Performance Appraisal Practices and Organizational Performance at Guaranty Trust Bank Kigali, Rwanda [PDF] Umulisa Michele M.J , Prof. Ogbe A.A.
This research aimed at examining the effect of performance appraisal practices on the organizational performance of commercial banks in Rwanda, taking the case of Guaranty Trust Bank, Rwanda. Specifically, the study was meant to investigate the effect of equitable on the organizational performance of Guaranty Trust Bank Rwanda; to assess the effect of recognition on the organizational performance of Guaranty Trust Bank Rwanda; and to determine the effect of promotion practices on the organizational performance of Guaranty Trust Bank Rwanda. The research used both descriptive and correlation research designs. The study’s population was made up of 260 employees at Guaranty Trust Bank Rwanda whereas the sample size was 158 in which stratified random sampling technique was used. The researcher used structured questionnaire and interview guide to gather data. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The study findings on the first objective showed that 58.2% of the respondents strongly agreed that there are effective performance appraisal in Guaranty Trust Bank. Further, regression analysis showed that regression model was significance with p-value of less than 5%. The results for correlation show that R=0.762, which is an indication that performance appraisal practices have a strong and positive effect on organization performance. Following the study’s findings, the research recommends that organizations should establish strong organizational structures that promote performance appraisal practices and the welfare of the employees in general.
Key Words: Performance Appraisal Practices, Equitable, Recognition, Promotion, Rwanda
The Influence of Electronic Word of Mouth and Social Media Ads on Purchasing Decisions Tickets Travel on Traveloka E-Commerce [PDF] Andi Pebriyola
One of the factors that can provide stimulus to decision purchase ticket journey is with existence of electronic word of mouth social media ads with hope that will help candidate customer in make decision in buy ticket travel on Traveloka e-commerce. Research this try analyze influencing things _ decision buyer . The factors assessed namely electronic word of mouth and ads social media. Deep study this researcher used type study quantitative with sample as many as 100 people who emphasized on data analysis in the form of results processed questionnaire with method statistics. As for the results from study this that is there is influence significant and positive between electronic word of mouth and social media ads to decision purchase ticket trip. The better electronic word of mouth given customer so will increase decision purchase ticket travel on Traveloka. Likewise with the more many social media ads are used company so will increase decision purchase ticket .
MOVING AND IN-PLACE EXERCISES IN LOWERING SPRINT RUNNING TIME [PDF] Alex L. Señara, DM, William B. Galceran, Roger B. Marcaida Jr.
The 100-meter dash has long been the benchmark in athletics for identifying the "fastest person in the world" at a particular moment in time. The purpose of this study is to improve athletes' 100-meter sprint running speed. A quasi-experimental design was used. There were 60 athletes from the different municipalities and regions in Mindanao who participated in to determine the performance and improvement in running speed after exposure to the intervention. After being subjected to the intervention employing lunges and uphill sprinting, the Moving Exercise Group improved from "slow" to "moderately fast". However, the performance of the In-place Exercise Group using A-skip and Straight Leg Bound remained "slow" from the pre-test to the post-test. Both interventions are effective because they reduce ground contact time, but the Moving Exercise group is more effective because the exercises allow for a wide range of movement, acceleration, and force, while the In-place Exercise Group used a skip–straight leg bound, which is just static or steady exercises. It is recommended that athletes perform this exercise properly and safely to prevent injuries.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN IMPROVING THE BEHAVIOR OF HEALTH STUDENTS IN THE PREVENTION OF COVID-19 [PDF] Roni Gunawan, Dian Maya Sari Siregar, Dedi Syaiful, Fahma Shufyani, Yeni Vera
