Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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One of the reasons Christian evangelism suffers setback today is the disappointment that marvels people of the world when they encounter professing Christians with characters that are evil or to lightly say is immoral. This makes some would be converts see the person witnessing as not better than they in anyway. It is known that many have be drawn to Christ through a life that conforms to Biblical injunctions. Besides Paul the apostles urges the believers to be imitators of him as He imitates Christ. (1 Cor. 11:1 ) In this paper, this researcher through a hymnological analysis and interpretation of the Hymn Let Others See Jesus in You by B.B McKinney (1886-1952) draws the attention of the contemporary Christian to the importance of living a Christ-like life with evangelistic intentions. He explored the mind of the lyricist as implied through the hymn text descriptively and theologically to come up with the expectation of the Lyricist and consequently of God about the life of a believer as a Christian witness. He concludes with a four-point expected responses from the believer which are need to abhor evil as good representatives of Christ, to be Witnesses of Christ, be joyful in hope of salvation and to display boldness and consistency in gospel proclamation


Abstract The study examined the effect of motivation on employees’ commitment in Nigerian organizations, using Zenith Bank Plc., Abuja as case study. The study used survey research design. The population of the study is the staff of Zenith Bank Plc., Abuja which is 578. The study used Taro Yamane formula to reduce the population of the study to 236 which is the sample size. The study also used 31 management staff. The study used questionnaire to obtained data and the data was analyzed using regression with the aid of SPSS statistical software 25.00. The finding indicates that there is positive and significant relationship between motivation and employees commitment in Zenith Bank Plc., Abuja, and there is positive and significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and employees’ commitment in the bank. The study suggested that Zenith Bank Plc., Abuja should continue in motivating employees for better performance. The study is deemed to contribute to the body of knowledge with regards to the age long concept of organizational commitment among staff through the lenses of the theory of Employee Motivation, using the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, McGregor’s Theory X & Y, and William Ouchi’s Participative Theory of Motivation. The study measures and attempts to gauge the impact of motivation on employees’ commitment to the goal, mission and vision of their organization through a representative sample statistics using a simple survey method. Keywords: Motivation, Employees’ Commitment and Organizational Commitment


A virus is a sub microscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and achaea. This year 2020, The world is facing yet another dangerous virus called as Coronavirus Disease 2019 or better known as COVID-19 which is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified back in December 2019 situating in Wuhan, China, and has resulted in an ongoing pandemic which affects majority of the countries. The common symptoms of this COVID-19 includes fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of smell and taste. COVID-19 clearly affects a lot of people where countries took measurements to issue an immediate lockdown or movement control order. Many sectors were terribly affected for the past 3 months where a lot of them lost their jobs as the pandemic severely hit most of the country’s economic activities. This studies are made to identify the industries which severely affected due to this pandemic and how bad the major economic activities affected due to this pandemic. From the findings five sectors are badly effected such as Tourism (Hotels & Aviation sectors), Entertainments, Retails (marketplace & restaurants), Sports and Financial market sectors. The finding and outcome of this paper will be useful as a knowledge for people on COVID-19 impacts in a country. Keywords: COVID-19,Virus, Pandemic, Lockdown


Food Security has been a major global issue as international organizations and governments have continuously developed and modified methods for reducing food insecurity. General Consensus among authors, scholars, NGOs etc is that developing nations (such as Nigeria) lack the ability to adequately feed its populace. However, the paper examines the impact of poor policy implementation on food security in Ogbaru local government area, Anambra State. The population of the area based on the 2016 projection figure is 295,500. A sample of 400 emerged which was determined using Taro Yamane’s formula for large population. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study; as well as two objectives. Simple percentages and frequency tables were adopted. Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study show that: poor policy implementation has negatively affected food security among others in Ogbaru local government area. Hence, the study recommends that there should be proper planning, close monitoring and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects to entrench implementation discipline.


This research is based on the drama of transparency in the allocation of village funds which is given a front stage and a back stage. It is known that the village government in various village fund allocations is highly dependent on factors, including the readiness of village government officials as actors in managing village fund budgets in understanding the regulations for proper village financial management that are specific to the Rappoa village government in Bantaeng Regency. The method used in this research is the Eving Goffman method by looking at the drama of transparency of village fund allocations displayed by village government officials. Analysis of the interactive data model used in this study is an interactive model. Resulting in that drama on the behavior of village officials in carrying out transparency as the manager of the village budget has a positive effect on development performance and increases in community welfare since the existence of the village budget. The main factor in believing in this village cannot be separated from the leadership model of the village head. The results of this study can be used by subsequent researchers, as research material in the field of science regarding the management of village fund allocation management.

