Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Effect of procurement implementation procedures on the performance of WAP ltd Rwanda construction projects in Rwanda []

The purpose of this research is to establish the effect of Procurement implementation procedures on the performance of WAPLTD Rwanda construction project in private companies in Rwanda. Even if the law is there, the challenges and problems are still available to the procurement agencies. Referring to the audit reports of Auditor General of Rwanda, the tenders are illegally awarded and the contracts are not well performed. The present research embraced Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, Resource Dependency Theory and Stakeholder Theory in relation with Procurement implementation procedures. The study adopted a descriptive research design; descriptive research design allowed the researcher to study the elements in their natural form without making any alterations to them. The design also allowed the researcher to come up with descriptive statistics that can assist in explaining the relationship that exists among variables. The population of this research involved one hundred and thirty-three (133) from five departments which include the following: Procurement, Treasury, finance, inventory and IT. These departments were selected because they are the departments which are so much related with the subject of this study. All data were collected by using some techniques during the research such as Questionnaire technique. In this research the methods for data analysis that were used is Quantitative method. Quantitative data was analyzed using computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 to enable mathematical computations since analyzing of data manually would be tedious and would lead to errors. A statistical significance was tested and the value was 0.000 which indicated a relationship between the need for assessment & contract management practices against construction project performance. Afterwards, the two variables were tested and the regression value was 0.016 which indicated an existing relationship between the supplier sourcing practices and construction project performance. In the end, this helped us to confirm that the regression model was statistically significant and prophesied the changes that could take place in two variables. Briefly, the two variables faced a statistical significance and the regression value was found to be 0.000 which exposed a relationship between the inventory management practices against construction project performance


Many financially strong companies have already gone out of business around the world as a result of the financial crisis. Corporate financial distress has a high societal and economic cost in addition to significant financial losses for its creditors.Different outcomes of financial crises that occurred in many countries around the world and had an impact on the economies of developed and developing countries, whether short or long term, have revealed that a lack of investment and financial tools in financial and investment institutions lead to inconsistency in achieving a balance of liquidity, profitability, and safety on the one hand, and financial sector growth and continuity on the other. The general objective of the study was to assess the effect of financial distress on stock price volatility in manufacturing listed companies reference Bralirwa plc Rwanda. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of cashflow trend on earning per share shift of Bralirwa plc; to investigate the effect of profit margin change on price earning shiftof Bralirwa plc, explore the effect of capital dilemma on dividend yield shift of Bralirwa plc and to determine the effect of financial gearing on dividend cover shift on bralirwa plc . This study was guided by key theories that is liquid asset theory, Altman z score theory,cash management theory ,wreckers theory, capital structure theory, capital asset pricing model, arbritrage pricing theory. The correlational research design was employed in this research with secondary date from 2011-2021 base on financial statements. The study used both descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing the data. Analysis was done with the help of Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS. 20). Results revealed that 60.2% of the changes in earning per share of Bralirwa can be accounted for by in cash flow trend. There was a positive and significant relationship between cash flow trend and earning per share of Bralirwa (β= 0.024, p value <0.05). The profit margin indicators were found to be statistically significant in explaining the effect of profit margin on price earning 61.9% of the changes in price earning of Bralirwa can be accounted for by profit margin. There was a positive and significant relationship between profit margin change and price earning of Bralirwa (β= 0.001, p value <0.05). Results revealed that 95% of the changes in dividend yield of Bralirwa can be accounted for by in capital dilemma. There was a positive and significant relationship between capital dilemma trend and dividend yield of Bralirwa (β= 0.019, p value <0.05). Results revealed that 75% of the changes in dividend cover of Bralirwa plc can be accounted for by in financial gearing. There was a positive and significant relationship between financial gearing and dividend yield of Bralirwa (β= 0.0068, p value <0.05). It was recommended that Bralirwa plc should improve their liquidity management and awareness to the price volatility to their shareholders

The ICC Double Standards on the Administration of International Criminal Justice in Europe: The Ukraine in Appraisal []

The International Criminal Court has been established to fight impunity resulting from international crimes. However, several Western countries and some African states have refused to join the ICC, resulting in regional imbalances and criticism of the prosecutor's office. The UN Security Council and ICC's responses to atrocities and breaches of human rights in Africa and the Middle East have been poor and criticized compared to the court's response to the Ukraine war. The ICC's selective focus on conflict-affected areas, combined with the legal and institutional failure to carry out its responsibility to protect, has resulted into impunity and a double standard in pursuit of international criminal justice. This study examines the ICC legal and institutional framework to determine gaps leading to double standards in the administration of international criminal justice. The focus is on the issue of international crimes committed in Ukraine and the general commitment of ICC to intervene the conflict as compared to the ICC's response to other countries with violation of international crimes. This study deployed doctrinal research which is qualitative in nature. The reason for adopting this method is due to the fact that it provides for necessary information on legal theories, reported court decisions and analyze the outcomes within a limited time framework by exposing the weakness in the operation of law while giving reasons behind the failure of law in the real life. Keywords: Administration of Criminal justice, ICC, Double standard, and Ukraine.

