Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Factors Associated with Stunting among Children Under five years in Nyabihu District, Rwanda []

Child ‘stunting is an abnormal condition caused by chronic exposure to a comparative or complete insufficiency of one or more vital nutrients. In current major public health problems, stunting is significant and is ranked as major contributor to mortality as well morbidity in Low and Middle Income Countries. Under-nutrition is affecting 165 million under-five children worldwide among which up to 26% are stunted. Out of 40% of Sub-Saharan stunted children, 16% are under-five children. 38% Rwandan under-five children are Stunting. Stunting imposes significant cost on Rwandan economy as it is among the main causes of child deaths. Children’s deaths related to stunting have negative impact on the country’s financial status. Little was known on the factors contributing to increased prevalence of stunting in children of less than five years at Districts level in Rwanda. Therefore, this was conducted to assess the influence factors related with childhood stunting in children of less than five years in Nyabihu District of Rwanda. An interview was conducted to mothers of 384 under-five children of rural areas of Nyabihu District and data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) version 21. Statistics helped to generate tables, charts and graphs for socio-economic and demographic characteristics of respondents, where multivariate analysis helped to examine the factors associated with stunting at a significant level of <0.05. In this study, the majority of children 53% were female, 72.2% belonged in second wealth category. Multivariate analysis of maternal and child related characteristics showed that male children were more likely to be stunted [ARO=1.77; 95%CI=1.27-2.48 and P=0.008] compared to female children. The children who did not have diarrhea within past two weeks were less likely to be stunted [ARO=0.47; 95%CI=0.06-2.048 and P=0.03] compared to children who were sick within past two weeks. The multivariate analysis of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with childhood stunting among under-five children revealed that the families with number of members ranging from 6-10 Members were more likely to be stunted [AOR=3.87; 95%CI=2.62-5.71and P=0.001] compared to the families with less than six family members. It is concluded that a significant number of under five years’ children in Nyabihu District had stunting which was statistically associated with both maternal and child related factors, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and environmental factors. It is therefore recommended that the government take into consideration to the children less than five years by working hand in hand with organizations in charge of children to ensure strong collaboration, and partnership for effective prevention of stunting. Keywords: Factors, Stunting, Children, Rwanda


This study focused on Risk management practices and project performance at AB Bank- Rwanda: mobile banking project. A successful risk management in a project helps an organization consider the full range of risks it faces or it can face. Risk management also examines the relationship between risks and the cascading impact they could have on an organization's strategic goals. This research study has the following specific objectives; to examine the effect of risk planning on project performance at AB Bank Plc: Mobile Banking project, to assess the effect of risk analysis on project performance at AB Bank: Mobile Banking project and to analyze the effect of risk Evaluation and control on project performance at AB Bank: Mobile Banking project. The study employed descriptive, correlation and explanatory study design and the researcher administered questionnaire to 141 respondents from different departments of AB Bank as shown in table 1. The research used the descriptive and correlation research design to analyze the collected data that were collected. Mean standard deviation; Pearson correlation and regression were taken into consideration to make the analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and explanatory techniques. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyze the data collected using questionnaires. From the table 14 it is evident that at 95% confidence level, all the predictors have positive relationship on the project performance and are statically significant. Positive effect was reported for all the independent variables with Risk Planning (t= 4.36, p= 0.01); Risk Analysis (t= 4.64, p= 0.03); Risk Evaluation and Control (t= 4.33, p = 0.04), produced statistically significant values for this study of (high t-values > 1.96, p ≤ 0.05). This revealed that: a unit increase in Risk Planning would lead to improvement in project performance by 0.44, a unit increase in Risk Analysis would lead to increase in project performance by 0.41, a unit increase in Risk Evaluation and Control would lead to increase in the project performance by 0.45. This concludes that there is a considerable contribution of risk management on project performance in Rwanda. As recommendation, there is need for AB Bank Plc - Rwanda to sensitize its employees to learn ways to determine potential of risks that may occur hence effecting on project performance, it should reinforce the capacity of its employees at large on issue of risk control in order to achieve project objectives and should provide trainings to employees at large to improve their skills and knowledge on the best risk management practices in order to have more successful projects in place