Sultanate of Oman's Foreign Policy: Pragmatic but Ethical []

Even though states’ sovereignty, security, and national interests are the main political priorities that inform and instigate the state’s foreign policy, the factor of the responsibility of political leaders is the main deriver of ethical foreign policy. As an effective foreign policy strategy, pragmatism brought security, stability, social cohesion, and growth to Oman. The ethical dimension of foreign policy attempts to reunite and reconcile interests and ideals in politics; however, ethics need a democratic environment to operationalize the issues of consensus and consultation. This paper argues that the Sultanate of Oman has an ethical and pragmatic foreign policy developed and shaped by its leader’s idea of and approach to responsibility. This paper asks why Oman pursued such a pragmatic foreign policy with an ethical dimension during the leadership of Sultan Qaboos.

Multi Criteria Analysis for Integrated MSW Management in São Paulo City []

The environmental concern with the treatment and final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities has increased worldwide. In São Paulo, the largest city of the Latin America, the use of sanitary landfills is preponderant and initiatives that incorporate treatment technologies that recovery recyclable materials, compost and gen-erate energy are insipient. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to evaluate the treatment technologies for integrated MSW management and propose the better treatment scenario that incorporates the segregation of the MSW recoverable fractions and reduce the final disposal into the sanitary landfills. Secondary data of gravimetric analyzes conducted between 2017 and 2018 of the southeast region of São Paulo City were used to simulate a mechanic segregation model. The result of this sorting contrib-uted to modeling five scenarios and these ones were compared to the current scenario, which is (1) 2% of selective collection and 98% to the landfill. The other scenarios are: (2) Scenario 1 added by two mechanical biological treatment units (MBT); (3) An in-crease of 150% in selective collection, added by two thermal treatment units; (4) 2% of selective collection, two MBTs and 2 thermal treatment plants; and (5) same of scenario 4, but without compost sale. In view of the survey of environmental, financial, social and technical factors of each scenario, the TOPSIS method was used, which orders the preference for similarity of the ideal solution. As a result, the scenario 4 is the better solution, reducing the current mass going to the landfill in 80 %. In Brazil, the use of waste treatment technologies in large cities is incipient, so it is extremely important the study of solutions that minimize the damage generated by society on the environment.


The ability of the living biomass of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus to remove lead from the aqueous solution has been examined in batch mode. The biomass yield is found to be maximum with the YPL medium. The optimum pH for lead removal by the yeast is found to be 5. Above 300mg/L of initial lead concentration, minimal microbial growth and mere lead removal was observed. The maximum % removal of the yeast is 99.12 at 20mg/L initial lead concentration. Increasing the initial metal concentration leads to decrease in the protein content of the yeast. Monod curve is plotted for the growth of the yeast in the presence of the metal. Hanes method gave a better regression fit for the data set with the half saturation constant (Ks) as 37.99mg/L, and the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) as 0.28/h. Immobilization of the yeast is carried out. The density and diameter of a single immobilized bead is determined as 4.8*10-3g/ml and 0.30cm, respectively. The viable cells immobilized in a single bead are 2*109CFU/ml. Batch study is conducted for the removal of lead ions with the immobilized yeast. The optimum number of beads is being fixed as 200 with a removal of lead as 94.02% for 100ppm of initial lead concentration. The experimental equilibrium data fits both models well, thus illustrating the fact that the use of Ca-alginate as an entrapment matrix for biosorption of lead could be modeled using both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pseudo-first order model fits well for the pre-equilibrium data. Column studies for the immobilized yeast were conducted. The immobilized beads were able to remove lead ions completely from a solution of with the initial metal concentration of 25ppm (1500ml) with a flow rate of 10ml/min and 25cm bed height.

Design of Computerized Inventory Management System the Case of MPC []

Abstract Stock management is very important in retail stores especially in those that have large number of items like Maichew polytechnic College. The goal of inventory management is to balance supply and demand in order to keep customers satisfaction to drive profits. The most important benefit of an inventory management system is to save time and money. A Stock Management System is a tool used to track goods and services of a company. Inventory or stock management is a process that integrates the flow of supplies into, and out of an organization to ensure right quality at right cost. Inventory management is one of the basic problems for higher education organizations in developing countries like Ethiopia as the result of using manual inventory management system at this computerized era. Maichew Polytechnic College is also currently using completely a manual Inventory System on the inventory of all the properties of the college. To overcome those problems, this project explores the challenges of manual inventory management system for MPC and infers solutions to the current challenges by designing a computerized inventory management system to order and update the stocks the college. The system has categorized into different modules to make the system adapt to the further changes. Every effort has made to cover all user requirements and make it user friendly. The researcher recommended that the computerized system should replace the manual system of stock recording and processing in order to speed up managerial decision of the college.