The Corona Virues Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic had a major impact on public health in 2020. This outbreak has an impact on the devel-opment of the digitalization system in every aspect of life. Information that spreads widely on social media is very important to be accessed by all parties, including parties who are familiar with health information, namely health students. Health students with various majors have their own characteristics that in fact influence their behavior in preventing Covid 19. This study used a quasi-experimental design that analyzed the differences in knowledge, attitudes and actions in 4 groups of Health students who were given mentoring interventions through social media including Instagram, Whatsapp Groups, Facebook Groups and Twitter. The sample of this study amounted to 80 respoden. Data analysis using the Mann Whitney test and the Kruskall Wallis test. The results of the study showed that the use of social media has an effect on increasing the knowledge, attitudes and actions of respondents. The government through relevant ministries or agencies should utilize enter-taining and accessible media to improve public health behavior
Environmental Sensitivity Index to Oil Spill in the Niger Delta using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems [PDF] Jonah, Iyowuna Benjamin and Francis, Ifeanyi Okeke
The study assessed oil pollution in Nigeria which are situated between Longitudes 6° 40' 0" E and 7° 0' 0" E and Latitudes 4° 20' 0" N to 4° 40' 0" N. The aim of the work was environmental sensitivity index to oil spill in the Niger Delta. Sunsequently, the materials contain LandSat ETM 7 + imagery with spatial resolution of 30 metres and dominance soil map of Nigeria. ENVI 4.5 software was utilized to extract shafe file for the various land use and imported to ArcGIS 10.7 for mapping exercise. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were bought in to analysed the soil map and vegetation indices. The result showed 9645.660ha of oil spill from the classification analysis and 98% confident interval.
Physio-chemical Analysis of Oil Spill in the Niger Delta [PDF] Jonah, Iyowuna Benjamin and Francis, Ifeanyi Okeke
The issue of oil pollution is basic problem in the Niger Delta that affects the state of the economy. The study aimed to address the physio-chemical analysis of oil spill in the Niger Delta covering three local administrative districts of Karabari District, namely Asari-toru, Degema and Akuku-toru, which are located between 6°40' 0"E and 7°0'0"E, latitude 4°20'0"E. located between "N to 4°40'0"N. The specific objectives considered were to: (i) identify the nature of spill hazardous to the environment (ii) examine the relationship of the physio-chemicals and Satellite-derived temperature. The data set includes landsat image, soil, drinking water and temperature data, others are ArcGIS 10.7 and excel software. Methodology comprises Gas Chromatography technique, rescaling measurement, multivariate analysis and graphical user interface created in MATLAB oil spill estimation. Some of the results from the test shows the presence of spill (0.06kg/L) in drinking water, (21400mg/kg) in soil and the classified map showed 67296.130ha of oil spill. The study also recommended that community youths engaged in illegal bunkering should put an end to bunkering due to the adverse effect.
role of women in Shakespeare plays [PDF] Rania MuhamedElbashir Rahama
The great English poet William Shakespeare began his work as an actor and playwright in London at the end of the 1580s or early 1590s. During the
first decade he concentrated mostly on romantic comedies and
on plays based on English history; around the turn of the
seventeenth century, he turns towards tragedy and thence to a
group of comedies at the end of his career sometimes called
romances. Macbeth comes from the last quarter of
Shakespeare’s writing career. He probably wrote it in 1606
(see below for the particular echoes of contemporary events
in the play). In chronological terms it comes amid other
tragedies including King Lear and Anthony and Cleopatra,
after Hamlet and Othello and before Coriolanus, the last of
Shakespeare’s tragedies before he moves to the romances.