This review article aims to inform the use of fish scales into food products or as intermediate products used for food products. Based on the literature study, information was obtained that fish scales can be used as food products directly or indirectly. The direct use of fish scales into food products is made of snack chips. Indirect use as food products, namely 1) Fish scales are extracted into gelatin and the gelatin is used as raw material for jelly candy. 2) Fish scales are extracted into chitosan and the chitosan is used as a preservative for food products such as fish balls, fish sausages and others. Keywords: chips, chitosan, gelatin, jelly candy, preservative

Construction des problèmes publics dans le sous-secteur de l’enseignement supérieur au Cameroun : cas de la réforme LMD []

Depuis 2007, les Universités d’État camerounais se sont arrimées au système LMD. Cette réforme exige du chercheur une rigueur épistémologique afin de la restituer dans son contexte. En se dépouillant des certitudes de l’évidence sensible, l’on est en droit d’établir une relation entre les activités des revendications des étudiants du début des années 90 et 2000 ; la construction des « crises » des universités camerounaises par des acteurs externes en charges des questions éducatives et l’importation de ce modèle. Fort de cette évidence, ce travail envisage d’interroger le processus de mise en politique de cette solution dans les universités camerounaises. Plus spécifiquement, il s’agit de saisir la trajectoire de la problématisation de cette question et son institutionnalisation par le pouvoir public. Pour y parvenir, l’on a fait recours à la technique documentaire pour remonter le temps et faire l’archéologie de cette réforme. Ces données sont adaptées à l’analyse suivant une orientation constructiviste. Leurs interprétations révèlent que le transfert du système LMD dans le sous-secteur de l’enseignement supérieur camerounais ne relève pas d’une objectivité certaine, ni d’une activité linéaire, mais de la façon dont les acteurs endogènes et exogènes ont créé les conditions de l’émergence de ce « malaise ».


The overall purpose of this survey was to examine the results of stakeholders’ involvement on project performance of housing the poor project. This study had the following specific objectives: to determine the effect of stakeholders involvement in project-identification on performance of Housing the poor Project, find out the effect of stakeholders involvement in decision making on performance of Housing the poor project, assess the effect of stakeholders involvement in monitoring on performance of Housing the poor project and analyse the effect of stakeholders involvement in project funding on performance of Housing the poor project. The research population included 239 participants, including project employees from Nyange, Kinigi, Shingiro and Gatagara Sectors as well as 183 beneficiaries of the housing the poor project. The sample-size calculated with the assistance of Solvin’s formula. The stratified sample was more suited for this investigation. Then, the number of personnel was initially stratified and a simple random sample used. The research utilized the following techniques of data gathering; documentary and questionnaire but mostly questionnaires. The investigation delivered to 150 participants of housing the poor project with closed questions, the collectors as responders limited to certain replies or picking from a selection of options. The investigator applied the frequency and correlation analyses done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.71 indicates that there is a significant relationship between Stakeholders involvement in project identification and performance of housing the poor project in Musanze District. Pearson coefficient of 0.727 indicating that stakeholders involvement in decision making is correlated with performance of housing the poor project in Musanze District. The results indicated p<0.05 with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.679 indicates that there is a significant relationship between Stakeholders in monitoring and performance of housing the poor project in Musanze District. Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.672. This indicates that there is a significant relationship between Stakeholders involvement in project funding and performance of housing the poor project in Musanze District. Findings on analysis of variance between independent variable and dependent variable whereby F=77.596 and p value of 0.017<0.05 which is significance level indicates that regression was significant as Stakeholders involvement in Project funding, Project identification, Monitoring, Decision-making are good predictors of performance of housing the poor project in Musanze District. The study advises that as following the orders of the national government, the Housing the Poor project's administration should also take into account the interests of all parties involved. Some stakeholders were found to be less involved in making the most important decisions for the study.

Business and Trade Portrayed in Thomas Hardy’s Work in English Literature []

Abstract This article looks at Hardy's writings from a commerce and business perspective. Hardy focuses on agriculture as the intersection of these two pairings to examine the complex economic, political, and social networks created to determine more general principles, such as how to interact with the natural environment and how to use agriculture to control nature and society. We contend that the idea of labor as an enslaving habit first developed in modern literature as a result of the confusion brought about by the move from "rus to urbs," as demonstrated in Thomas Hardy's writings. Hardy keeps his cool, seeing agriculture as a business and labor as a commodity. The working families break his heart since they are in more danger because their cottages are only leased to them while they are employed. We are particularly interested in Hardy's portrayal of agriculture as a business for the sake of this study because, in Hardy's view, the interaction between the worker and their environment ultimately decides the farming industry's success. The genius loci, which emphasizes how much one's upbringing and way of life shape who they are, is frequently shown to be incompatible with the prevailing ethos of societal change.