This study aims to help the teacher to have maximum participation among the learners thru the adapted rewards system of mobile games. Thus, this will sustain and provide quality education in the teaching-learning process wherein students and teachers benefit. This study solved the research problems quantitatively through the action research method and utilized the survey questionnaire as an instrument. This study revealed that integration of an adapted rewards system of mobile games in teaching affected and contributed by the different variables which comprise; learner's interest, learner’s participation, and meaningful learning. It turned out that students claimed that among these factors, the teacher’s motivational strategy made a great impact on the improvement of the student’s maximum participation in the classroom.

A Case Study on Infection Prevention Protections among Nursing Trainees in Cape Coast Nursing and Midwifery Training College []

Healthcare professionals including nurses are in recent times exposed to great risk of health care infections throughout their clinical practices. This issue has become tremendous challenge to the Ghana Health service since it poses danger to the life of the hearth practitioners. Full clinical practices of standard precautions, which is very important for all healthcare professional have been given less attention leading to exposure of nurses to the risk of infection. The factors influencing nurse’s compliance with standard precautions among student nurses at Cape Coast Nurses’ and Midwifery Training College and other health care workers compliance with optimal practices are low. Hence the need to conduct this research to assess the level of student nurses’ knowledge and practice of infection prevention and control at the Cape Coast Nursing and Midwifery Training College in other to overcome this challenge. A total population 0f 962 with the sample size of 283 students participated in the study. Students were grouped according to their ages, thus 18-20 years, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50 years above.

Prevalence and Economic Importance of Bovine Hydatidosis in Dembi dolo Municipal Slaughter []

ABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to July 2019 to identify bovine hydatidosis causes of organs condemnation and to estimate the direct financial implication due to condemnations of these organs of bovine that were slaughtered at Dembi dolo municipal slaughter house. From the total of 450 cattle examined during standard postmortem inspections of this study revealed that 24 (5.3%) livers, 41 (9.1%) lungs, 6 (1.3%) hearts and kidneys, 8 (1.8%) were condemned based on the principle meat inspection procedures for developing countries as a result of hydatidosis. In this study, organs condemnation rates did not show significant difference (P>0.05) among age, sex and body condition groups. The average annual economic losses due to rejection of liver, lung, heart and kidney was estimated to be 26,009.00 ETB. In general, the economic losses encountered as a result of organs condemnation leads to the drawback of livestock industry and national economy of the country. Therefore, attention should be paid for strategic zoonotic diseases (parasitic diseases) control programs and to minimize economic losses at different abattoirs in the country.Key words: Condemnation, Dembi dolo, Hydatidosis, Loss, Prevalence

Compressive Pericardial Effusion: Percutaneous puncture or open- surgery []

Introduction: Compressive pericardial effusion is a medical surgical emergency that engages the vital prognosis. Removal of the effusion is the only effective treatment of tamponade. It can be performed by percutaneous puncture ( pericardocentèse) or open surgery (pericardotomy). According to the latest recommendations (ESC-Guidelines 2015), the pericardial puncture is in principle the method of choice for all important pericardial effusions, its simplicity and its safety makes it the technique of choice in emergency. We conducted a study to verify the feasibility and safety of pericardocentèse in emergencies. Methods: Retrospective study covering two periods 1998-2006 and 2006-2011. Inclusion criteria: patients referred for compressive pericardial effusion Criteria for non inclusion: effusions associated with a dissection of the thoracic aorta, a heart wound, or ischemic rupture of a free wall of the heart. The evacuation of the effusion is done in almost all cases by percutaneous drainage puncture, the surgery is proposed only in case of failure. The early mortality and morbidity of the pathology was determined. Results: 103 patients were collected. The most frequently found etiology is neoplasia. Percutaneous drainage puncture was performed in the majority of cases; in 04 cases pericardotomy was required. Complications were infrequent, the lenght of hospital stay in the emergencies was less than 24 hours, the early mortality for these patients was at 3%, related to the initial pathology (neoplasia), no deaths are attributed to the procedure. Discussion: Pericardiocentesis is a good alternative to surgical drainage, its benefits and safety are appreciable. According to the latest recommendations, percutaneous drainage is the method of choice for all major pericardial effusions; there are a few exceptions for which surgical drainage is more advantageous. Our study confirmed the benefits and safety of the technique in emergencies Conclusion: The percutaneous puncture/drainage is a salutary and saving gesture in front of the cardiac tamponade. It is a simple, fast and inexpensive technique. It should therefore have very broad indications in the emergency treatment of compressive pericardial effusion.