It shares a good deal with these other plays in the tragic
genre: its use of soliloquy, its suspicion of women’s agency,
its interrogation of the resonant idea of ‘nothing’ and its
depiction of interiority. Macbeth, though, extends Shakespeare’s manipulation of the tragic genre in its unflinching depiction of a murderer. The judgment on Shakespeare’s other tragic characters is often debatable, as
their plays depict them as foolish or wronged, ‘more sinned
against than sinning’ (King Lear’s depiction of himself at
Exploring the Role of Universities in Enhancing Food Security and Food Safety in Kenya [PDF] Nicholas Walter Otieno Ajwang’
The number of undernourished people in agriculture and livestock reliant communities in Kenya is on the rise. Hunger has increased not just in traditional arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), but also in agriculturally productive regions. The country has witnessed periodic cases of hunger and malnutrition because of drought and famine. Despite the government’s hatched series of new strategies and establishment of universities in rural areas, the universities have not adequately succeeded in addressing specialised gaps in host regions. However, the higher education reforms have increased higher education access and eased admission crisis that plagued the country in the past, but is struggling to address the specific needs of host communities. The study explored the role of universities in increasing food security and food safety in Kenya. The study evaluated the use of teaching, research and community mobilization, in promoting food security and food safety. It further highlights the course of food insecurity in some regions of Kenya despite abundance in food production in other regions. The study was purely qualitative. Data was obtained through desktop research. Collected data was analysed through content analysis. Analysed data is presented in tables and figures. Conclusions and recommendation for policy are made. The expected outcome of the study indicate that: there are specific factors promoting food security and food safety; that a substantial unmet need persists in cultivation; and that more is required in making food security a reality. It is hoped that the results of the study will improve our understanding on food security and food safety and support policy-makers in designing better future policies.
Keywords: Food Security Food safety Rural Research Teaching Community
Preventive and Management Strategies for Older Adults with Delirium [PDF] Nada Mohammed Alfeir, Moath Alshareef, Shahd Alsharee
The study aims to put emphasis on early detection of symptoms and causes that lead to
delirium so that timely preventive and management strategies be designed and catered
accordingly by the caregivers in order to treat patients with delirium. This paper review
includes studies that are categorized as preventive, predisposing and precipitating,
recognition, screening, differentiating and multi-component program. The nursing staff
should choose those screening tools that carefully measures so that initiative can be
taken to implement the caregiving strategies that target the main causes of the
occurrence of delirium as and when possible. Staff should get familiar with the
caregiving strategies as mentioned in this paper to identify the presence of delirium in
INFLUENCE OF PROCUREMENT PROCESSES ON PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC ENTITIES IN RWANDA
A case of Development Bank of Rwanda (BRD) [PDF] Mutijima Sarah
The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of procurement processes on the performance of public entities in Rwanda taking BRD as the case of study. The study was guided by the following research objectives: to assess the effect of contract management on procurement performance in BRD, to investigate the effect of records keeping management on procurement performance in BRD, to establish the effect of ICT usage in procurement process on procurement performance in BRD. This study had the following research questions to obtain information for the specific objectives: What is the effect of contract management on procurement performance in BRD? What is the effect of records keeping management on procurement performance in BRD, what is the effect of ICT usage in procurement process on procurement performance in BRD? The target population was 71 respondents at BRD headquarter office. Data was mainly collected through self-administered questionnaires. In analyzing the data, both descriptive and inferential analyses were applied. Document review, questionnaire, interview, and observation methods were used to collect data, while descriptive statistics and content analysis were applied for data analysis. SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used in this research study.
Life Imitating Art: The Influence of Money Heist Iconography [PDF] Alex Okoth
Anti-mimesis is a philosophical position that directly opposes Aristotle's proposal of mimesis. In his proposition, Oscar Wilde opines that "Life Imitates Art more than Art Imitates Life." By dwelling on the iconography of the Money Heist show, and pointing out how the show has influenced people and events across the world, this article gives a conclusion that art has a way of influencing life.
LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES IN NORTHERN MINDANAO [PDF] Alex Labial Señara, D.M, Merilyn A. Tangon, MBM, MAEd
Leadership style and emotional competence in administrating different walk of life are factors that are considered very vital as it serves as the backbone of every success-driven effort. In this study, it can be gleaned from the findings that the pillars like the administrative practices of the instructional leaders are balanced. The mechanism of control and directing is evident that it is in practice that serves as paramount and resolute that drive a clear pathway leading to sustain the frame of blueprint and landscape. Good leadership is tantamount to making the plan half done at the start and hence, the careful and strategic review will contribute to a milestone of success. As the academic environment nowadays faces some turbulence as they dwell in a life-changing environment, every step of managerial leadership will always be accounted for and valued to some extent since possessing these skills and implementing them properly will result in bountiful success.