Investigating Vocabulary Difficulties Encountered by EFL Sudanese University Students []

This study aimed to investigate English vocabulary difficulties experienced by EFL students at Sudanese universities. The study adopted the descriptive analytical method, the researcher collected data by using a diagnostic test for (30) Sudanese university second year students .To analyze the data the researcher has used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that Sudanese university students encounter some English vocabulary difficulties; they face some difficulties with spelling , pronunciation, meaning, context, collocations and parts of speech , in addition, they are unaware about sense relations between words. Moreover, the students lack knowledge about strategies that can be used to enhance their vocabulary skills. In the light of the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that, in teaching vocabulary teachers should get the students to brainstorm, categorize, organize and analyze vocabulary to help them to understand the meaning of the words in relation to other words, teachers should also use some techniques of vocabulary teaching such as demonstration, explanation, discovery, quick questions and presentations, furthermore, to develop students’ vocabulary skills there are certain effective strategies that EFL teachers should adopt such as the strategy of possible sentences, knowledge rating, using literature , context strategy ,semantic cues and semantical analysis . Key words: Foreign language learning, English vocabulary, English vocabulary difficulties


In companies and institutions, communication is one of the most prevalent and vital actions. Fundamentally, connections emerge from communication, and effective interactions among individuals and groups are essential to the organization’s survival. Furthermore, organizational capacities are created and implemented through highly social and communication processes. Staff receive crucial information about their jobs, the organization, the environment, and one other through organizational communication. It can help individuals express feelings, communicate aspirations and ambitions, and celebrate and recall accomplishments. It can also help motivate, establish trust, create shared identity, and stimulate engagements. The goal of the Lency Communication and Consults case study is to determine the best communication methods, how to build the business through good communication among management and staff, and some of the common challenges experienced when receiving and passing information. Literature was reviewed mostly from textbooks, institutional publications, and the internet in order to fulfill these goals. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed, with a response rate of 99 percent. A chat with the head of department was conducted. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. According to the findings, information flow inside the organization aided most of the respondents in giving their best effort, even though it was slow due to the organizational structure. It was also discovered that the majority of the respondents had issues with information overload and information distortion during the transmission of information.


In recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of technology in all industries across the world. The adoption of modern technologies has propelled the governments not only to improve service delivery, but also tap in the growing source of revenue as a result of digital transformation. This research investigated the effect of digitalization on the public revenue collection, taking a case of Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA). The specific objectives included to investigate the effect of electronic filing system on the public revenue collection in Rwanda; to investigate the effect of the electronic billing system on the public revenue collection in Rwanda and to investigate the effect of integrated information systems on the public revenue collection in Rwanda. Three theories were found to be relevant to this study, namely, technological acceptance theory, theory of economic efficiency and theory of productivity. Descriptive and analytical research designs were used for data analysis in this research. Primary data were collected from a sample of 200 selected using stratified random sampling technique from a total of 400 employees from RRA. SPSS version 23 was used to analyse and present the data. The data were presented and analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables, mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The findings on first objective showed that a total of 98.5% of the participants were in agreement that RRA has put in place a user-friendly online platform. An average of 4.46(std=0.54) was obtained which implied that the responses were homogenous and in agreement that the online tax payment provided by RRA is easy to use for the taxpayers. 57% of the participants strongly agreed and 41% agreed with the statement that Rwanda Revenue has also undertaken mobile technologies in its effort to increase public revenue collection. The correlation analysis results showed that online tax collection, online tax payment services and m-declaration services were significantly related to public revenue collection since their respective p-values were less than 5%. The findings on the second objective revealed that the use of EBM has reduced tax evasion, increased tax compliance and therefore increased revenue collection, a mean score of 4.59(std=0.52) obtained, showing high level of agreement. A mean score of 4.41(std=0.58) was obtained on whether the public revenue collected through the irembo has being increasing for the last three years. The correlation analysis between the use of electronic billing system and public revenue collection in Rwanda was conducted using Pearson coefficient correlation which showed that all the three indicators were positive and statistically significant. The findings on the third objective showed 97% of the participants agreed that the system integration has eased RRA reports on revenue collection from all other government agencies. On whether the use of the e-single window is needed for collection of revenues from the importation, a mean score obtained was 4.57. The Pearson correlation analysis between system integration and public revenue collection showed that all the three indicator variables used to measure the integration of the information system were positive and significant at 5% since their p-values were less than 5%. The regression model (F=633.173, p=0.000) was significant since the p-value was less than 5%, giving an R2=0.906, which indicated that 90.6% of the changes in public revenue in Rwanda Revenue Authority can be attributed to the use of digital technologies. The study recommends that the Government of Rwanda should continue in its trajectory in digital transformation. Despite these positive benefits, the government must be vigilant to monitor its systems to avoid system failures.


