design the policy level strategies to find the key solution on flood effect.

Influence of stakeholder involvement on humanitarian project performance in refugee camps in Rwanda. Case of KIZIBA Refugee Camp []

Abstract This study sought to investigate the factors that influence the project performance in Kiziba refugee camp. The study attempted to evaluate the influence of the human resource factors, organizational leadership, resources allocation and stakeholder involvement on the success of humanitarian projects in refugee camps in Rwanda. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was all the 65 staff working in the Eight NGOs and multilateral organizations operating in Kiziba camp. Due to the small number of target population, and being located in the same area/location a census was used for data collection using a survey questionnaire. For the analysis of quantitative data, inferential and descriptive statistics was used with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics encompassed mean, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages. Results from both descriptive and inferential statistics was presented using tables. Correlation analysis was also used to determine the influence of different factors analyzed on the performance of humanitarian projects. The study found that stakeholder involvement plays a vital role in the performance of humanitarian projects in Kiziba camp. Humanitarian NGOs were encouraged to organize and hold stakeholder meetings with project beneficiaries to improve implementation status and buy-in of the goals and objectives by beneficiaries. Keywords: Stakeholder involvement, Humanitarian project, Performance, Refugee Camp.

The effects of ban of mass gatherings on performance of income generating activities supported through VUP Financial Services. []

The study was carried out to assess the effects of ban of mass gatherings on performance of income generating activities supported through VUP Financial Services. The descriptive research design was used and population of the study was 136 beneficiaries from which 93 are enrolled into public works, 36 in financial services and 7 leaders at both national and local levels. Universal sampling technique was used whereby 136 beneficiaries were taken for the study; the questionnaires and interview guide were used as tools for data collection. The reliability and validity tests were also performed for validation of questionnaires and data analysis was performed using SPSS whereby descriptive statistics, correlation and regression coefficients were used to present and interpret the findings. The findings revealed that; the ban of mass gathering (r =0.856**); the stringent containment measures (r =0.918**); the lockdown measures (r =0.865**); and the restricted movement (r =0.899**) are strongly correlated with poor performance of VUP activities, as Pearson’s correlation coefficients(r)>0.7 and less than 1. The regression findings revealed that, the ban of mass gathering (β1=0.394); the stringent containment measures(β2=0.250); the lockdown measures(β3=0.260); the restricted movement(β4=0.244) with P-value =0.000<0.05 indicating significance level, and considering that, other factors affected, the performance of VUP activities remained constant at zero scale. This implies that; an increase by one unit in ban of mass gathering; the stringent containment measures; lockdowns measures; and restricted movements would result to an increase by 39.4%; 25.0%; 26.0% and 24.4% respectively in poor performance of VUP activities. This correlation of the effects of covid-19 and performance of VUP are insisted by the behavioral constraints theory which predicts that safety nets programs are often designed to correct different kinds of constraints and encourage socially optimal behavior. By conclusion, the serious measures were taken in order to slow down the spread of COVID-19, however these measures affected negatively the performance of public works and financial services, then affecting the social wellbeing of VUP beneficiaries at large. For ensuring income generating activities of VUP beneficiaries are viable, the COVID-19 recovery strategies such as full funded business projects, extension of paid back period for loans; must be prioritized for re-boosting economic capacities of VUP beneficiaries.


This study explored the influence of job satisfaction on organisational citizenship behaviour among primary school teachers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed to find out the level of primary school teachers’ job satisfaction, to determine the level of organisational citizenship behaviour among primary school teachers, and to ascertain the contribution of the job satisfaction on organisational citizenship behaviour among primary school teachers. A study was cross sectional research design where quantitative approach using descriptive statistics was used to analyse data. The findings show that about two-thirds of the respondents said are paid less (59.4) compared to other professionals, while 41(40.6%) of respondents disagreed with their fellow colleagues. Also, it was found that about three-quarters (73.3%) of the respondents agreed that their job gives them chances for promotion compared to one-third (26.8%) of the respondents who had different opinion. Moreover, the findings show that civic virtue and courtesy were less practiced in the organizational citizenship behaviour in terms of mean (M = 3.09 and 3.09) if compared with altruism, conscientiousness and sportsman (M = 3.12, 3.16 and 3.15) respectively. There is a need to reconsider primary school teachers in terms of payments when comparing them with other professionals. Furthermore, there is a need to conduct a mixed-methods study in order to get the voice of teachers than quantifying the study.