The Effect of Fermentation Time on the Proximate Composition of Sorghum []

The proximate composition was carried out by standard methods. The values are all in percentages. The moisture content increased by 5.10, 1.88, 2.00, and 2.99 on day 1, 2, 3, and 4 of fermentation respectively. In the same order, the ash content increased by 0.04, 2.57, 2.31, and 3.87. Crude protein decreased by 0.91, 1.27, 1.94, on day 1, 2, and 3 respectively and then slightly increased by 0.08 on day 4. The Crude fiber decreased by 0.89, 1.27, 1.12 and1.76 on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th day of Fermentation respectively. Crude fat on the other hand decreased by 2.57, 0.52, 1.00 and 2.02 respectively. And finally the carbohydrate decreased by 0.78, 1.05, 0.59, and 3.16 in that order.


Access to potable water remains a critical issue in the developing world to protect communities from waterborne diseases. However, more than 2.2 billion people still lack access to safely managed drinking water services. This is particularly true in the Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia regions. The study sought to assess the water quality of Kwama River in the Wassa Amenfi West District of Ghana. The river was stratified into three zones namely; upstream, midstream and downstream and samples of water were collected. Monthly water samples were collected from these sampling points of the river and analyzed for physicochemical and microbial parameters. In situ measurements of pH and temperature were performed using a Wagtech International portable meter. Besides, an assessment of sanitation was also conducted in relation to anthropogenic activities close to the river. Distance of 100 m was measured between the river and human activity. pH value of 0.9 was recorded which was highly acidic as compared with Ghana EPA standards of pH 6.5 -8.5 suitable for growth and survival of aquatic organisms, turbidity (0.34 NTU), conductivity (0.19 µs/cm), total dissolved solids (0.19 mg/L), Dissolved oxygen (0.58 mg/L), total suspended solids (0.50 mg/L), chemical parameters; phosphate (0.02 mg/L) , indicates that there was statistical significant difference of mean concentration of phosphate of water samples collected, and nitrate (0.72 mg/L) showed no significant difference of mean concentration for nitrate at the sampling sites. The bacteriological analysis, however, showed that the water was contaminated with total coliforms (4.86-83.9 cfu/100ml), faecal coliforms (15.3- 98.50 cfu/100ml) and E. coli (3.01-67.9 cfu/100ml) as compared with Ghana EPA. Levels of some heavy metals were determined; Iron (0.25 mg/L), Cadmium (0.14 mg/L), Lead (062 mg/L), Mercury (0.52 mg/L), and Oil and Grease (0.39 mg/L) comparing Ghana EPA of 0.001 mg/L and WHO standards, there was no significant difference of mean concentration among all the heavy metals analysed. The high numbers of these biological indicators in the water samples could be attributed to the presence of open defecation, waste discharge and improper sanitation around the river as well as the use of agrochemicals and bad farming practices. The presence of these biological indicators indicates that the water is potentially harmful to human health if consumed untreated. The supply of adequate pipe-borne water must be pursued by the government as a way of improving water availability. Residents need to be sensitised to take up proper sanitation practices and as well treat the water by boiling or properly filtering the water before using it. Succinctly, the residents need to be educated on how to construct, locate and maintain manually dug wells.Keywords: Rivers, water quality, water-related diseases, sanitation

Lice Infestation in Sheep and Goats in and around Dembi dolo Town: Associated Risk Factors []

ABSTRACTA cross-sectional study on ectoparasites of sheep (n=134) and goats (n=250) was conducted in Kombolcha district east Hararge zone Oromia regional state east Ethiopia from November 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of major lice infestation of sheep and goats and the associated risk factors. Out of the examined animals, 56(41.8%) sheep and 88 (22.9%) goats were infested with Damalinia and Linognathus species of lice. one or more ectoparasites. Small ruminants female in sex were 3.6 times more at risk for Damalinia ovis than male small ruminants and young 2.1 time than adult and poor in body condition small ruminants were 6.9 times more at risk for Linognathus species than adult and good body condition small ruminants (P< 0.05). The observed overall prevalence is generally high which may result in enormous economic losses through decreased production and productivity, damages to the skin and deaths of the animal which requires an immediate professional and governmental attention.Key words: Kombolcha, Lice, Prevalence, Risk factor, small Ruminants