The objectives of this study were major guiding principles in data analysis which deal on the conclusion as well as suggestions for further research. The specific objectives underlying this case study are: To determine the effects of Horizontal analysis on decision making at Business Heights Centre Ltd, To examine the effects of Vertical trend analysis on decision making at Business Heights Centre Ltd , To establish the effects of Ratio analysis on decision making at Business Heights Centre Ltd. For the case of this study, the population of the case study was finance officers, accountants and operation department officers equal to 47. The questionnaires distributed to 32 staffs, where the levels that used are mainly closed questions. With close questions, the collectors as respondents were limited to specific answers or choosing from a list of responses. The researcher used coefficient of determination that was obtained from the model summary in the table 4.9. Coffecient of determination was used to explain whether the model is a good predictor. From the results of the analysis, the findings show that the independent variables (Financial statement and lending decision) contributed to 69.5% of the variation in level of non-performing loan as explained by adjusted R2 of 0.695 which shows that the model is a good prediction. The results of the simple regression model shows that there is a positive relationship between financial statement and creditor decision in BHC. This implies that a single unit increase in any of the independent variables results into a corresponding increase in creditor decision. The regression analysis was undertaken at 5% significance level. The criteria for comparing whether the predictor variables were significant in the model was through comparing the corresponding probability value obtained and α=0.05. If the probability value was less than α, then the predictor variable was significant but from the above analysis. The results above shows that the variables were significant since their corresponding predictor values were below 5%. The relationship between financial statement and creditor decision was performed by using Pearson Correlation. However, the following comments concerned only the correlations which were found statically significant. The findings showed that there is a strong and positive correlation between financial statement and creditor decision (r= 0.805, p=0.000<0.01). All research objectives were achieved. Having gone through this study, the researcher suggests the following as a way of incurring that financial statement analysis plays a vital role on decision making of any company: BHC is advised to minimize its operation expenses in order to retain a great proportion of profit; moreover, it will attract more investors to extend the business. Every financial statement should ensure that all material fact is reflected in their financial statement. These should be prompt provision of the financial statement at the end of each financial year. Investment decision should not be on a vacuum or rule of thumb rather; the financial statements should be used as bedrock.


Abstract. This paper provides for the existing technologies for the processing of oil shale in the world. Of which there are only two installations, the first in Estonia is the Enfenit technology and the second in the People's Republic of China is the Fushun process. Oil shales in Uzbekistan are distinguished by the fact that in addition to the organic part, the mineral component also contains valuable components. The content of useful components such as vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, amounts of rare earth elements and copper. Which, when processed, require complex industrial solutions.

Effect of Corporate Governance Practices on Financial Performance of Selected Listed Commercial Banks in Rwanda. []

In Rwanda in financial sectors, they are reporting different financial results, where listed commercial banks report high compared to non-listed commercial banks and note that corporate governance of listed commercial banks is strengthened than non-listed banks, research interested in the evaluation of the effect of corporate governance practice on the financial performance of listed commercial banks in Rwanda. The research concerning corporate governance practices and their effect on the financial performance of listed banks which are Bank of Kigali, Equity Bank Rwanda, KCB bank Rwanda, and I & M Bank for the period 2017 to 2021. This study used secondary data from annual reports of stated listed commercial banks. The study investigates the effect of ownership concentration on the financial performance of listed commercial banks in Rwanda, the effect of audit quality on the financial performance of listed commercial banks in Rwanda, and the effect of board independence on the financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. The study used both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze data. The findings regarding ownership concentration revealed a negative significant effect on a firm financial performance. The audit quality had a positive and significant effect on the firm financial performance, which indicates that the Rwandan listed commercial bank performs better if the has a strong board audit committee with strong financial expertise. It was also found that Board independence has a Positive and significant effect on a firm financial performance. According to the findings of the study, there is a relationship between corporate governance practices and the financial performance of the selected commercial banks in Rwanda, the study recommends making strong corporate governance practices in place to achieve better banking services leading to profit and wealth maximization.