Healthcare Service utilization and clinical adherence among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus at Kirehe District Hospital Rwanda: A cross-sectional study. []

Background: Non-communicable Diseases including Diabetes Mellitus are increasingly becoming a major public health concern globally, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Although healthcare services utilization is not a major concern in developed countries, it is associated with worse health outcomes, leading to the increasing burden of diabetes in many developing countries including Rwanda Objective: To assess healthcare service utilization and clinical adherence among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus attending Kirehe District Hospital and its Health Centers in Rwanda. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The researcher conducted a patient file review and interviewed key healthcare workers. The sample size for the study was 272 patient files drawn from the target population of 781 files covering a period of one year. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square computation using IBM.SPSS. Statistics.v21. Results: The study found that more than half (54%) of the respondents had missed more than three DM clinic appointments with 84.9% missing at least one appointment. Only 15.1% adhered to all appointments. Some demographic factors such as education level, social status, and marital status, were significantly associated with health service utilization at p <0.005. Some respondent-related characteristics such as current medication, and time of diagnosis were similarly significantly associated with health service utilization at p <0. 005. Conclusion: This study concluded that the overall level of healthcare services utilization was low and that most of the DM patients used outpatients and had no DM-related admission. It also revealed that some modifiable respondent-related and health service-related factors influence the utilization of healthcare services among DM patients. Keywords: Healthcare service utilization, Diabetes Mellitus, Associated Factors


Abstract. This paper provides for the existing technologies for the processing of oil shale in the world. Of which there are only two installations, the first in Estonia is the Enfenit technology and the second in the People's Republic of China is the Fushun process. Oil shales in Uzbekistan are distinguished by the fact that in addition to the organic part, the mineral component also contains valuable components. The content of useful components such as vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, amounts of rare earth elements and copper. Which, when processed, require complex industrial solutions.


The destinations of the review were to inspect the impact of material requirement plan, vendor managed stock and just in time on performance of 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant Constructions at Kasthew Company. The objectives of the study were to examine the effect of material requirement plan, vendor managed inventory and just-in-time inventory on performance of 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant at Kasthew Construction Company UG Ltd. The findings were utilized for reference via different destiny researcher in a bid to complement their class and right down to earth paintings. The overview inspired and stimulated different analysts' interest to direct in addition research on stock management and execution. This review utilized a descriptive research design. The general sample size comprised of 52 respondents got from a complete populace of 60 workers. The study employed stratified random sampling technique basing on the members’ shared attributes. Information was gathered utilizing essential sources in light of the fact that the analyst needed to determine from the respondents their insight, mentality, convictions, future and past conduct towards the subject of the study. Then information was examined utilizing SPSS to come up with the examination findings. Relapse investigation was likewise utilized for the assessment of connections between a reliant variable, and at least one autonomous factor. It was used to evaluate the strength of the connection among factors and for displaying the future connection between them. According to the findings, MRP has a positive significant effect on performance of the 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant Constructions at Kasthew Construction Company. The Company always plans to increase profitability (mean 4.12), (4.43 mean) indicates that company’s revenues have always exceeded the expenditures. Mean 3.96 indicates that material necessity readiness practice leads to development of the company. Steady material planning has consistently helped the company’s development satisfy purchaser needs (mean 3.92). Hence concluding that material requirements planning should base on customer orders, sales forecasts and manufacturing policy in order to stimulate customer demand which leads to the improvement in the performance of Kasthew Construction Company. According to the findings, VMI has a significant effect on performance of 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant Constructions at the Company. With (mean 4.02) there is a consent that upstream information is constantly moved to providers in request to diminish the interest and reduce the supply gap, whereas together with suppliers it is vital to share information relevant to restocking in a timely manner (mean 3.53). Hence concluding that the performance of 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant at Kasthew Construction Company can be improved once vendor managed inventory is effectively worked on because it helps to increase the customer responsiveness by reducing the supply and demand gap thus giving satisfaction to the end customer by availing the desired product when needed. According to the findings, JIT has a positive significant effect on performance of 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant Constructions at the Company, whereby (mean 4.29) indicates that zero inventory in store helps reduce holding costs whereas (mean 3.69) indicates that the company always meets her set goals using the available resources. Hence concluding that application of just-in-time as an inventory management system can lead to the improvement in the performance of the 150 KLPD Ethanol Plant Constructions at the Company since it increases on the quality, productivity and efficiency during inventory management. The study recommended that Kasthew Construction Company should develop a good system to monitor record and track the entire inventory so that there is effectiveness in inventory management and ensure to cover loopholes in the system to enhance performance of their projects. Managers should ensure improved and effectives inventory management practices that are more affordable and accessible to quality and cost-maximization in the organization.


