Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The research project entitled “Effect of Project Management Practices on the Performance of Pharmaceutical Multinational Corporations in RWANDA (2018-2021); Local Stakeholders Perception Perspective. Case of AIGPHAR (Rwanda Pharmaceutical Importers Association) and RMRO (Rwanda Medical Representative Association)” was guided by the following objectives: To determine the effect of project management practices on performance of Pharmaceutical Multinational Corporations in RWANDA. The research focused on the practices as Project planning management, Project communication management, Project risk management and Project Monitoring and evaluation management. 3 Theories, resource-Based theory, contingency theory and systems theory was also used to underlie the explanation of the effect of project management practices and performance of Pharmaceutical Multinational Corporations in Rwanda. The study used both descriptive and explanatory research design. The study targeted 104 population that are local stakeholders of Pharmaceutical Multinational Corporations in RWANDA, composed by 57 members of RMRO, association of Medical representatives that are local employees of MNCs and 47 members of AIGPHAR, that represent and distribute MNCs products, in wholesale pharmacy establishments. Questionnaire and documentary review were used as methods of data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistic such as multiple linear regressions was used to analyze data. The findings revealed that project planning practices have significance positive effect on performance of multinational pharmaceutical Corporations in Rwanda as indicated by β1= 0.302, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 4.373. In contrary, the findings revealed that project communication management practices have insignificant positive effect on performance of multinational pharmaceutical Corporations in Rwanda as indicated by β2= 0.007, p-value=0.923>0.05, t= 0.097. Moreover, the findings discovered that risk management practices have significant positive effect on performance of multinational pharmaceutical Corporations in Rwanda as indicated by β3= 0.156, p-value=0.003<0.05, t= 3.101. The results revealed that monitoring and evaluation have significant positive effect on performance of multinational pharmaceutical Corporations in Rwanda as indicated by β3= 0.340, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 6.887. The study concluded that, at 95% of confidence interval, 56.5% of the performance of pharmaceutical multinational Corporations in Rwanda is provided by project management practices, such as, decreasingly, monitoring and evaluation practices, risk management practices, project planning practices and lastly and not significantly by project communication practices.


This work titled “Internal audit practices and financial performance in commercial bank in Rwanda, Case of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc)” Despite central bank of Rwanda providing prudential guidelines to guide commercial banks manage and improve their return on assets but some commercial banks have experienced liquidity risks making them unable to raise sufficient funds to fulfill their obligations resulting to statutory receivership (BNR, 2019). The banks continue to struggle with liquidity problems, profitability, accountability, frauds and misuse of institutional resources and the decisions made have not yielded the expected result (Audit General, 2017). The researcher still feels that there are still gaps which need to be addressed to see whether financial performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc is based on internal audit. The study was guided by the following specific objectives: To examine the contribution of risk assessment on financial performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc ; to investigate the contribution of minimization of errors and fraud on financial performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc and to find out the contribution of audit reporting practices on financial performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc. Questionnaire was used to collect data Furthermore descriptive statistics and spearman correlation were used to analysis data. This research covers 122 employees of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc. The results revealed that risk assessment has significance positive contribution on performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc as indicated by β1= 0.263, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 5.445 which implies that an increase of one unit in risk assessment would lead to an increase in performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc by 0.263 units. The results revealed that minimization of errors and fraud has significance positive contribution on performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc as indicated by β2= 0.389, p-value=0.000<0.05, t= 10.015 which means that an increase of one unit in minimization of errors and fraud would lead to an increase in performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc by 0.389 units. The results revealed that audit reporting practices has significance positive contribution on performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc as indicated by β3= 0.141, p-value=0.005<0.05, t= 10.015 which implies that an increase of one unit in audit reporting practices would lead to an increase in performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc by 0.141 units. Therefore, the study concluded that the variation of 60.9% in performance of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc was due to changes in internal audit practices which implies that the four independent variables (risk assessment; minimization of errors and fraud and audit reporting practices) as represented by R2. This is because; respondents said that proper application of internal audit function can help the corporation to achieve its objective, help in the detection of fraud, help in minimizing costs, help employees to perform their assigned tasks both effectively and effectiveness all of which improve on the financial performance of the corporation. The study also recommends that Management should establish and implement periodic review of internal audit performance to ensure that its performance and value to the Institution is maximized and to ensure compliance with appropriate standards and guidance.