Is food a personal choice for the Aged? A study on the influential factors affecting choice of food among female older adults in Sri Lanka []

Factors affecting food selection are varied for different age groups. It is very important to investigate to what extent those factors are applicable to older adults from different socio economic background since food has direct relationship with quality of aging. The aim of this study was to identify the influential factors in choice of food among female older adults in Sri Lanka. Survey was carried out using a questionnaire(n= 106) and semi structured interviews (n=25). Respondents were selected from both rural and urban areas. Price, nutrition , ease of digestion and hypoallergenic proved to be most influential factors to female older adults in choosing food; factors like cooking time, Calorie value and containing fiber have marked as not important. The survey concludes higher educated female older adults valued health more than did lower educated group. The findings of this study would be useful especially for geriatric dieticians. Key words : food, female adults, choice, Aging, nutrition, Price


Impact of pig farming on air quality was investigated in two farms in Umuahia Metropolis using standard microbiological techniques. Settle plate method was used for the air sampling by exposing the plates at different distances and time intervals. Aeroqual AS-R41 large robust carrier was used in estimating the gases and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in and around the farms. Ammonia (NH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored.CO2 had the highest concentration of 1200ppm and N2O had the least 0.04ppm in the rainy season and CO2 was the highest at 700ppm and NH4 2.4ppm the least in the dry season for farm 1. In farm 2, CO2 with 1700ppm had the highest concentration while the least was N2O 0.001ppm in the rainy season and in the dry season CO2 was the highest at 6000ppm and N2O with 1.3ppm the least in the dry season. PM10 ranged from 2.45 to 0.21 µg/m3 in the rainy season and 4.00 to 0.92 µg/m3 for the dry season in farm 1 while in farm 2 it ranged from 1.98 to 0.18 µg/m3 (rainy season) and 3.00 to 0.001 µg/m3 (dry season). PM2.5 ranged from 3.74 to 0.08µg/m3 (rainy season) and 5.19 to 1.92µg/m3 (dry season) in farm 1 and 2.74 to 0.89µg/m3 (rainy season) and 4.78 to 1.52µg/m3 (dry season) in farm 2. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (THBC) had the highest count of 1.0 to 15.9 CFU/plate/exposure time and Total Fecal Coliform Count (TFCC) with range 0.1 to 3.1 CFU/plate/exposure time was the least in the rainy season while in dry season THBC had the highest count with range 1.2 to 12.9 CFU/plate/exposure time, and the least TFCC with range 0.3 to 2.8 CFU/plate/exposure time in farm 1. In farm 2 during the rainy season, THBC had the highest count with range 0.6 to 13.9 CFU/plate/exposure time and the least TPBC with range 0.04 to 3.6 CFU/plate/exposure time and in the dry season THBC had a range of 0.8 to 11.1 CFU/plate/exposure time and Total Fungal Count (TFC) with range of 0.2 to 3.1 CFU/plate/exposure time was the least. A total of 10 species of bacteria like Klebsiella species, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus etc and 12 species of fungi like Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species, Microsporum canis, etc. were isolated in both the rainy and dry season. It was also observed that the microbial load was also higher during the rainy season than in the dry season. Improper handling of waste increased the air pollution in the farms producing delirious gases. Keywords: Air, microbial load, rainy season, dry season, pig.


Infrastructure is an essential component of a residential development. Good infrastructure helps in providing economic services efficiently and promoting economic development. In this paper, I investigate the extent of vandalism of public infrastructure in Tanzania: a case of TANESCO Iringa Municipality. The research employed quantitative research approach whereby descriptive survey design was used to gather data. The targeted population was 102 beneficiaries of TANESCO where a sample size of 81 was drawn out of it. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data using SPSS v.20 software. The findings revealed that beneficiaries of TANESCO are aware on the related effects of mismanaging public infrastructure owned by TANESCO as there will be lack of electricity power; unable of operate machines using electricity and the cost for repairing damaged public infrastructures will be increased. Moreover, the study revealed that awarding reporters of vandalism of public infrastructure influences people to report more activities of vandalism of public infrastructure. The study concludes that public infrastructure helps to transfer electricity, if mismanaged, people will lack electricity power. In addition, it is important to award anyone who reports vandalism of public infrastructure. The researcher recommends that there is a need for the government to work together with community members to be easily identifying electricity thieves and those who do vandalism so as to punish them. TANESCO should raise awareness to the community member on the important of managing public infrastructure. More awards should be provided to the reporters.