Business Communication and Crisis Detection Strategies on Crisis Management on Organizational Performance in the insurance Industries in Kenya. []

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of crisis management strategies on organizational performance in the insurance industry. The target population for the study was 122 staff members of selected insurance companies in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling was used in the study to select a sample size of 61 respondents. The data collection instrument that was used in the study was the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The study results show a strong positive association between crisis management strategies on organizational performance in the insurance industry (R=0.828). The coefficient of determination adjusted R2= 0.657 which means that crisis management strategies explain 65.7% of the variance in organizational performance. The study indicated business communication channels used by insurance companies in Kenya were not effective in communicating crisis. There was no effective business communication between customers and insurance companies; this affected the ability to handle crisis on time. There are effective monitoring mechanisms for crisis, insurance companies lack effective monitoring mechanisms. There was regular assessment by insurance companies to detect crisis. There were some measures that enabled definition of crisis by insurance companies which enabled them detect crisis.


This study assessed the contribution of MFIs on the performance of SMEs in Iringa Municipality. Specifically, the study assessed the following objectives; i) to find out the extent of awareness on MFIs by SMEs in Iringa Municipality; ii) to assess the contribution of MFIs loans on SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality; iii) to examine the contribution of loans monitoring evaluation on SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality. Quantitative research methods were employed to investigate the objectives of the study whereby descriptive; correlation and regression analysis were used during data analysis. The study found that the process of loan awareness creation to SMEs in Iringa Municipality was done to enhance their performance. Furthermore, findings revealed that loan awareness creation had insignificant contribution on SMEs performance. Furthermore, the study examined the contributions of loans and its accessibility to SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality and findings revealed that loan given to SMEs were contributing to their business performance. In addition, this study explored the contribution of monitoring and evaluation on SMEs performance and findings revealed that loan monitoring and evaluation had significant contribution on SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality. These findings demonstrate that awareness creation had weak influence on SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality. Loans monitoring and evaluation assisted on SMEs performance. Therefore, loan monitoring evaluation and loans amount accessibility should be encouraged much to enhance SMEs business performance to the maximum. The study recommends that since this study has evidenced that the process of awareness creation had insignificant contribution to SMEs in Iringa Municipality, MFIs should come up with proper approaches for awareness creation to increase SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality. In addition, other studies can be conducted by looking the contribution of other Banks such as NMB, CRDB, NBC, EXIM in SMEs performance in Iringa Municipality since this study focused only on the contribution of Microfinance Institutions on SMES performance in Iringa Municipality.

The Effectiveness of Palliative Care Services to Control Cancer Pain in King Fahad Medical City []

Background: Despite its ubiquity and the availability of management guidelines, more than 30% of patients with cancer receive inadequate analgesia for pain. Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the difference between pain intensity in advanced cancer patients before and after receiving palliative in King Fahad Medical City (K.F.M.C) in Riyadh. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at palliative care Department of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh from 2014– 2020.All data of 2952 patients in the data base was taken in this study. This study was conducted upon all patients with advance cancer whom received palliative care service at King Fahd Medical City in study period (2014-2020). Symptom scores by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) were collected for patients whom received palliative care service at King Fahd Medical City in study period (2014-2020). Symptoms like nausea, drowsiness, tiredness, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, anxiety, depression and well-being were measured. ESAS translated into many languages, validity and reliability tested and showed valid and reliable. The cutoff points of score of the symptoms as following: absent 0, mild (1-3), moderate (4-6) and severe (7-10). Results: From a total of 2,952 patients, 47% were male and 53% were female. The median age was 57 (range 44 to 68). The most common cancers types diagnosed were gastrointestinal cancer (33.0%), followed by genitourinary cancer (15.7%), breast (10.8%), brain and CNS (9.2%), head and neck cancer (8.7%), lung (6.8%), bone cancer (4.7%) and other cancers (4.7%). While unknown diagnosis was representing (.1%). The mean of Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) not significantly increased at post treatment from (43.35) to (43.93) in pretreatment. The prevalence of the pain among palliative care patients in (K.F.M.C) In accordance to ESAS scale showed significant reduction in terms of pain by 30%,tiredness (fatigue) (25.2%), drowsiness (45.4%) , nausea ( 57.6%), loss of appetite (40%), shortness of breath (SOB) ( 46.1%), depression (65%), anxiety (54.9%), wellbeing (35.1%) , constipation ( 9.9%) and vomiting (81.25%) and insomnia (89.4%) . The top five symptoms (symptom prevalence more or equal 50%) were nausea, depression, anxiety, vomiting and insomnia. There were significant associations between pain intensity with regard to age, gender, dyspnea, anorexia when using PPS and ESAS measurement for evaluation of the effectiveness of palliative care services to control cancer pain. Conclusions: The Palliative interventions tailored for symptoms to control pain were more prominent in reducing of nausea, depression, anxiety, vomiting and insomnia after 48 hours. Educational interventions about pain and treatment should occur immediately after diagnosis, and pain should be recognized and treated promptly, using one of the available guidelines.