VALUE-ADDED ANALYSIS AND MARKETING OF TENGGIRI FISH (CASE STUDY: TEKWAN CALLAZ, CIBIRU DISTRICT, BANDUNG CITY, WEST JAVA) [PDF] Junianto, Rifki Wahyudi, Aqsha Lazuardi Surya, Raihan Ichsan Riswandi, Eka Mochamad Rizaldi, Valenda Pringgandani AMP
This research aims to analyze the added value of mackerel which is processed into tekwan products and to analyze the marketing of "Tekwan Callaz" products produced by Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises located in Cibiru, Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The method used in this research is the case study method. Data were obtained through direct observation and interviews with business owners. Data analysis was carried out descriptively, for added value calculated based on Hayami et al (1987) method. Based on the results obtained, the added value of mackerel fish processed into tekwan is Rp. 430,000.00/kg with a value-added ratio of 71.7%. Product marketing “Tekwan Callaz takes geographic market segmentation. Identified competitors are substitute competitors. The product pricing method is based on penetration pricing. Promotions are carried out by placing advertisements on Whatsapp stories, banners posted in front of business shops, and word of mouth (WOM) marketing.
The Effect Of Blue Economy Policies In Capture Fisheries On Indonesian Communities [PDF] RISTIAFANI
Ocean acidification, intense weather, more frequent storms, increasing sea levels, and rising temperatures are just a few of the negative effects of climate change that endanger marine ecosystems and the economic potential of the seas. With 6.4 million km2 of water, Indonesia has tremendous economic potential and fishing riches potential. The maritime sector had a potential of IDR 3,000 trillion, according to data from the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, but only IDR 291.8 trillion of that potential had been realized. The development of sustainable fisheries must adhere to the notion of development that benefits the current generation while also taking sustainability for future generations into consideration. An acceptable and successful marine development strategy to promote the best and most sustainable use of fishing resources is the creation of blue economy policies and initiatives. This legal study is conducted utilizing pertinent legal documents and a statutory methodology. This research tries to rebuild current policies and incorporate blue economy concepts into marine and fisheries policy. A policy model based on a blue economy is suggested as a consequence of this study in order to ensure sustainable national marine and fisheries management. This research tries to rebuild current policies and incorporate blue economy concepts into marine and fisheries policy. A policy model based on a blue economy is suggested as a consequence of this study in order to ensure sustainable national marine and fisheries management. This research tries to rebuild current policies and incorporate blue economy concepts into marine and fisheries polic.
AN ASSESSMENT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND PRE-RETIREMENT ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA [PDF] Yusuf Abashiya Sarki., Nma Aliyu Ibrahim Ph.D., Mohammed Ibrahim Baji PhD., Bala A. Shehu PhD. & Baba Wachiko
The study investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and pre -retirement anxiety among primary school teachers in Niger state. The study employed correlational research design. The study was guided by five (5) research questions and five (5) hypotheses. The population of the study consist of 20,525 male and female teachers. Through a stratified multistage sampling technique, a sample size of 546 was selected, which comprised 286 male and 260 female teachers. Job satisfaction and pre –retirement anxiety scales were used for data collection. Three experts validated the instruments. Cronbach Alpha was used to test the reliability of the instruments which yielded 0.82 and 0.84 for job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety scale respectively. Pearson Product Moment correlation were used to test hypothesis one, while hypothesis two, three, four and five were tested using t- test at 0.05 level of significance. The findings among others, revealed that significant difference exist between job satisfaction and pre –retirement anxiety among primary school teachers in Niger state (p<0.01). Significant difference exist between male and female teachers(t=2.07; mean=97.13). No significant difference exist in pre- retirement anxiety between male and female teachers (t= -0.602, mean= 74.54 and 75.16 for male and female respectively). Based on these findings it was recommended that government should strengthen Guidance and Counselling units in all Educational zones to meet the pre –retirement counseling needs of primary school teachers in Niger state. It was also recommended that the salary structure of the primary school teachers should be enhanced
PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING MUHIMA DISTRICT HOSPITAL, RWANDA [PDF] MBILA WABENYA Christine, Dr Richard Kalisa, Nizeyemana Fidel, Kyamusoke Borauzima Kyame
Pre-eclampsia has a huge adverse impact on maternal and perinatal health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The magnitude of this problem in some places across the world is still somehow not fully known, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with pre-eclampsia among pregnant women attending Muhima district hospital, in Rwanda.