Characterizing seasonal climate variability in terms of rainfall and temperature variables and associated trend is important for planning. On basis of this, a study was conducted in south Gondar district, to investigate variability and its trend. I used the models of Markism weather generator to downscale projected mid-century (2040-2069) rainfall and temperature variables and implications of the future climate with production of major crops (teff, barley, wheat)is analyzed. Accordingly 8 rain fall and 5 temperature variables were analyzed for variability measures (coefficient of variation, standard deviation, standardized anomaly) and trend test using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results revealed spatial and temporal variability and significant only for few which were spatially non-systematic under the worst scenario. Similarly predictions of the future mid-century revealed high variability for the start of season among others. The trends were also variable and incoherently significant only for very few variables which lack spatial consistence in direction of changes over the base period though models agree on increased warming where as both NRD and TRF was increasing over the projected period. Nevertheless, the predicted increase in future mid-century warming may result in crop area relocation and yield reduction. Hence it can be concluded that the climate of south Gondar district is characterized by spatial and temporal variability, increasing and deceasing trend in temperature and rainfall variables respectively, With strong negative effect on crop production, and there is a need to adapt the variable climate develop and diversify heat stress tolerant and moisture efficient crop varieties to combat anticipated changes in crop production and productivity eshu.

The Effect of Monitoring and Evaluation on the Performance of Strengthening School Readiness Project In Rwanda []

This study focused on the effect of monitoring and evaluation on performance of Non-governmental Organization (NGO) projects using the case study of the Strengthening School Readiness (SSR) project funded by the Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO). The objectives of the study were to establish the effect of formative, process and participatory forms of evaluation on project performance. The stakeholder theory and Logical Framework Approach form the theoretical foundation of this study while monitoring and evaluation and project performance form the conceptual framework. The researcher used a mixed methods approach by incorporating both quantitative and qualitative methods because of the numerical and non-numeric/narrative data that was used in analysis of findings. The sample size was 145 people who were selected by use of stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Three methods (the questionnaire survey, key informant interviews and documentary review) were used for data collection. These were applied using three research instruments: the questionnaire, interview guide and document checklist respectively. The validity of research instruments was determined by use of the content validity while reliability was verified through test-retest method. Quantitative data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel while qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings show that M&E plays a key role in the performance of the SSR project. For example, it is indicated that the project registered a 139.5% increase in funding, a 125% increase in the number of supported children and a 84% improvement in literacy rate. This is confirmed by the Pearson correlation test which shows that there is a positive relationship between formative evaluation and performance of the SSR project(r=.601>.05, p<.01), process evaluation and performance of the SSR project (r=.718>.05, p<.01) and participatory evaluation and performance of the SSR project (r=.852>.05, p<.01). However, there was insignificant improvement in numeracy rate, conflicting stakeholder interests and needs and stakeholder hesitation to disclose their identities. It is hoped that the study will help VSO to strengthen monitoring and evaluation practices to improve project performance while other academicians will find the study valuable in benchmarking their studies on the same subject


