Volume 10, Issue 4, April 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The purpose of this study was to explore how students’ choice in the activity during Physical Education affects student motivation to participate and join in the daily physical activity for fitness training. The FGD technique was employed to identify student attitudes toward Physical Education. This FGD identified students’ preferences on the activities in accordance to gender. The FGD was conducted with students to clarify the unanswered questions on the open-ended guide questions. The gathered data revealed that both male and female students enjoyed the choice of physical activities as undergone by them in PATH-FIT curricula offered in the school. Likewise, students had a positive attitude and motivation during the Physical Education session when they are teamed up with their friends or whom they know. Lastly, females would like a homogeneous team or grouping by gender, while males expressed neutrality. The increase of participation on the motivated participants while doing their “wellness and fitness” is the teacher program activities through walking.

Design Improvement and performance Analysis of kocho, bulla and fiber production machine to achieve good product []

Among the total population of Ethiopia more than 85% lives in the rural area where crop production and animal husbandry were their main stay. There are different farming systems depending on different agro ecologies found in the country. Root, steam and tuber crops play a major role in food production in Southern, South-West, Western and Central part of Ethiopia. More than twenty percent of Ethiopia’s population used Enset for human food, fiber, animal forage, construction materials, and medicines. In Ethiopia Enset were processed traditionally using a locally made karka scraper against a wooden plank inclined from the ground. This traditional method was hygienic problem, gender based, unproductive and time consuming. To solve this problem, the way aimed for developed low horse power motor driven Enset decorticator but it was limited function. The existed Enset sheave decorticating machine simply designed for Enset sheave decortication and the main short coming is the hardest and very important part said to be Hamacho (corm) is not decorticating. Therefore, this work intended to design improvement of the machine, performance analysis and increasing kocho, bulla and fiber product productivity. Generally the improved kocho, bulla and fiber production machine performs better work than the existed machine in the field with required feed rate, very low fiber damage


Wearable computers are fast becoming an integral component of our everyday life. They are gaining wide acceptance in virtually every sphere or domain of everyday activities ranging from sports, health, entertainment, fashion and even the military. They augment our daily routines without significantly affecting other activities. They are portable, accessible and seamless in operation. Wearable computing is incorporated into the personal space of the wearer, controlled by the wearer, always on and accessible thus creating a new form of interaction between humans and computers, that is an integration of man and system. This paper explained wearable computing technology, the features, applications and challenges affecting the growth of the technology.


Microbes are very small organisms that have many benefits in the field of fisheries. This re-view article aims to find out the role of microbes in freshwater aquaculture activities, especially in maintaining the quality of aquatic bodies and the absorption of feed nutrients by fish. Based on the results of the review literature, it can be informed that the role of microbes in maintaining good wa-ter quality as a medium of freshwater aquaculture is to reduce ammonic levels through the degrada-tion process using bioremediation technology. The role of microbes in improving quality is to con-dense complex compounds into simple compounds to increase the absorption of nutrients.


Shrimp paste is one of the traditional processed fish products. Shrimp paste is much loved by the public because of its distinctive taste and aroma, thus adding to the taste of the dish. The purpose of this review article is to determine the stages of the process of making shrimp paste, the bacteria involved in fermentation, and the quality of the shrimp paste product. Based on the results of a review of the stages of making shrimp paste, there are eight stages, namely: washing and sorting shrimp, drying, pounding, adding salt, fermentation, further pounding, printing, and drying. The bacteria involved in the shrimp paste fermentation process are Microccus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Corynebacterium, and Brevibacterium. Good shrimp paste has a brownish red color and is not too soft or too hard. Based on the Indonesian National Standard number 2716:2006 concerning shrimp paste, the quality requirements for shrimp paste that are in accordance with food safety are those that have a maximum water content of 45%; its acid insoluble ash content is less than 1.5%; salt content is contained in the range of 12–20%; and have at least 15% protein.