Study findings revealed that 21.7% were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia. Thus, the majority of respondents were married 86.0%, had a mean age of 28.8 years [6.02 ± 28.8], and completed primary education 57.7%. worked in private or public sector 70.2%, protestants 43.2%, had got a diversified diet 42.8% and 66.4% were insured under RSSB. The present study revealed that most of pregnant women 63.1% had not had fetal complications, 55.7% of respondents were multigravidity while 53.6% had given at most one birth,45.2% were attending their first ANC, 79.8% had ever had a history of chronic disease especially pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) 52.9% and 77.7% have not encountered maternal complications during their pregnancies 20.5% had had preterm births, 12.3% experienced stillbirths while 4.1% experienced IUGR during their pregnancy. Less than a half 31.5% had had NICU admission during their post-delivery, 28.8% had known low APGAR sore, 8.2% had had early neonatal birth and 31.5% had no neonatal complications.
ASSESSMENT OF POVERTY REDUCTION PROJECTS AND THE PROJECT PERFORMANCE OF NYARUGENGE DISTRICT, KIGALI, RWANDA. [PDF] MUSABYIMANA J. Y. and Ogbe A. A. PhD
This research is entitled Assessment of Poverty Reduction Projects and the Project Performance of Nyarugenge District, Kigali, Rwanda. The objective of the project will be to assess the poverty reduction projects and performance of different projects that were introduced, exercised and implemented in the Nyarugenge District in the City of Kigali. The specific objectives were to assess the performance of poverty reduction projects, their impact on the community, and the challenges that might have been raised during the implementation of the projects and to recommend possible solutions that can be referred to in order to achieve success in those projects. The Nyarugenge District is one of the three districts in the City of Kigali, located in the North-West of the city. The district is made of ten (10) sectors and it is in this district that the city center located. Although the district is almost made up of the urban sectors, some of its sectors are partly made of ruler areas such as the Kanyinya, Kigali and Mageragere sectors.
The fact that the district is made up of some rural sectors, it is obvious that poverty is remarkably among the problems available among the residents of the district. It is therefore the fact that different projects have been implemented to reduce poverty. This research is a descriptive survey research design and the researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population planned was 144 households with a sample size to be determined with the use of the Morgan Table. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used in this study. The tools used are mainly questionnaires as the data collection instrument, interview guide and focused group discussions (FGD) that were used to supplement the questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using MS Excel 2016. The study concluded that the assessed projects have been successfully implemented and are progressively achieving the goals. The projects are being monitored day to day monitoring team and the required resources have been availed to ensure that the project can transform the lives of beneficiaries.
Although the projects have performed well the study found that there are gaps and areas that need improvement in the implementation of the projects to achieve the desired goal of eradicating poverty from the Nyarugenge district.
The research concluded that the project team formation needs to be improved to ensure that implementation gets smoother and achieves the goal. The study found that the monitoring system is manual and which creates a lack of control of the project and may lead to project failure or delay.