Lentil is the second major Rabi pulse crop after chickpea in Pakistan. In Pakistan yield of lentil is less than its potential because of low usage of recommended varieties and fertilizer management. The present study has been conducted to evaluate and compare the yield potential of different recommended lentil cultivars under agro ecological conditions of Photohar Pleatue of Pakistan. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of Markaz-2009, Punjab-Masoor and Chakwal-Masoor at farmer’s field at District Attock and Rawalpindi during Rabi season 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20. Our results described that significant (P<0.05) plant height was recorded by Markaz-2019 (36.83cm) followed by Chakwal-Masoor (34.33cm) compared to other treatment. Significant (P<0.05) number of branches per plant was recorded by treatments Chakwal-Masoor (9.3) compared to other treatments in the studied ecosystem. Number of pods per plant recorded maximum in Punjab-Masoor (46.16) followed by Markaz-2019. Significant (P<0.05) number of seed per pod was recorded in Chakwal-Masoor (1.86) followed by Punjab-Masoor (1.60). Chakwal-Masoor produced maximum seed in the pod produced maximum thousand grain weight (24.40g) followed by Punjab-Masoor (19.90g) resulted to increase the yield in Chakwal-Masoor (802.20 kgha-1) followed by Markaz-2019. At the end it was concluded that Chakwal-Masoor showed better performance in term of yield and recommended for cultivation in photohar plateau of Punjab, Pakistan.


The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of social media advertising on consumers buying behavior in Iringa Municipality. Specifically, the study intended to determine the influence of social media credibility, informative messages and entertainment on consumers buying behavior in Iringa Municipality. The research employed explanatory design whereby a quantitative research approach was used. The targeted population was 174,000 customers of Airtel Iringa where a sample size of 250 was drawn out of it. Data were collected using a questionnaire and was analyzed using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and measures of variations) processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) V.20. The findings revealed that customers are satisfied with the credibility of Airtel social media which influences them on consumers buying behavior. Advertisements provided by Airtel on social media are trusted and are easily accessible by customers on social media. Furthermore, majority of the customers are influenced with social media entertainment on their buying behavior because Airtel social media advertisements are more enjoyable, desired, excitement and surprises,The study concludes that social media advertisements which are trusted and are easily accessible by customers on social media raises customer loyalty. On the other hand, clear and updated information, accurate information, complete and reasonable information on social media also influences consumer behavior. The study recommends that Airtel should make use of these research findings to tailor their marketing elements with potential customers needs. In addition Airtel should ensure that provided information is clear and updated in order to capture customer attention hence increasing customer loyalty. Furthermore, Airtel should offer creative and innovative advertisements to its customers in order to compete in the dynamic fast paced telecommunication markets.


In companies and institutions, communication is one of the most prevalent and vital actions. Fundamentally, connections emerge from communication, and effective interactions among individuals and groups are essential to the organization’s survival. Furthermore, organizational capacities are created and implemented through highly social and communication processes. Staff receive crucial information about their jobs, the organization, the environment, and one other through organizational communication. It can help individuals express feelings, communicate aspirations and ambitions, and celebrate and recall accomplishments. It can also help motivate, establish trust, create shared identity, and stimulate engagements. The goal of the Lency Communication and Consults case study is to determine the best communication methods, how to build the business through good communication among management and staff, and some of the common challenges experienced when receiving and passing information. Literature was reviewed mostly from textbooks, institutional publications, and the internet in order to fulfill these goals. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed, with a response rate of 99 percent. A chat with the head of department was conducted. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. According to the findings, information flow inside the organization aided most of the respondents in giving their best effort, even though it was slow due to the organizational structure. It was also discovered that the majority of the respondents had issues with information overload and information distortion during the transmission of information.


But Cette étude a pour but, de contribuer à la prévention du COVID-19 par le respect des mesures barrières chez les élèves des écoles primaires de la ville de Mbujimayi, en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériel et méthode Cette étude est descriptive transversale. Elle concerne 80 élèves tirés aléatoirement sur 488 élèves qui composent notre population d’étude dans les trois écoles enquêtées (L’E.P 1 du 24 Novembre, l’EP 1 Marchal et l’EP 2 Marchal. Pour collecter les données de cette étude, nous avons utilisé le questionnaire d’enquête. Résultats Les résultats enregistrés ont révélé que 100% des élèves ont déjà entendu parler des mesures barrières contre la COVID-19. 100% ont eu pour source d’information l’école et 38,75% la famille, 38,75% donnent comme avantage du respect des mesures barrières contre la COVID-19 évité la maladie à COVID-19, tandis que 37,5% les font parce que le maitre a dit en enseignant, 10% des élèves enquêtés montrent qu’ils ne sont pas disposés à partager les informations sur les mesures barrières contre la COVID-19 avec les autres élèves, 87,5% ne se lavent pas régulièrement les mains et 71,25% des élèves enquêtés ne respectent pas les étapes du lavage des mains. En ce concerne le port de cache-nez, 53,75% ne portent pas le cache-nez, 5% portent le cache-nez juste pour éviter les autorités. Quant aux autres mesures barrières, 67,5% ne respectent pas la distanciation sociale, 62,5% se saluent par la main et 62,5% utilisent souvent la main pour éternuez. Conclusion L’étude assidue de la présente nous montre qu’il y a un non-respect des mesures barrières et cela représente un danger permanent en santé publique pour ce qui est de nos écoles, qui sont en les milieux de formation des futurs cadres de notre cher beau pays et le monde entier.