Fish sauce is a product of fishery processing which is made through a fermentation process. Fermentation is one of the methods used to preserve food from raw materials with the help of microorganisms. After the fermentation of food, there will be changes in the aroma, texture and taste of the food. The purpose of this review article is to find out the bacteria involved, the method, the influencing factors, and the benefits of fermentative fish sauce. Bacteria that play a role in the fish sauce fermentation process are lactic acid bacteria. Methods in making fish sauce fermentation include preparing tools and materials, weeding fish, grinding, adding salt and enzymes, fermentation, sterilizing, filtering and finally packaging. Several factors that can affect the fish sauce fermentation process are temperature, microbial culture, oxygen, salt concentration, pH, and water concentration. The advantages of fermentation in fish sauce products are that it can form the desired texture, improve the taste of fish, control microorganisms.


Meeting the success reliance requires a lot of challenges as the employment opportunity is somewhat sensitive since it needs more skills for one to be equipped and land a competitive career path. Developing one's skills lies largely on how this will be developed with the aid of the many pillars in government initiating economic recovery. It is strongly agreed by both business owners that the aspiring workforce should be flexible and adheres to the changing times. Considering that this profession is universally recognized, can be a rewarding career that needs to be given more emphasis as such, building and enhancing this profession can be supplemented with further education and training. Proper training produces a caliber workforce that is typically what is needed in this industry and a strong determination when it comes to adaptability to change. Good communication also is a key towards achieving the realization of the aimed development as it creates a positive impact in terms of revenue generation and boasts the country not only for survival but thrives to excel in a border-less economy. The success of this endeavor is being contributed much through the imposition of service quality as a tool in keeping customer loyalty and retention


The purpose of this research is to explore and understand the classroom cheating dishonesty, misbehavior and malpractices in the academe among college students and to investigate the ways and reasons why they engaged in this kind of malpractice as a live experience. Thus, the descriptive and qualitative types of research were employed for the phenomenological approach. There were two hundred third-year and fourth-year college students who were the participants and ten participants were deeply qualitatively engaged. The involved universities and colleges were in the tough school on their “best practices” on “good moral and right conduct.” Based on the data gathered, 50% of the students admitted to have done cheating, dishonesty, misbehavior and malpractices during exams. FGD disclosed four themes, namely: employing fraudulent styles, direct replication of answers, advanced information, and collaboration or teamwork. Likewise, the unveiled reasons were clustered themes on incomprehensible lessons, personal irresponsibility, the leniency of the proctor, academic anxiety, peer pressure, parental pressure, and economic reason. To lessens the misbehavior and malpractices, the participants suggested a parameter gate guard on clear policy, providing larger spaces during exams, a regulation-oriented proctor, and setting the classroom a conducive place for the examination.

Maize Yield and Water Productivity under Strategic Supplemental Deficit Irrigation during short rainy seasons []

Irrigation can mitigate the agricultural production challenge of erratic and unpredictable precipitation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, improving water productivity (WP) in irrigation sector will reduce the already intensified competitions to water resource. The question remains on how to manage supplemental irrigation in light of the temporal distribution of seasonal precipitation, aiming at improving crop yield and WP. Literature recommends deficit irrigation practices; however, its use as supplemental irrigation is still not well understood. In this context, a study in Tanzania evaluates the WP of maize with deficit supplemental irrigation (DSI). A CROPWAT model calculates the irrigation water requirements (IWR) for different levels (treatments) and for scheduling. Treatments were 60, 40, 20, and 0 percent deficits of the actual supplemental IWR, respectively. The results show that soil moisture dynamics reflect the water application levels with moisture readings increasing with water applications. The trend is also reflected with higher yields of maize biomass and grain under full supplemental irrigation (FSI) application than under DSI. The DSI embraced advantages of higher biomass production per unit of water used, while FSI resulted in higher grain yields per unit of water used. Therefore, the decision to apply DSI or FSI in SSA relies on production aims, land availability, and the level of understanding of the farmers of these two competing advantages.