Post distribution assessment of ownership and Usage of long Lasting Insecticide treated net in households in Anambra East LGA in Nigeria [PDF] Onyeka Emmanuel Nwosu, Chigozie Ifeadike, Ifeoma Modebe
To achieve universal coverage and usage of Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LLIN) as a vector control intervention for malaria elimination, the Government of Anambra State distributed free LLIN in the State during the net distribution campaign in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the level of ownership and usage of LLIN in households after the distribution campaign in Anambra East Local Government Area. A cross-sectional descriptive study in which a modified WHO cluster sampling technique was used to select 358 households across the seven communities in Anambra East Local Government Area for the study. Data was collected through a semi structured questionnaire and the data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and presented in frequencies and percentages while Chi-square statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. A total of 325 (90.8%) households received at least one LLIN from the distribution campaign and 115 (35.4%) households used the LLIN the night before the study. Among the respondents that slept under the LLIN the previous night, 20% were children under 5 years while 13.9% were pregnant women and other general populations were 66.1%. There is an association between LLIN ownership and usage (P<0.05). Age and educational level of respondents have no association with ownership of LLIN (P>0.05) but educational level contributes to the association between LLIN usage in the previous night (P<0.05). This shows that the distribution campaign contributed to the increasing percentage of LLIN ownership and usage in Anambra East LGA.
Perforated Appendicitis in a Newborn: Case Report [PDF] Mohammed Abu-Al-Darak, Read Al-Hashash, Wafa Sarhan, Islam Al-Fahed.
We presented a case of perforated appendicitis in a 6 days-old newborn, the patient transferred to operation room with transverse laparotomy was done, perforated appendix was found with no other pathology, and resection of the appendix was done, with the washing of the contaminated cavity.
Does School Administrative Culture influence Students’ Academic Performance? Evidence from Public Secondary Schools in Makueni County [PDF] Jackeline Muthama, Dr. Florence Oruta (PhD), and Dr. Florence Kisirkoi (PhD)
The principal objective of this empirical investigation was to investigate whether the school administrative culture influences students’ academic performance. To evaluate the envisioned linkage, the study utilized cross-sectional data collected using a questionnaire and data collection sheet from 114 secondary schools. Mission statement, vision statement, adhocracy culture and market oriented culture were modeled as the indicators of school administrative culture while the form four KCSE results was used as a measure for student academic performance which was the outcome variable. These indicators were adopted from the prior empirical works. The findings of this study suggest that school administrative culture positively and significantly influences the students’ academic performance .The estimation method applied in this study was ordinary least squares (OLS) since it captures very well the cross-sectional aspects of the gathered dataset. This study made significant contributions to theory propagation, policy implication as well as management practice.
Writing Investigating Skills Difficulties Encountered by EFL Sudanese University Students [PDF] : Suliman Hamad Hassan Ahmed (1) and Mahmoud Ali Ahmed (2)
This study aimed at investigating writing skills difficulties faced by EFL Sudanese university students. The study adopted the descriptive analytical method, the researcher collected data by using a diagnostic test for (30) EFL students at Sudan University of Science and Technology .To analyze the data the researcher has used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that EFL Sudanese university students encounter some serious difficulties in writing skills; they can not express intended ideas clearly, students are unaware of formal writing aspects such as neat hand writing, correct spelling, proper use of punctuation, acceptable grammar, varied vocabulary, precise construction and correctness of expressions. In addition, when students write about a particular topic, they do not organize their thoughts and ideas and present them in a significant way as they lack balance between content and form. In light of the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that students should be aware of the importance of writing skills in the process of EFL learning, teachers should use materials that suit the students’ levels, needs and interest. Furthermore, university textbooks need to give more attention to writing skills and strategies.
Key words: writing skills, aspects of writing, foreign language learning.