This study examined the impact assessment of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) Programme on rural livelihood in Kaduna State. A total of 72 participants and 72 non-participants which served as control group were randomly selected from three (3) senatorial districts in the State. The data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Double Difference Estimation (DDE). The study revealed that the major sources of information about NDE programme were through its officials (94.4%), extension agents (90.3%), radio (84.0%) and television (65.3%). The data assessment of NDE on the participants income increased by a mean of N45, 670 (42%) while the non-participants income increased by a mean of N27, 784 (27%) after. This depicts that the programme has impacted positively on the beneficiaries. The level of living of the participants after NDE increased by a mean of 162930.96 (697.3%), whereas level of living of non-participants rose with 7,298.96 (31.4%). Major constraints of participants were insufficient credits (88.9%), inadequate training (84.7%), inadequate inputs (77.8%) and inadequate land (47.2%). It was therefore recommended that the participants should organize themselves into cooperatives by contributing money together to eradicate their major problems so that the programme would make more significance on them.

Integrating Impromptu Speech in Teaching English in the Development of Communicative Competence of TVL Students []

This study aims to enhance and develop the communicative competence/ communication skills of Technical Vocational and Livelihood students through the integration of impromptu speech in teaching English which the researcher believed that in order to sustain the holistic development of skills of the students, language enhancement must be given emphasis for the students to become globally competitive incorporated with their skills in their specific specialization in TVL. Thus, this will sustain and provide quality education in the teaching-learning process wherein students and teachers benefit. This study solved the research problems quantitatively and qualitatively through the action research method and utilized the questionnaire as an instrument. This study revealed that integration of impromptu speech in teaching English was affected and contributed by the different variables which comprise; improvement and enhancement of communication skills, contribution in other field or discipline, enhancement of knowledge in language skills, development of socio-psychological skills, and teacher’s motivational strategy in giving feedback. It turned out that students claimed that among these factors, the teacher’s motivational strategy in giving feedbacks made a great impact on the improvement of their communication skills. Consistent implementation of this practice was found to be effective and made a great impact on the students.

Audit Committee Attributes and Financial Performance of Quoted Food Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria []

This study centered on audit committee attributes and financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The broad objective of this study was to determine the extent to which audit committee size, audit committee independence, audit committee meeting influences financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study is aim at filling the gap created by the dearth of empirical literature on a comprehensive analysis of audit committee attributes and financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Samples of ten (10) quoted food manufacturing companies quoted on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange were conveniently selected for a period of five (5) years (2014 – 2018). The Panel Least Square (PLS) regression technique was employed in estimating the data and testing the formulated hypotheses. The result of the study shows that, there is a positive and insignificant relationship between audit committee size, audit committee meeting and financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies in Nigeria, while audit committee independence exhibited a negative and insignificant relationship with financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies in Nigeria. In line with the findings, the researcher recommended that audit committee meeting should not only meet regularly but discuss more on issue affecting the financial performance of quoted food manufacturing companies. Keywords: Audit, Committee Attributes, Financial Performance, Food, and Company.

Management of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the medical emergency departement of the oran university hospital []

Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, or non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (HSA) is defined as extravasation of blood into the subarachnoid space. Globally, the incidence is 2 to 16 cases per 100,000 population. The average age of patients with ASA is around 40 years old with a predominance of women (around 60% women). (1) It is characterized by acute meningeal syndrome (sudden thunderclap headache). The definitive diagnosis is based on brain imaging: CT or MRI of the brain. The ruptured brain aneurysm is the most common cause (85%). (1) In Algeria, its incidence remains unknown. It is with this in mind that we have carried out this work in order to determine the frequency, clinical, etiological and progressive profile of subarachnoid hemorrhages hospitalized in the UMC department of CHUOran. Material and methods: It is a descriptive retrospective study which focuses on the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary data of patients admitted for spontaneous (non-traumatic) HSA to the medical emergency and intensive care unit of the Oran university hospital for two successive years from January 01 2014 to December 31, 2015


This research aims to find out the percentage of squid ink additions to the simping that panelists like most based on organoleptic characteristics. This research was conducted on Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory at the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Research Laboratory of Biological Resources and Biotechnology, LPPM IPB in February to April 2020. The research method used was an exper-imental method with five treatments of adding squid ink, with the concentrate 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% of squid ink with 20 panelists as the repetition. Based on the results of research on the level of preference of squid ink simping based it can be concluded that interest level the addition of squid ink for all treatments is preferred by panelists, but the treatment of adding squid ink by 1% has an alternative value (7.00) higher than other treatments with 2.93% water, 2.60% ash, 4.85% Lipid, 10.62% protein, rendement value 0.25%