Abstract In every organization, leaders are faced with various ethical dilemmas on a daily basis as they balance their own ethics with the institution’s policies and practices leading to pressures among administrators on what is the right thing to do, especially if they are torn between two possible moral imperatives. The purpose of this research is to find out the ethical dilemma as experienced by school administrators in terms of: (a) decision making (b) conflict of interest, and (c) engaging in inappropriate behavior. The study also wants to explore the patterns or themes occur in the ethical dilemmas that arise for contemporary educational administrators in their day-to-day work and how this school administrators respond with the challenges of ethical dilemma they faced in exercising their role as head of the school. The methodology of this study is qualitative case study, that is, it is not guided by hypotheses but by issues and problems that the study seeks to answer in an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case anchored on the real- life context of ethical dilemma. Data were obtained through qualitative research technique- the in-depth interviews of key informants. Major findings of the study revealed that the ethic of care and the ethic of profession are the dominant guiding ethical perspective among school administrators in Buayan District. Thus, the teachers and other people’s interest other than self- interest form part in dealing with ethical dilemma.


In Tanzania, poor households are served with Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) to increase their incomes and opportunities while improving their food and non-food consumption. The study aimed at assessing the impact of conditional cash transfer on poverty reduction on household food security in the Sumbawanga Municipality, Tanzania. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. This study used quantitative data generated from the household survey with a sample of 450 households. Data were analyzed by using propensity score matching with the aid of STATA 14. The study findings show that on average conditional cash transfer programmes have a significant effect on improving a household’s food security by increasing food consumption by 47 percent and reducing adverse coping strategies by 59 percent. Cash given used to purchase food and reduce adverse coping strategies that make households have food security and reduced vulnerability. The study recommends that the Ministry under the President’s Office Public Services Management and Good Governance through the conditional cash transfer programme to increase the amount of cash given to poor households and the Government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders should work together with the conditional cash transfer programmes to continue to improve food security. Moreover, the programme is recommended to increase beneficiaries to help more households to graduate from extreme poverty.

Determinants of women’s wage differential compensation sensitivity and residential sectorial diversity of it: An exploratory study in Sri Lanka []

Purpose- This study explores the determinants of women’s wage differential compensation sensitivity (WWCS) in terms of female labor force participation and examines the nature of residential sectorial (Urban, Rural & Estate) diversity of this sensitivity in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach – This exploratory study involved a qualitative in-depth analysis of the evidence of wage differential compensation sensitivity through an empirical study in Sri Lanka. The data collection for this study was done through an interview procedure and it has adopted snowballing sampling technique to select subjects for the sample. In line with this approach, the researcher has recruited sample members from three separate clusters namely urban, rural, and estate residential sectorial clusters. Qualitative data was analyzed through the reflexive thematic analysis approach which was introduced by Braun and Clarke. Findings – This study found that rural females are highly sensitive to wage differential compensation in terms of labor force participation and estate females showed the least sensitivity. Motherhood and child age, co-habitation of grandparents, male supremacy in traditionally patriarchal families, intergenerational education & learning, voluntary child labor, human trafficking for women labor exploitation, and growth needs & domestic financial requirements are recognized as the determinants of women’s wage differential compensation sensitivity. Key Words: Female labor force participation, Thematic Analysis, Sri Lanka, Women’s wage differential compensation


Over the years, the retail sector in Nigeria has seen an intense change and fast development, especially in the most recent decade to date, it has been dominated by small and unorganized business visionaries like shops, independent stores, boutiques, conventional privately-owned company stores, and so forth. With the developing worldwide financial forces, new monetary arrangements and special advertis-ing systems will help generally to draw in customers in significant urban communities in Nigeria. It is imperative for the option of day-lighting to be utilized within the shopping mall interior to provide the experience of Daylight while inside the mall. This will help enhance circulation through good visibility and minimize dependence on Artificial lighting during daytime in circulation areas of the mall. High window heights are also used to bring Daylight into deeper portions of large spaces. This design report focuses on examining strategies of daylight adoption into the shopping mall through high height windows, tubes light, skylight, shave light. etc, to enhance visibility of users during circulation within the mall.