Problem Solving Approaches and Mathematics Readiness: Their Influence on Students’ Mathematical Achievement and Attitudes towards Mathematics []

Amidst the changing environment brought about by the introduction of technology, the ability of the student learners in terms of their readiness specifically in mathematics has been distracted and shifted its focus to other learning avenues. Students' frame of mind is becoming half hazard due to their attitude towards the desired level of knowledge absorption. These can be detrimental on the part of the institution in achieving long-term academic goals and henceforth, to climb and attain the desired pedestal of change mandates that all the academic figureheads in different levels or colleges should subject all learners specifically the freshmen to undergo and submerge into the kingdom of numerical facet as a mandatory for them to propel and capture the so-called learning ownership as they venture and develop their competencies. Making them endure the Constructivist Approach is one way of complementing other methods within and thereby creating a more active and interactive classroom activity. As part of the academic development program, knowledge gained in mathematics can be a tool for the learners to endure more in a subject such as mathematics and geometry.


Nigeria is a nation with diverse religions, cultures, languages, and ethnic groups. This diversity plays out in various dimensions of its life. As well, one can put it to either constructive or destructive use. Unfortunately, the tendency to use this diversity negatively often makes some people have misgivings about this great heritage. However, this paper does not dwell on all aspects of Nigerian diversity. Instead, its focus is on the religious dimension, particularly religious issues. These comprise the issue of religious protectionism, the existence of diversity within different religions and denominations/sects, politicisation and commercialisation of religion, religion-culture/tradition dichotomy, and fanaticism-heresy phobia. So, the new task of broadcasting media is to disseminate information that deescalates religious tensions and improves the peaceful coexistence of all the citizens of Nigeria. With the analytic method and agenda-setting theory as the primary tools, this paper treats these issues in the context of Nigeria's broadcasting space. It shows how broadcasting media influence these issues, the necessity of the National Broadcasting Commission as the regulatory body, and the National Broadcasting Code as the embodiment of the fundamental requirements for religious broadcasting in Nigeria. Finally, the paper suggests ways to maximise the positives of broadcasting religious issues and minimise the tendency to put the same into harmful use. Keywords: Broadcasting, Code, Diversity, Fanaticism, Heresy, Issues, Politicisation, Protectionism, Religion

Comparative Study of Stabilizing Additives’ Effect on Bituminous Mixture: A Review []

The two most common distresses that arise in road pavement are fatigue and rutting. These are mostly caused by rapid ex-pansion and population growth, an increase in the number of cars, particularly those with high axle loads and stress on the pavement, which causes premature distress in structural systems in the form of excessive permanent deformation. Also, due to environmental factors, as well as building and design flaws. As a result, the service life of asphalt pavement is im-pacted and will be reduced. As a response, the service life of asphalt pavement is influenced and will be reduced. Several studies have reported the use of added materials such as various types of fiber in asphalt mixture. (AC) to enhance its per-formances and could be a solution to postpone the rehabilitations and decrease its maintenance cost. Recycling technology has been recognized as an efficient, cost effective, and environmentally friendly method to rehabilitate asphalt pavements. There remain many unclear issues related to the use of additives. Therefore, in this review paper aims to highlight previous research works conducted on the effects for utilized different types of additives materials to improving on fatigue cracks and rutting resistance of bituminous concrete mixtures. It was observed that fatigue and rutting resistance of AC mixture could be enhanced considerably by utilization of different types of additives such as fibers that can increase the amount of strain energy absorbed during fatigue and fracture process of the mix in the resulting composite.