Attitude and Perception of College of Distance Education Students towards the learning of Physical Education in Ghana. []

The body of knowledge about the students` attitude and perception towards Physical Education and Physical Activity has increased in recent times. Despite this notion, some students have negative perceptions about the subject. The current study aims to investigate the College of Distance Education students` attitudes and perceptions towards the learning of Physical Education in Ghana. The study further assessed the factors which influence students` attitudes as well as how students can develop positive attitudes towards Physical Education. The study involved twenty-six (26) students made up of 14 males and 12 females with an average age of 28 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed thematically. Findings from the study revealed that the students showed satisfactory interest and valued the subject as other academic subjects such as Mathematics. Although Physical Education plays a significant role in every individual, certain factors affect the study of the subject. In this regard, the results further unveiled that, loaded nature of the (PE) content, tutors` inability to teach the practical topics on the field, and inadequate teaching and learning materials make students dislike the subject. Therefore, the College of Distance Education Curriculum Planners and Authorities should help divide the content into two parts to be studied in two semesters to ensure easy and effective learning of the subject. In furtherance of that, adequate teaching and learning materials should be provided to encourage tutors to teach both the theory and practical topics at all times.


Introduction: Hemodynamic optimization is a strategy for managing at-risk patients. Maintaining intra-operative cardiovascular homeostasis reduces the incidence of post-operative complications, thereby reducing post-operative mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of hemodynamic optimization guided by the monitoring of peripheral oxygenation parameters on postoperative mortality and morbidity in valve surgery. Material and method: This is a prospective longitudinal mono-centric observational study that included 94 valve patients operated in cardiac surgery between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Oran university hospital. Maximization of systolic ejection volume was achieved by optimizing vascular filling and the use of inotropics. Tissue oxygenation parameters (Svco2 and lactates) were used to monitor response to treatment. Results: The epidemiological profile of the patients observed is that of a young adult of an average age of 41 years, without significant comorbidities but with symptomatic and advanced valves. The valves mainly rheumatic, are mainly stenosing mitral, willingly bi or tri-valvular. The most performed interventions are mechanical replacements and are performed in emergency in a quarter of cases. The results obtained are satisfactory. Early postoperative mortality and morbidity were influenced by hemodynamic optimization, a statistically significant difference was found between responders and non-responders for mortality (p: 0.000 with OR: 0.52 [0.35-0.72]), duration of artificial ventilation (p: 0.04), number of patients with complications (p: 0.049, OR: 0.11 [0.08-0.29]), and number of complications (p: 0.015, OR: 0.21 [0.15-0.39]. Discussion: it is established that the measurement of cardiac output is an essential parameter, its measurement is recommended in the various optimization strategies. For many authors the measurement of cardiac output can be substituted by other parameters including tissue oxygenation parameters that measure the adequacy of cardiac output to tissue metabolism. Conclusion: This study confirms the positive impact of hemodynamic optimization on postoperative mortality and morbidity of valve patients operated in cardiac surgery.

Exploring the Causes of Road Traffic Accidents in Urban Gambia from 2014 to 2018 []

The study explores the causes of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Urban Gambia (Banjul-Bwiam). The research was guided by three research questions. RTA data on four variables; causes of RTA, gender of victims of RTA, magnitude of RTA and region (Banjul, Kanifing and West Coast Region (WCR)) over a period of 5 years (2014-2018) was obtained from the Gambia Police Force Mobile Traffic Head Quarters in Kanifing. The data was analysed using Origin 6 Professional and results obtained showed that; human factors accounts for 96.20%; mechanical errors accounts for 3.80%. There was no record on environmental factors. 54.31% of the victims were males while females were 45.31%. Out of the 3,399 cases of RTA reported over the period, 378 were fatal representing 11.12% while 3,021 were nonfatal ( minor and non-injuries) representing 88.88%.Based on the results obtained, recommendations are given that can ensure efficient driving and sustainable reduction of RTA.


The iliofascial block is an analgesic block, which has demonstrated its interest in pre-hospital medicine and in the transport of the patients, it is an easy and fast block to realized and it intended for the analgesia of fractures of the large bones of the lower limb.