Sustainable Airport Passenger Terminal Design – A Review of the Architecture of Terminal 3 Jewel Changi Airport, Singapore []

This study examines design practices in airport passenger terminal design with the sustainability of the building as a primary consideration. The aims of this research are to draw important conclusions about sustainable airport design from a rigorous review of Jewel Changi Airport T3 using the case study research method. From the key findings it was observed that the terminal interior is designed to connect with the groundside landscape, building performance, and green technology, resulting in an articulated design approach. Horizontal integration by t he green continuation from the airport groundside to within the terminal through a succession of transparent surfaces of the building is one of the design components of sustainable thinking in Jewel Changi Airport T3. The terminal's large green walls and various plant communities, on the other hand, incorporate natural performance and systems into the architecture. The futuristic interior concept and design for thorough bio-integration should be further developed with integrative thinking and multidisciplinary approaches to transcend dualistic thinking, as a futuristic concept perceives feedba ck dynamic through systematic integra tion of mechanical parts and the human body's natural mechanisms. For an ecologically friendly airport, architects, landscape architects, and technology engineers may push the boundaries of hybrid design and culture. To be implemented in the form of an assessment study of the real situation in the selected case study, leading to the identification of findings, conclusions and recommendations. Keywords: sustainability, green technology, building performance, bio-integration, ecologically friendly

Evaluation of different plant extracts and essential oils in-vitro conditions against Fusarium oxysporium, a causal agent of Sunflower Wilt disease. []

Abstract: Evaluation of 21 different plant extracts and 11 essential oils were tested for their anti-fungal activity in-vitro condition against Fusarium oxysporium, pathogen of Sunflower wilt disease. The plants selected for the study were Azardirachta indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Lawsonia inermis, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Citrus limon, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Annona squamosa, Aegle marmelos, Nerium oleander, Ricinus communis, Calotropis procera, Vitex negundo, Catharanthus roseus, Phyllanthus emblica, Moringa oleifera, Cymbopogon citratus. Among all these Plant extracts at 20% Eucalyptus (74.44%), Mehendi (63.33%) Mango (53.66%), Indian bael (53%), Amla (53%), Guava (52.55%), Nerium (50%), custard apple (47.77%), Pink periwinkle (45.55%) were efficient in controlling the growth of the pathogen. At 50% concentration of the plant extracts Garlic, Mehendi, Eucalyptus, Amla, Ginger, Mango, Guava, Nerium, Indian Bael, Periwinkle, Lantana, Parthenium, and Vitex were efficient in controlling the pathogen to 100%, 96.66%, 87.44%, 76.66%, 60%, 60%, 56.66%, 55.555, 55.22%, 53.66%, 42.2%, 39.66% and 32.22% respectively. Essential oils like Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia), Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), Lemon grass oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus), Lemon oil (Citrus limon), Cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum verum), Rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), Ylang ylang oil (Cananga odorata), Frankin Cense oil (Boswellia carteri), Citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus), Orange (Citrus sinensis) oil. All essential oils were effective in controlling the growth of Fusarium. But high degree of antifungal activity was exhibited by Tea tree oil, Peppermint, Lemon grass, Lemon, Cinnamon, Rosemary, Ylang ylang and Orange.