Effect of resources management practices on project performance: A case of Seed Potato Fund-ikigega project supported by BDF in Musanze district, Rwanda. []

The degree to which resource management methods affect project performance can be used to gauge their efficacy. It is crucial that resources are managed to guarantee excellent project performance since project management demands that projects be delivered within the allotted time, budget, and that satisfy customer needs. Thus, the aim of this study was the assessment of how practices of managing resources are affecting performance of SPF ikigega project in Musanze district of Rwanda. This study determined how factors like the planning, scheduling, the allocation and monitoring of resources are affecting the performance of SPF ikigega project. The specific objectives that guided the study included to determine the effect of resources planning on seed potatoes fund –ikigega project performance in Musanze district, to determine the effect of resource scheduling on SPF-ikigega project performance in Musanze district, to evaluate the effect of resource allocation on seed potatoes fund-ikigega project performance in Musanze district and to assess the effect of resource monitoring on seed potatoes fund-ikigega project performance in Musanze district. A descriptive survey design was adopted in this research. This study used descriptive research design to achieve these objectives. The study population comprised of 102 respondents from Seed potato Fund Ikigega project implementers in Musanze district. Structured questionnaire containing close-ended questions was used to collect primary data for this study. Analysis of quantitative data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics with use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 28. A multiple linear regression model aided in indicating links between practices of managing resources and performance of SPF project. Resource planning, resource scheduling, resource allocation and resource monitoring were found to have a positive and significant effect on project performance. Project managers may plan ahead and allocate resources to the work and manage them well with the help of efficient resource allocation. Reporting necessitates regular monitoring of important project performance indicators in terms of inputs, actions, and results. According to the study, project planning should be done in a way that can effectively address the projects needs. The study suggests that further studies should be carried out on how project resource management practices affect the performance of SPF ikigega project in Rwanda.Key words: Influence; Resource planning, Resource Scheduling, resource allocation, Resource Monitoring and project Performance.

Analyzing Wellhead Choke Sizes for Liquid Flowrate Performance Optimization []

The life of a well is dependent on the rate at which it is produced and the total cumulative recovery obtainable or the volume of hydrocarbon produced per day and is a function of the size of the choke irrespective of the flow regime. While unregulated production can pose high risk as reservoir damage or production problems such as water or gas coning and early water break-through, a regulated production can optimize and maximize fluid flow rate as well as facilitate reservoir management by way of production allocation for various wells, and also protect surface equipment and limit problems such as slugging, restricting flow rate and causing back-pressure in flow-line to prevent channeling. Thus, choosing the right choke size and type is of utmost importance during production. Gilbert equation was used as the base model for the selection of optimal choke size for this work, well head choke sizes were analyzed for liquid flow rate during production. Field data such as tubing head pressure, flow line pressure, separator sizes, Gas oil Ratio (GOR), Pipe and Tubing diameter, Liquid Production per day, Oil production per day, Water Production per day, Basic Sediment and Water (BS &W) were obtained from producing well in the Niger Delta. The effect of seven (7) different choke sizes of 26” 28” 30” 32” 34” 36” and 38” on the production performance of the well were analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Liquid Flow Rate logarithm form model of Gilbert was generated as a function of Gas Oil Ratio, Basic Sediment and Water, well head Pressure and Choke Size. Results from the analysis shows that highest production rate of 1932STB/day was obtained at a large choke size of 30’’ with lower operating pressure. The large choke size enhances well stability and reduces sand production problems and stopping early water break through. The model developed which shows the relationship between flowrate QL and other variables such as GOR, BSW, ΔP and choke size (CD) was validated with the base Gilbert model and the Owolabi et al and Okon et al models and the results showed good agreement. Further validation with two field test points confirmed that the new model proposed in this study, works excellently well at choke sizes of 30/64-in and 32/64-in. This study therefore encourages the wider application of this new model that could account for the presence of BSWs components to enhance accuracy of predicted choke performance.