Facility Management: Present trends and emerging outlook []

This paper goal is to systematize academic research works written on facility management which were published from year 2006 to 2020. It intends to ascertain the following: (i) whether facility management, a scientific discipline, has attained maturity; (ii) whether the strategic shift presently taking root in facility management practice has been embraced by researchers to date; and (iii) identify the most problematic areas for future research. A total of eighty eight (88) papers were analyzed in depth, and the results revealed that studies conducted on this scientific discipline are yet to attain maturity, thus constituting a veritable field for future research by scholars and practitioners who both have ample opportunity to genuinely contribute towards the advancement and growth of this field of research.


The aim of this research is on how forensic accounting practice could mitigate public sector corruption through fraud, bribery and embezzlement prevention. Review of relevant literature was carried out in order to gain deeper insight and understanding of the subject matter. Questionnaires were administered in order to generate the necessary primary data and were descriptively analyzed. Three hypotheses were identified and a Pearson’s Correlation, regression and a coefficient analysis tests were conducted to test the hypothesis statements. The result revealed that fraud prevention, bribery prevention and embezzlement prevention all shows positive significant influence on public sector financial corruption mitigation. This implies that public sector financial stakeholders should give a great value of consideration to fraud, bribery and embezzlement prevention in the efforts of public sector financial corruption mitigation in the Gambia. To this effect, the research recommends that forensic accounting must be introduced as a compulsory tool in dealing with financial sector corruption in order to promote corporate governance. The government should encourage the practice of forensic accounting by providing adequate training and resources to forensic accountants such that they become an expert in their particular field of expertise and develop new courses at tertiary institutions relating to forensic accounting practices. Keywords: Forensic Accounting, Public Sector Accounting, Corruption mitigation Fraud prevention, Bribery prevention and Embezzlement prevention


Employee motivation has always been a matter of deep study, understanding, and interest ever since human starts socializing and continues till today’s technological world where humans starts depending on the robots to get the work done, but the human resource is still the best resource for any organization. The implementation of the employee motivation has been a concern for any company because it has been proved and realized that motivation is one of the major factor responsible for the success or failure of any organization. This research aims to explain the importance of motivation of employees, its aspects in accordance to the working condition, how employee motivation links the employee performance and his/her job satisfaction. Further the aim is to analyze the different motivation-hygiene factors as stated by Herzberg, make the comparison of the most motivating factor for the employees in the Nepalese working environment, and to identify whether their priority has changed over time. Quantitative approach has been used to evaluate the thesis objective. The data collection method was personal interviews with managers and sending out the questionnaire to their employees to seek the answer to the research question. The result of the study seems to be contradicting the Herzberg’s theory. The ranking observed by the Herzberg is different from the ranking of the factors by the Nepalese respondents. The factor called “SALARY” stated as a hygiene factor by Herzberg, which is associated with the de-motivation rather than motivation, has been ranked as the most motivating factor by Nepalese employees. However the other top factors of motivation (Achievement, Recognition, and Advancement) were same. The other two motivation factors: Responsibility and Work Itself have been ranked at 6th and 7th rank respectively. In present findings Possibility of growth and the Salary come into play for top 5 motivating factors. Hence the result of the present finding on the ranking of the factors causing motivation is different than the ranking observed by Herzberg. It also suggests that the level of working environment vary according to the company type in Nepal. The respondents from the IT feel their working environment to be more satisfying than the environment at Bank and Factory. The managers can seriously look into this for their performance enhancement. Whether hygiene factors have the same effect on motivation and job satisfaction as motivation factors was also an interesting question which started to uncovered itself during the research.

Inequality in Migrant Integration: Trends and Policy Interventions []

The available evidence suggests that foreign students are likely to lag behind their Italian peers in schooling rates and educational outcomes as the level of education increases. The number of foreign pupils in the Italian school system increased immensely in the past 20 years. There is clear evidence that disparities in the so-called “educational segregation” still persist: students with foreign background are still more likely to prefer an educational path that rewards them a fast entrance into the labor market, but which will probably place them on a lower socioeconomic position. Moreover, the evidence found highlights the gap between native and migrant pupils in terms of school delay, wider as the age increases. Apparently, there is a lack of organic approach to tackle such a problem, which can constitute a real challenge in terms of social outcomes in the following years. An organic approach is mostly needed, operating at multiple levels such as schools (intensive orientation sessions) and labor market. JEL Classification: F22 Key Words: Segregation, Migrants, Inequality, Socioeconomic, Education.