This study aimed at assessing the effect of internal control systems and the performance of non-governmental organizations at World Vision Kigali-Rwanda .The specific objectives of the research are: (i) to examine the influence of the control environment on the performance of World Vision Rwanda; (ii) to assess the influence of control activities on the performance of World Vision Rwanda; (iii) to analyze the effect of risk assessment on the performance of World Vision Rwanda; and (iv) to evaluate the influence of monitoring activities on the performance of World Vision Rwanda. To achieve these objectives, the research adopted a descriptive research and correlational research design using quantitative approaches. The research targeted 306 employees and management of World Vision Rwanda. The sample size included 90 respondents selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews, and documentary reviews and was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Data was presented using tables containing the frequencies, means, and standard deviations. The findings showed that World Vision Rwanda's organizational setup supports effective operations and financial reporting practices (Mean = 3.98), the value of integrity and ethical behaviors is established in performance (Mean = 3.87), there are codified standards of conduct to guide behavior and activities (Mean = 3.83), and management is committed to professional work practices and standards (Mean = 3.83). World Vision Rwanda follows a clear segregation of duties to ensure compliance with established policies and procedures (Mean = 3.97); top management regularly conducts performance assessments (Mean = 3.93) and performs physical asset inspections to ensure physical asset controls (Mean = 3.92). World Vision Rwanda has a well-functioning risk management board (Mean = 3.86) and clear lines for reporting suspicious transactions (Mean = 3.44). Risks are recognized and assessed to decide how to manage them (Mean = 3.85), and the managers assess the external and internal environments that may have an impact on the achievement of goals (Mean = 3.82). The findings also showed that World Vision Rwanda establishes a baseline to monitor the internal controls (Mean = 3.84) and continuously evaluates all internal control components to ensure their operations (Mean = 3.92). Findings also showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between the control environment (r =.878, p<.05), control activities (r =.785, p<.05), risk assessment (r =.878, p<.05), and monitoring activities (r =.687, p<.05) and the NGO under study's performance. Moreover, independent variables, namely control activities, control environment, risk assessment, information and communication, and monitoring, explain 85.8% (R2=.858) of the variations in performance of World Vision Rwanda, indicating that effective operations of the internal control system of the NGO would enhance its performance. The study concluded that NGO's operational effectiveness depends upon their internal control system and how it operates as shaped by the control environment, risk assessment and monitoring activities to enhance the organizational performance. The study recommended that management of World Vision Rwanda should ensure that responsibility for approving and periodically reviewing the overall strategies and significant policies of the NGO are well spread within their team and ensuring that senior management is monitoring the effectiveness of ICS’ operations. Key words: Internal Control systems, performance, NGO, World Vision

The Factors Affecting on Women Participation in Household Decision Making in Dhaka City: A Sociological Study []

Women participation in decision making is one of the important aspects for empowerment of the women in developing countries like Bangladesh. Women empowerment is very essential for a country’s enormous progress. Although the socio-economic status of women in our country has increased, women have not being observed to get equal right in decision making. For this reason, this study is designed to examine the factors affecting on women participation in household decision-making in Dhaka city. The study used primary data age (18-40), both married and unmarried women whose family income are minimum 40000 Taka per month. Statistical data analysis is performed to determine the association of women participation in decision making on household, measuring education, financial independence, family type etc. with possible determinants followed by fitting multinomial logistic regression model to assess the effects of these variables. Qualitative analysis has been done by case studies which found how education, income source, aging can keep a vital role in participation of decision making in household. The outcome has been showed that graduation to above women participate in household decision making rate has been increased by 1.378 units. Superstition about women empowerment is another finding from qualitative study. However, this research tries to find out the barriers of women participation in household decision making and attaches some recommendation to increase women participation in decision making.

Examining culturally endorsed leadership theory dimension in Ethiopia: Participative Leadership style Preference Reflected in Amhara Proverbs []

ABSTRACT Globalization demanded that leaders have cross-cultural and subcultural knowledge and practice. Leader effectiveness, on the other hand, appears to be context-dependent, i.e., it is influenced by the societal and organizational norms, values, and beliefs of the individuals being led. The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study developed six universally shared leadership conceptions, known as "culturally endorsed leadership theory dimensions," which include charismatic/value-based, team oriented, participative, humane oriented, autonomous, and self-protective leadership. The purpose of this paper is to investigate participatory leadership style as it relates to the six culturally supported leadership theory components portrayed in Amharic proverbs. The study focuses on oral literature, namely proverbs. Because Proverbs are brief sayings capable of expressing truth, wisdom, and widely acknowledged facts or concepts, moreover, highlighting cultural, social, and political norms and standards that have been passed down through generations. Every community has its own proverb, which is used for various purposes and in various contexts. This research examines a few select proverbs that enhance decision-making participation. As a result, the gathered proverbs are centered on decision-making participation. The chosen proverbs were divided into three categories: the first group of proverbs applauded seeking advice, the second criticized resisting advice, and the third emphasized the role of women in decision-making. The proverbs show that the community values collaboration and takes into account subcultural factors such as gender age, and socioeconomic class. To sum up to be a great leader, one must respect their opinions, involve them in decision-making, and regard every level of society, including women and men, elders, farmers, soldiers, spiritual leaders, and so on as essential sources of input. Leaders, who act, autonomously on the other hand, are viewed as ineffective.