Procurement planning is the key to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and the value for money in the organization. It helps to achieve the intended goals whenever procurement planning is well designed and effectively implemented accordingly. The general objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting effective implementation of procurement plan in Partners In Health- Rwanda. This study specifically focused into three specific objectives namely identifying how involvement of program staff, resources allocation, and top management support influence the effective implementation of procurement plan. The targeted population was staff from user departments in Partners In Health- Rwanda. The study adopted census technique to incorporate all the targeted respondents, the study size was 9 finance staff, 37 operations staff, 22 clinical staff, 10 informatics staff, 16 research staff and 4 Human Resources staff. Questionnaire was used to collect the primary data desirable for the study. Secondary data was obtained from published articles and previous studies. Qualitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics through the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics included percentages, frequencies, measures of central tendencies (mean) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation). Data was presented in form of tables. The results indicate that involvement of program staff (R=0.762), resources allocation (R=0.675), and top management support (R=0.431) has a positive correlation with service delivery. Therefore, the study concludes that involvement of program staff, resources allocation, and top management support have a positive influence on the effective implementation of the procurement plan. This study also demonstrated that when program staff are well equipped with required knowledge and skills on their functions in preparation and implementation of Procurement plan, implementation of procurement planned activities become more effective. Additionally, it revealed that competency of staff lead to effective implementation of procurement plan due to the fact that competent staff perform their function in a professional manner, leading to timely delivery of services, goods or works as well as proper use of funds. The researcher recommended that program staff should understand their obligation in implementation of procurement plan. The researcher also recommends that procurement plan should be made basing on the available resources so that the planned activity is well performed. Management should be committed to give full support to ensure procurement plan is effectively implemented by providing required financial and human resources, establishing effective procurement policies and facilitating capacity building to all stakeholders involved in procurement processes.


The study focused on understanding the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. The study was guided by five specific objectives: To examine the effect of total lockdown measures on achievement of sustainable development goals (SGDs); to determine the effect of social distance and wearing mask measures on achievement of sustainable development goals (SGDs); to assess the effect Covid-19 testing and vaccination on achievement of sustainable development goals (SGDs); to find out the effect of cashless policy on achievement of sustainable development goals (SGDs) and to identify the coping strategies taken from the perspective of Rwanda, back on track towards the SDGs implementation despite COVID-19 Pandemic. The main reasons for this research was to assess the effects that COVID-19 pandemic has caused to the implementation of social economic related sustainable development goals and to come up with policy recommendations aimed at minimizing the such effects for future pandemics. Preparedness will be critical for the whole world to build the needed resiliency in so many sectors and this will require stronger coordination among all stakeholders. The results of this research study was achieved through survey research design such as descriptive and correlational research design. The respondents were given a complete chance to share their opinions and views about the asked questions and research problem. Moreover, the sample population of this study includes the individuals that were directly affected by the pandemic.


The aim of was to assess contribution of employee motivation on the performance of public institutions in Rwanda. The specific objectives under this study are to analyze the contribution of remuneration on effective performance of MINECOFIN, to assess the contribution of working environment on effective performance of MINECOFIN and to analyze the contribution of training on effective performance of MINECOFIN. The research used the Content (need) Theories, Abraham Maslow Theory, Frederick Winslow Taylor Theory of Motivation and Acquired-Needs Theory of David McClelland’s. To achieve the research objectives, the research used descriptive as research design, the population for this study is 255 employees of MINIFOFIN. In this regard, researcher targeted employees from different departments where 3 employees in office of the minister of state in charge of economic planning, 8 in office of the minister and 5 employees in office of the minister of state in charge of national treasury was excluded due to the fact that they could not be available during the data collection, thus the target population of the research is 239 employees, from whom a sample of 150 employees was selected using convenient sampling a sampling technique. The data collection instruments were questionnaire and document review and data collected was analyzed using regression analysis. The findings show that variations in employees’ performance is explained by the model to the extent of 0.4148.827 out of 4359.983 or 95.1 % while other variables not captured by this model can explain 4.8 % (211.156 out of 4359.983) of the variations in employees’ performance. F value of the model produces a p-value of 0.015 which is significantly different from zero. A p-value of 0.015 is less than the set level of significance of 0.05 (0.000<0.05) for a normally distributed data. This means that the model is significant in explaining employees’ performance. The research underscores the importance of using remuneration, working environment, training in order to provide promotional opportunities for institution and technical managers. Therefore, the researcher concludes that remuneration, working environment, training contribute to employees’ performance in MINECOFIN. The researcher recommends the institution to increase the remuneration system so that employees can increase their performance, the institution also is recommended to improve the quality work life so that the employees work in good conditions and lastly the institution is recommended to improve its working environment so that employees develop their career in good working environment.