Factors Associated with Relapse of Acute Malnutrition among Children Under Five Years Old with Acute malnutrition in Bugesera District, Rwanda []

According to the 2018 global nutrition report, 50.5 million children under five years worldwide are acutely malnourished. In Africa, 13.8 million children under five years are acutely malnourished. Malnutrition is a global health burden, which endangers the health of one in three children in developing countries. Studies from other countries have investigated factors associated with relapse of acute malnutrition after recovery but none thus far has emanated from Rwanda as a whole or from Bugesera District in particular. Thirty-three percent of children in Rwanda are stunted and Bugesera District has a high rate of malnutrition where it affects 39.4% of the District under five years old children population. Malnutrition imposes significant cost on Rwandan economy as it is one of the major principal causes of children’s death. The objective of this study is to identify factors related to relapse of acute malnutrition in the previous two years in Bugesera District of Rwanda. Ethical approval was obtained from Bugesera District. Method of this study is cross-sectional design, and systematic sampling method was used to select participants. The study was conducted on 125 children whose caretakers volunteered to participate and data was entered in SPSS version 22 for analysis. Frequencies and percentages were used to quantify variables. Since this study has more than one independent variable, during analysis MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance) was used. The final results are represented in tables and figures.The study found that 21% of children treated for acute malnutrition relapse. Poor handwashing habit of the mother and child’s MUAC at admission are maternal and child related factors of relapse respectively. Socio-economic factors associated with relapse of acute malnutrition are using spring water as drinking water, being from a poor family in Ubudehe category one, having a jobless father, being from a household that affords one meal per day, and being from a family where there are three children aged under five. Bugesera District authorities are recommended to strengthen population sensitization and mobilization on hand hygiene, use safe water for drinking and family planning, empowering families through job creation and other supports to improve the economic status of the Bugesera district population. The Ministry of Health is recommended to revise regulations and include the use of Ready-To-Use Therapeutic foods in treating children with moderate acute malnutrition. More research is necessary to identify pitfalls in the management of acute malnutrition and its relapse.


The utilization of fish skin as a raw material for food products, food additives, and functional food is an effort to encourage a blue economy in the fisheries sector. This article aims to inform the use of fish skin as a raw material for food products, food additives, and functional foods on a commercial scale and on a research scale conducted in Indonesia. A literature study revealed that fish skin and fish processing industry waste can be processed into food products, additives, and functional food. Commercial food products made from fish skin are fish crackers. The food additive made from fish skin is gelatin. Functional food made from fish skin is collagen. In Indonesia, gelatin and collagen made from fish skin are still on a research scale, not yet on a commercial scale.

Influence of Arabic Loanwords in Enriching English Language []

ABSTRACT This article deals with Arabic loanwords and their influence in English from a lexicographical perspective. The author will adopt the descriptive-analytical method. To create a representative sample of Arabic loanwords in English, items are extracted from the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) database and Arabic dictionary as well as some observations of the author with an etymological advanced search. Among the criteria affecting the etymological tagging, the concept of two languages of origin is probably the most difficult one for lexicographers to deal with. This study presents some of the issues lexicographers are faced with in the dictionary-making process. Following that , Arabic loanwords are classified according to semantics , along with the date of their first attestation in the OED database. The study comes out with some results that economic , social and cultural influence play an important role in the path of borrowing words.