This article aims to analyze the added value of the combination of tuna and marlin processed into fish balls. Another research objective is to analyze the marketing of fish balls “Baso Ikan Samudra Bahari, Rancamanyar Village, Baleendah District, Bandung Regency, West Java-Indonesia. Based on the results of the added value analysis using the Hayami method, the added value of Baso Ikan Samudra Bahari is Rp. 32201 per kg of tuna and marlin minced meat. The added value ratio is 37.40 %, which means that the added value ratio is moderate because it has a percentage of >15%. Baso Ikan Samudra Bahari market is included in the static market segmentation. Its competitors are identified as rival competitors and substitutes. Pricing is based on Cost-plus pricing. Promotions carried out by Baso Ikan Samudra Bahari are direct and indirect promotions. Directly that is word of mouth while indirectly by utilizing social media (Instagram, Facebook, WA) and e-commerce (Shopee and Lazada). Baso Ikan Samudra Bahari is distributed to several areas, namely Bandung, Sumedang, Cimahi, Garut, Tasik, to Central Java, all of which are within the territory of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

Assessing the effects of Brown Envelope Journalism on television news reporting in Kenya []

The study assessed the effects of brown envelope journalism on television news reporting in Nairobi, Kenya. Journalists are bound by a code of conduct to inform society by giving accurate information without any bias, this has; however, as this study found out, brown envelope journalism has changed this. The study objective was to identify how various forms of brown envelope journalism had affected television news reporting in Kenya. The research was guided by the deontological theory of duty developed by German philosopher Emmanuel Kant. This theory talks about decisions and morals in work; it is something a journalist needs in everyday life. The study used a mixed methods study using questionnaires and in-depth interviews to collect data. The study used stratified random sampling to sample 280 journalists from Citizen Television, Nation television, KTN, and K24 television by using a survey questionnaire and purposive sampling to select 8 editors from the above television stations. Data from respondents and informants were analyzed thematically, with quantitative and qualitative data analysis applied. 55.9% (113) agreed they had taken part in brown envelope journalism practice before. That is, more than half of the participants signaled brown envelope journalism was actually something that had been happening over time. On the forms of brown envelope journalism, 81.5% (165) agreed that cash as a form affects television news reporting. Regarding freebies and junkets, 58.1% (118) of journalists agreed as a form of brown envelope journalism; they also have some effects on television news reporting in Kenya. Poor remuneration and economic hardship currently facing the country were linked with the high number of cash as a form of brown envelope journalism. Just like cash, it was agreed that a journalist’s integrity and objectivity are also put to the test when he takes freebies and junkets. The study recommended that it was high time the media owners reviewed journalists’ salaries to avoid brown envelope incidences.


Child participation in public budgeting processes is key in meeting children’s rights as enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child. The process has sometimes being viewed as more theoretical rather than practical. The study was influenced by Hart’s ladder of participation to explore the participation by children in budgeting processes in Kadoma City Council, Zimbabwe. The The child’s right to participation in public budgeting processes is an understudied area in Zimbabwe. This study also sought to examine the current practices of children’s participation in public budgeting and critically assess the nature of these existing practices so as to establish the form of children’s participation, the point at which children are involved and their level of participation as well as the limitations of this participation. The study interrogates the notion of child participation through the prism of Junior Councilors( JCs) in the City of Kadoma’s budget consultation meetings. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods, and the case study design was used. Data collection was done through semi structured interviews with key informants, focus group discussion, observations as well as a review of literature and policy documents. The data was analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis method. The empirical data suggest that Junior Councilors in the City of Kadoma have little understanding of the budget, the budget processes and documents they are given to analyse and add input. Without any prior training on budgeting, the Junior Councilors are incapacitated and therefore not in a position to interrogate the budget or make any meaningful input to it. The research also revealed that the timing of the community budget consultation meetings at a time when children are at school, coupled domination of males at the meetings makes it almost very difficult for other groups including children to participate or make any contribution at these meetings. The study finds that the notion of child participation in budgeting processes in Kadoma City Council is mere rhetoric. It is characterized by manipulation of children by council authorities, while the Junior Council is more of a decorative structure for the city. The study concludes that children’s right to participation in public budgeting processes is not being realized in Kadoma City Council. As a result, the study challenges the government at local and national level to come up with enabling policies that enhance child participation in general and in public budgeting in particular. The study recommends that local and national government should demonstrate political commitment to child rights through implementing relevant policies and nurturing practices that fulfil children’s right to participation in public budgeting processes.