Special Days celebrated in junior Primary school of Saudi Arab []

Abstract This study aims at delineating the importance of conducting and observing special days in a school in Saudi Arabia. Three days of special importance have been singled out from a list of days observed in our school. First day of school ( new academic year 2022-2023).A day commemorating Rabidranath Tagore, a nobel laurate and a day on the importance for safety. Each day observed has its own importance. If one was to familiarise children with a great poet, the other day was to make them understand why we need to follow certain rules to be safe. These days inculcate a feeling of togetherness and children learn through fun. These days develop skills of life from learning outside the boundaries set by the textbooks and classrooms. The children were benefitted and the response to these days were observed in classrooms.

Women Welfare, Gender-Based Violence and Women Empowerment: Empirical Evidence in Metropolitan Yobe State []

The abstract shall be submitted soon.


Risk response is a great milestone in project performance. To find out how and when you can handle risks in the project you need to use the almost similar past cases. From the reviewed literature, many researchers revealed that many people lack the skills needed on risk management which cause them to make wrong decision on project and yet risk management skills facilitate individuals to perform their projects, permit to take decisions about their forward projects and minimize their trouble on project issues. The main objective of this dissertation was to analyze the effects of risk response strategies and the performance of Jya Mbere project at Nyabiheke Refugee Camp under the Ministry in charge of Emergency Management (MINEMA). The research design for this study was descriptive and correlational research design. This study also used mixed research methods, namely: quantitative and qualitative. This research employed stratified sampling technique to select the sample size from the entire population. In this study, primary and secondary data was collected from JYAMBERE project’s staff, local government officials and beneficiaries through different research instruments. Questionnaire survey and interview guide were conducted to gather data from the respondents. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS for testing reliability of the research instruments whereby Cronbach’s Alpha was .912. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between independent and dependent variables. The findings showed that risk mitigation is statistically significant to the performance of Jya Mbere project (r = .572, N = 153, p = 0.01). The results confirmed that risk transfer is statistically significant to the performance of Jya Mbere project (r= .612, N = 153, p = 0.01). The findings also indicated that avoidance is statistically significant to the performance of Jya Mbere project (r = .639, N = 153, p = 0.01). The findings also indicated that risk acceptance is statistically significant to the performance of Jya Mbere project (r = .533, N = 153, p = 0.01). Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between risk response strategies and performance of Jya Mbere project in Nyabiheke Refugee Camp. The researcher recommends ways risk response strategies should be well emphasized as they influence the performance of the project.

Merger and its Impact on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal []

This study examines the impact of mergers on the financial performance of Nepalese commercial banks. The information was extracted from the annual reports of particular sample banks. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 software version. Pre-merger performance and post-merger performance were compared using a paired sample t-test to determine whether there was a significant difference. The correlation and regression coefficients were determined. NPL have a considerable negative influence on ROA across all evaluated independent variables (financial ratios), and their significance does not differ significantly between the pre-merger and post-merger periods. In contrast, CAR has no effect either before or after the merger. There is a lot of evidence that CDR helped banks do better financially in the years after they merged.


Résumé : Cet article traite davantage sur les perspectives et les théories concernant le partenariat commercial international (PCI), les motivations des entreprises qui pratiquent le PCI, les avantages et les inconvénients, les formes de PCI et la clé du succès dans la conduite de la propriété intellectuelle dans le domaine du commerce international. Mots clés : Entreprises, Motivation, Partenariat commercial international, Compétence relationnelle, alliance stratégique Abstract: This article discusses more about the perspectives and theories regarding the International Business Partnerships (IBP), the motivations of companies that practice the IBP, the pros and cons, the forms of IBP and the key to success in the conduct of intellectual property in the field of international trade. Key Words: Enterprises, Motivation, International Trade Partnership, Relational competence, strategic alliance