Déficience auditive et performance scolaire dans quelques écoles du district de Lukunga []

Contexte : Les nuisances sonores autour des complexes scolaires peuvent affecter négativement les performances des enseignants et des élèves. Le niveau de bruit doit se situer en-deçà de 35 dB A autour des écoles. Objectif : Examiner la pertinence de la perte auditive minime, légère et cachée en étudiant son association avec les problèmes de risque auditif et les performances scolaires. Participants et méthodes : Une étude transversale, observationnelle et comparative a été réalisée auprès des élèves de 6ème primaire des écoles du district de Lukunga à Kinshasa, sur une période allant d’Octobre 2020 à Septembre 2021. Etaient inclus, les élèves âgés de 11 à 16 ans de l’année scolaire concernée et ayant subi des évaluations audiométriques et comportementales. Le rendement scolaire a été mesuré à l’aide du test TENAFEP et du questionnaire SIFTER. Résultats : Sur 728 participants, l’âge moyen était de 11,8±0,3 ans, 50,8%(n=370) des filles et une sex-ratio de 0,9. La relation entre les seuils auditifs avec les problèmes de cognition différait entre le sexe. Des seuils de réception de la parole plus élevés étaient associés à de moins bons résultats scolaires dans les deux sexes (β=-0,06 ; IC à 95%, -0,10 à -0,02). Conclusion : Les seuils auditifs élevés dans la gamme de la perte auditive minime, légère et cachée étaient associés à des scores de problèmes de comportement plus élevés et à des scores de performance scolaire plus faibles à la fin des études primaires dans le district de Lukunga. Mots clés : Déficience auditive, cognition, bruit environnemental, performance scolaire, perception auditive

Interstitial pregnancies and literature review []

Introduction : Interstitial pregnancy develops at the intra myometrial origin of the tube, the hemorrhagic rupture of interstitial pregnancies appears to be more sudden and associated with a higher mortality than tubal forms. However, thanks to ultrasound, the diagnosis is most often made before the rupture stage. The classic treatment of interstitial pregnancies was cornualectomy by laparotomy and some cases may have required hysterectomy. Objective: To present our experience with the surgical management of interstitial pregnancies (IP) and to evaluate the subsequent fertility of our patients in the long term. Patients and method Twenty patients were operated in our department for interstitial pregnancy over a period of 15 years. In this retrospective work we present: the symptomatology that led to the diagnosis, the treatments performed, the fertility and the subsequent obstetrical outcome. Results The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 8 weeks' gestation, the median Bhcg level was 7411 IU/L, and the mean age of the patients was 30 years. 90% of the patients had at least one risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Pain or metrorrhagia were the most frequent symptoms on admission; 4 patients were admitted in hypovolemic shock. The interstitial location of this ectopic pregnancy was discovered intraoperatively in 45% of cases. Six patients had a large hemoperitoneum greater than 1 L, 5 patients had GI on uterine stump after salpingectomy for EP. The surgical technique used most often was 60% excision by Endo GIA® stapling with antegrade salpingectomy. Concerning fertility, 12 patients wished to become pregnant after the operation, 10 had at least 1 pregnancy, among them 1 contralateral ampullary ectopic pregnancy, and 1 contralateral interstitial pregnancy recurrence. Four patients delivered by caesarean section and 4 patients delivered vaginally, some of them several times. No uterine rupture was recorded. Conclusion Interstitial pregnancy is a rare ectopic pregnancy, difficult to diagnose, which can be life-threatening and can affect maternal fertility. During subsequent pregnancies, the clinician should be aware of the risks of recurrence of interstitial pregnancy and uterine rupture.

Effect of External Labour Mobility on Organizations ; a study of selected commercial banks in Asaba, Nigeria []

Globalization has increased the ease with which workers are leaving one organization to another. The effects of international corporations, multinational corporations, global corporations and transnational corporations, bilateral and multilateral agreements among independent nations, trades and investments across the world on workers migration are unprecedented and may be inevitable. More so, internal mobility is facilitated by intense competition and the need to enhance the competitive advantage and acquire high market share of the consuming population. However, external labour mobility poses dual effects on the parent and new (recruiting) organizations. It is on this basis that the study examined the effects of external labour mobility on organizations: a study of selected commercial banks in Asaba, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to determine the dual effects of external labour mobility on organizational performance. The study employed the use of correlation and multiple regression statistical tools to analyze the data generated from the field. Findings showed that external labour mobility exacts negative significant effect on the parent organization while it improves the performance of the new and recruiting organization. This confirms the negative-positive trajectory of external labour movement. The study therefore recommends orientation/reorientation and open door policies that accommodate and enable inclusiveness as they lead to full sense of belongingness of the workers