TETANOS CHEZ LES GRANDS ENFANTS EN PEDIATRIE : à propos de trois cas observés à l’hôpital général de référence de Lubao/RD. CONGO []

Dans cette étude, il était question de procéder à l’analyser des circonstances de survenue, des manifestations cliniques, des modalités thérapeutiques et l’évolution clinique du tétanos chez l’enfant au-delà de la période néo-natale afin de proposer des stratégies de prévention adaptées aux contextes de l’Hôpital de Lubao. Ainsi, nous avons mené cette étude sur base de l’analyse des dossiers médicaux des enfants admis pour tétanos entre 2019-2021 à l’Hôpital Général de Référence de Lubao ou nous avions eu au total 25 cas de tétanos sur 1174 malades hospitalisés dont 22 cas étudiés au moyen de la méthode rétrospective et 3 cas ont fait l’objet de notre observation attentive au moyen de la méthode prospective. Le statut vaccinal était inconnu chez d’autres patients, les portes d’entrée étaient les plaies aux membres inférieurs dont d’autres étaient secondaires après l’extrait de chic, injection médicamenteuses. Tous ont présenté les tétanos généralisé, le décès était survenu chez 22 sur 25 patients soit 1,9% ; le tétanos n’est pas rare chez les grands enfants dans la cité de Lubao. Il se dégage ainsi la problématique des rappels vaccinaux.

Effect of Exports and Imports on the Economic Growth of Nepal []

This research investigates correlations and dynamic impact between economic growth, exports, and imports in Nepal using time-series data from 1988 to 2021. The data was gathered from the Nepal Rastra Bank's quarterly economic bulletins and the government of Nepal's annual economic assessment. The data was analyzed using EViews 12 software. The coefficients of correlation and regression were calculated. Exports were shown to have a negative association with GDP, while imports were found to have a strong positive correlation with GDP. The regression analysis results indicated that the volume of exports and imports had a high degree of influence on the expansion of Nepal's economy. Therefore, the "right mix" of export promotion and import substitutes is exemplified by export-oriented industries, justifying a strategy of adequate investment in these sectors.

Gouvernance économique et financière de l’entreprise africaine : Impacts de l’évaluation continue sur les performances. []

African entrepreneurs should be part of a permanent assessment of their businesses in order to develop the best financial policies and strategies in view of the globalization of the economy. Indeed, no company is now local because it is inevitably linked to international transactions. In the illustrations, we have seen positive variations in stock values which could conversely be negative. Either way, the entrepreneur is informed and can take the best solution for his business. If for practitioners (RIVERT A., 2013), the value of the company is defined as being the arithmetic average of its corrected net book value (PV) and its value of return (Vr), namely the last known profit divided by the risk-free rate of pay; It should be noted that for market participants, another method of estimating the value of the company exists. This is the most commonly used method because the calculation is relatively simple and fast, but its use is becoming limited, especially in the case of fast-growing companies (EMMANUEL T., 2010). In one or the other currents of thought, it is necessary to always assess the value of the company in order to better adapt its financial policy to the evolution of the financial market which is based on certain economic indicators, in particular the Product. Gross Domestic (GDP), the Human Development Index (HDI) in particular.

Study of Toxicity of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Averhoa bilimbi in Rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) Kidney []

Biodiversity of medicinal plants such as Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Averhoa bilimbi are plants that are known to reduce blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to determine LD50 acute toxicity from a combination of Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome juice and Averhoa bilimbi of rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) male Wistar. The research method refers to the OECD 425 (2008), consisting of: limit test used a dose of 5000 mg/kg, followed by the main test using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with dose between 6500-30000 mg/kg was administered orally for 14 days. The parameters observed of animal mortality, kidney histological. The result showed that no mortality animal test on dose between 6500-25000 mg/kg, the value of LD50 is 29.944.821 mg/kgBW classified as Practically nontoxic. Histological studies of kidney that is no effect on the glomerular diameter, but there was an increase in the percentage of fat degeneration and necrosis with increasing doses. The conclusions of this study showed that the combination of juice was practically nontoxic.


This article aims to review the use of shrimp shells for food products as an alternative to waste handling in Indonesia. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that the use of shrimp shells, waste from the fish processing industry can be used as food products. These products are 1) made shrimp shell flour for calcium fortification ingredients in ice cream cones, biscuits and cookies. 2) made flavoring or flavoring products. 3) Extraski chitosan from shrimp shells and its use for edible coating ingredients in sausage products. Keywords : edible coating, fortification, chitosan, flour, extraction.