Financial inclusion and economic empowerment of Persons with disabilities in National Union of Disabilities’ organisations of Rwanda []

Abstract Financial inclusion is the practice of ensuring that all participants in an economy have access to and use official financial institutions to meet their individual and group needs hence increasing their economic growth within the community. However, PwDs are classified among most vulnerable groups suffering from financial exclusion as a result of unstable economic status observed in the majority of PwDs in Rwanda. Therefore, this research seeks to assess the relationship between financial inclusion and economic empowerment of PwDs in Rwanda. Three theories guided this research such as finance growth theory, community economic empowerment theory and finance and inequality theory. The methodology applied for this research was a mixture of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis model that have been used to analyze data and establish relationship between variables. A sample of 370 PwDs was selected randomly from a total population of 10,071 PwDs from National Union of Disabilities’ Organisations of Rwanda member organisations. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics software. As key findings, descriptive statistics indicated that the first factor for financial inclusion “access to financial services” such as credits, savings, mobile money, cooperative groups can lead to economic empowerment of PwDs as indicated by 4.46 mean and 0.510 standard deviation. For the second factor of financial inclusion which is access to decent work, the findings revealed that having a respectable job is vital and can contribute to economic empowerment for PwDs, as evidenced by a mean of 4.49 and a standard deviation of 0.500. According to respondents, PwDs can work and earn money, allowing them to achieve economic independence. For the third factor of financial inclusion which is financial knowledge and skills, findings revealed that if PwDs are given enough knowledge and skills required to run income generating activities, this can lead to economic empowerment as shown by average mean of 4.55 and standard deviation of 0.515. The regression results indicated that 64.8% of variance in dependent variable were explained by independent variable. Regression coefficients findings indicated that access to financial services was significant and positive to economic empowerment (ß1 =0.188, with p=.000 < 0.05); access to decent work was also positive and significant to economic empowerment (ß2 = 0.325, with p= .000 < 0.05) and finally, financial knowledge and skills were also positive and significant to economic empowerment (ß3 = 0.108, with p= .024 < 0.05). The research concluded that there is a positive and significant relationship between financial inclusion and economic empowerment of PwDs in NUDOR member organizations. However, the research further recommended that, in order to achieve full financial inclusion, financial institutions should make sure that PwDs have equal opportunities to access financial services by ensuring that information is provided in the appropriate format and is catered for to their needs. National Union of Disabilities’ organizations (NUDOR) should also increase advocacy and awareness about disability in general and this can lead to mindset change of the public on their perception in regard to PwDs ability. The best strategy for empowerment should also be to engage PwDs to be active and fight for their rights to be financially and economically empowered.


This study explore how teachers commitment contribute to the work performance among the primary school teachers in Tanzania. The field work covered eight primary school teachers in two District in Morogoro Region. Data was collected through questionnaire and was analysed using descriptive statistics. Result show that primary school teacher’s commitment to the employment was above level, also teachers commitment has significant contribution on individual teachers work performance. Its recommend that education on the significance of teacher’s commitment should be given also further improvement on other aspects such as clear setting of instructional goals, frequent seminars, provisional of accommodation to teachers, reducing teaching load, improvement of salaries and allowances, motivation, and provision of awards to increase their commitment likely their individual work performance.

Head Teachers' Communication Skills Towards Teachers Job Performance []

This study examined Head Teachers’ Communication Skills towards Teachers’ Job Performance. It addressed one research question: What was the common method used by head teachers in communicating with teachers? The study was conducted in eight primary schools in two District of Dodoma Region. Study was used multiple case study design .Data was collected through interview and documentary review. Results show that teachers used different methods of communication, thus effective communication within school institution provides a multiple of benefits for the whole community. It is recommended that head of schools should choose a certain method based on the nature of information that to be shared.

Research []

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to investigate the participatory leadership style as it relates to the six culturally supported leadership theory components portrayed in Amhara proverbs. The study focuses on oral literature, namely proverbs. Because Proverbs are brief sayings capable of expressing truth, wisdom, and widely acknowledged facts or concepts, moreover, highlighting cultural, social, and political norms and standards that have been passed down through generations. Every community has its own proverb, which is used for various purposes and in various contexts. This research examines a few select proverbs that enhance decision-making participation. As a result, the gathered proverbs are centered on decision-making participation. The chosen proverbs were divided into three categories: the first group of proverbs applauded seeking advice, the second criticized resisting advice, and the third emphasized the role of women in decision-making. The proverbs show that the community values collaboration and takes into account subcultural factors such as gender age, and socioeconomic class. To sum up to be a great leader, one must respect their opinions, involve them in decision-making, and regard every level of society, including women and men, elders, farmers, soldiers, spiritual leaders, and so on as essential sources of input. Leaders, who act, autonomously on the other hand, are viewed as ineffective. Key Words: Globalization, Leadership Theory, Participative Leadership, Culture, Sub-Culture, Proverb