EVALUATION OF VEGETABLE CONTAMINATION NEAR THE IFE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY, ILE-IFE, NIGERIA [PDF] 1.Alexander Chinyere Nwankpa, 2.Moromoke Oluwayemisi Adelayi
Radioactivity in vegetable samples in cultivated land in the vicinity of the Ife Iron and Steel industry in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out to assess the potential radiological impact of the industry on its immediate environment. Vegetable samples widely consumed in the local community such as green/African spanich (amaranthus cruentus), waterleaf (talinum triangulare), ewedu/arira (corchorus capsularis), okra (abelmoschus esculentus) and tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) were collected from two of the farmlands at 100 m and 300 m away from the industry. The activity counting was carried out using Sodium Iodide gamma spectrometry. The annual committed effective dose for the vegetables in the farmlands due to uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) was assessed. The mean activity concentration of radionuclides in the vegetable samples ranges from 2.07 ± 0.05 to 13.17 ± 2.11 Bq/kg for 238U, 1.69 ± 0.62 to 29.48 ± 2.24 Bq/kg for 232Th and 107.04 ± 2.33 to 259.08 ± 10.38 Bq/kg for 40K. At a distance of 100 m from the industry, the annual intake of 238U and 232Th from the consumption of green were 2.46 Bq/kg and 5.90 Bq/kg, for water leaf 2.63 Bq/kg and 5.34Bq/kg, for ewedu/arira 2.45 Bq/kg and 5.59 Bq/kg, for okra 2.24 Bq/kg and 4.72 Bq/kg, and for tomatoes 2.54 Bq/kg and 5.63 Bq/kg respectively. The committed effective doses from the consumption of green, water leaf, ewedu/arira, okra, and tomatoes were 1.5 µSvy-1, 1.3 µSvy-1, 1.4 µSvy-1, 1.2 µSvy-1, and 1.4 µSvy-1 respectively.
Asphaltene Precipitation in Pipeline Resulting from Water Flooding [PDF] Dooka Yirakpoa Collins , Dagde K.K and Nmegbu Godwin Chukwuma J.
Crude oil is a complex mix of hydrocarbons and other compounds with varying molecular weight, polarity and other properties. Crude oil's physical and chemical properties vary greatly from one producing region to another and even within a single region. According to viscosity, specific gravity, and API gravity, crude oil is traditionally categorized. One of the most surface-active components in crude oil is known as asphaltenes. Due to this characteristic, fluid-fluid interactions are most likely what affects how they behave during fluid flow. Water comes into touch with crude oil while it is being produced and transported through reservoirs and pipelines. This research analyse a numerical model for analyzing pipeline asphaltene precipitation issues in a field created with water injection. The modelling component includes pipeline configuration, measure for asphaltene precipitation, fluid and component transport. The PIPESIM and WINPROP softwares were utilized for this analysis. The difference between both simulators is that the PIPESIM predicts asphaltene precipitation using the thermodynamics of the system, while the WinProp software uses the mixing rule and thermodynamics of the system to predict asphaltene. From the analysis in this study it was observed that asphaltene precipitation weight percentage increases exponentially with increase in fractional water composition in the pipeline indicating that asphaltene precipitation is more severe in pipelines with high percentage of water resulting from water injection. The temperature effect analysis carried out on the sample shows that at low temperatures, asphaltene precipitation does not significantly vary with changes in temperature; however, at increasing temperature, the asphaltene precipitation increases as well. Asphaltene precipitation was observed to increases with pressure and water saturation, and for a field with significant asphaltene composition, produced with water injection, however, there is critical saturation where increase in water saturation will not cause any further precipitation of asphaltene for a particular pressure. The reduction simply implies the dissolution of precipitated asphaltene. Abundant asphaltene precipitations are noticed around bubble-point pressures which in this case is around 189 psia. The model's findings can be used to pinpoint operational circumstances that would make asphaltene precipitation less likely. This information can be used to design pipeline operating strategies during water injection. In this study we have taken a modelling approach for analysis, further studies should consider the use of experimental procedures for the purpose of adequate comparisons, justifications and improvement in findings. This study found that the effect of asphaltene precipitation in the pipeline is directly impacted by water injection. It is advised to conduct more research to find the optimal water flooding/injection approach that will lessen the difficulties in operating transportation lines, particularly with relation to the precipitation and deposition of asphaltene.