A Model for Credit Risk Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network []

Credit loans are like a lifeline that is vital to every financial institution. The process of estimating the probability that someone will pay back a loan is one of the most important mathematical problems of the modern world; as such, there’s a need to analyze the credit risks they are exposed to, to profitably operate in the market. This study trained an intelligent model that analyses credit risk based on specific factors. The Back-Propagation Feed-Forward ANN (BP-FFANN) is trained by a technique called the Gradient Descent. The back Propagation neural network uses a supervised learning model and a back propagating network structure. The model was developed using Back-Propagation trained Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Network (BP-FFANN) basing on a Modified Hyperbolic Tangent Activation Function (MOD-HTAN). It is based on a modification to the Euler number, ‘e’. The methodology we have adopted in this research work is an object-oriented model with recursive development (OOM/RD) and the research method used is the quantitative analysis method. Implementation was carried out on MATLAB desktop simulation environment. The system has two major advantages over the existing system: it uses an improved activation function that does not restrict the magnitudes of the hidden activations - this is particularly very useful in situations where the pattern can change over time such as in the case of the credit risk management problem. Secondly, since the system uses a sparse set of inputs during activation processing (squashing) it is therefore more efficient in terms of speed. The results of the credit risk model were found to be satisfactory based on an error response close to zero. The predicted output accuracy was found to be highly dependent on the number of neurons in the hidden layer. It was found that this technique is advantageous to the existing system in terms of speed and control of explosive gradients. It was also observed that it is cheaper to construct and can be used without loss in precision. The ideas of the proposed neural activation function can be extended to other more biological plausible classification schemes. Thus, it is imperative that existing neural solutions employ more responsive neural activations with adaptive features.

Applying principles of sustainability in achieving user comfort in cultural center []

The current climate crisis has created the need to regulate both indoor and outdoor comfort within the built environment adopting sustainable design principles to ensure that end-users are not physiological or psychological affected when using a facility like cultural center. The design of this center adopts sustainable measures such as passive sustainable design strategies, daylighting and natural ventilation as well as energy efficiency using renewable energy systems, green building materials and finishes. The aim of this research paper is to ensure that user comfort in the cultural center is guaranteed, having resolved all the architectural design parameters to be in sync with the sustainable goals associated with green architecture.Keywords: sustainable, energy efficiency, renewable energy, comfort, natural

Process Optimization and Industrial Application of Microbial Amylases: A Review []

Enzymes are the most important and special types of protein molecules, which can be produced by living organisms to bring about specific biochemical reactions, generally forming parts of the metabolic processes of the cell. They are usually catalyzes a particular biochemical reaction or closely associated responses. Enzymes work by binding to reactant molecules and considered to be faster than chemical catalysts. They are being used in various sectors such as detergent, paper, textile, food and many others industrial applications. Moreover, they play major role in the conversion of starch into maltose, production of beverages like beer, treatment of digestive disorders and production of cheese from milk. Among the enzymes, amylase plays a significant role in all stages of metabolism and biochemical reactions. Certain amylases are used as organic catalysts in numerous processes at an industrial scale. Amylases can be produced from animal, plant and microbial sources. However, microbial enzymes are known to be superior enzymes in various industrial applications. Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been globally studied for the biosynthesis of economically viable preparations of various enzymes for commercial applications. To obtain maximum yield of amylase, media optimization plays a significant role throughout the production process. Therefore, the present review focused on the production, process optimization and industrial applications of microbial amylases.