ABSTRACT The study investigated emotional intelligence and job satisfaction as predictors of organizational commitment among private school teachers in Oluyole Local Government Area, Oyo State. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted and data was gathered from one hundred and fifty-three private secondary school teachers. Generated hypotheses were tested using t-test for independent samples, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson r correlation. Findings revealed that emotional intelligence had significant influence on organization commitment among private secondary school in Oluyole local government area of Oyo state [t (151) = 4.23; P<.01]. However, job satisfaction had no significant influence on organization commitment among private secondary school in Oluyole local government area of Oyo state [t (151) = .41; P>.05]. In addition, emotional intelligence and job satisfaction jointly predicted organizational commitment [R = .43; R2 = .18; F (2, 150) = 50.07; P<.01]. Collectively, emotional intelligence and job satisfaction accounted for about 18% variance in organizational commitment. Further, there exists no significant gender differences in organizational commitment among private secondary school teachers [t (151) = .99; P>.05]. Finally, there exists no significant relationship between organizational commitment and age among private secondary school teachers in Oluyole local government area of Oyo state (r = -.09; P>.05). From the findings, it was recommended that emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of organizational commitment. It was therefore recommended that private school management should try as much as possible to train their teachers on how best they can improve the emotional intelligence of their teachers. This will not only help the teachers, it will also increase the commitment of teachers to their duties and subsequently increased productivity of the school. Also, this study recommends that private school management should try as much as possible to identify ways by which the commitment of teachers can be achieved. This could include trying to increase the motivation of teachers. Key Words: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment Private School Teachers.

Industrial Location and Spatial Development in Iraq []

The article provides a broad overview of the industrial location policy in Iraq. Since the early 1960s and 1970s, there has been a clear direction in Iraq emphasizing the necessity of spreading economic development and industry across all governorates; creating balanced spatial development; reducing economic and social disparities; distributing population in a balanced way; and stopping it from becoming concentrated in large urban areas. The industrial location policy is one of the policies adopted for both individual and large industrial complex projects. The absence of a comprehensive spatial development policy in Iraq has reduced the significance of the industrial location policy. That is because it has not been used in a manner that achieves spatial development goals in a comprehensive way. This has, in turn, led to the concentration of population, as well as economic, social and urban activities in some cities but not others. The concentration of industrial projects, the labor force and population continued to be remarkable in Baghdad despite its decline from the 1960s in last century to the 2020s, as the percentage of industrial projects decreased from 52.4. to 18.5. The labor force decreased from 60.3 to 37.2, and the population of Baghdad decreased from 25.4 to 21.3. To strengthen the sustainable spatial development of Iraq and to provide a strategic spatial framework we have to establish a vision and conception of spatial development at the regional and national level, and formulate the regional conception of the distribution of selected activities in space while taking into account the characteristics of individual regional areas .


The purpose of this study was to to establish the effect of marginalization on women participation in political leadership in Kakamega County, Kenya. The study adopted correlation design with target population of 48 women who contested for positions in the 2017 general election in Kakamega County. Questionnaires were used for collecting data from the participants. Data analysis was through descriptive and inferential techniques. The findings established that marginalization of women had a positive and significant influence on participation of women in political leadership. This implied that marginalization is a common feature in the endevour for women participation in elective positions in Kakamega County. The study concluded that marginalization is a common feature in diminishing the prospects of women participation in elective positions in Kakamega County. The study recommended that there is need for positive social change to educate the public, inform policy makers, and create legislative initiatives to eliminate discrimination in order to support equity for women to participate fully in the political process

THE EFFECT OF THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC FRACTIONS OF Abrus precatorius LEAF ON THE BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS (Alanine Transferase (ALT), Alanine Phosphate (ALP) and Aspartame Transferase (AST)) USING FEMALE WISTAR RATS []

ABSTACT This study aims to determine the effects of chromatographic fractions of Abrus precatorius extracts on the Biochemical markers, ALT, AST and ALP. One hundred and ten Wistar rats were divided into twenty-two (22) groups of five rats each. All the rats were weighed before and during the experiment. Group 1 (Control) received 0.5mls, Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS); Group 3-7. received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg, 90mg/kg, 120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F1. Group 8-12 received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg, 90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/k of F2. Group13-17 received 30mg/kg,60mg/kg,90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F3 and Group 18-22 received 30mg/kg, 60mg/kg,90mg/kg,120mg/kg and 150mg/kg of F4 respectively. The fractions/drugs were administered orally. The rats were treated with chromatographic fractions of A. precatorius, F1, F2, F3 and F4 (30mg/kg, 60mg/kg,90mg/kg, 120mg/kg and 150mg/kg) for 28 days. Some Liver enzymes such as Alanine Transferase (ALT) , Alanine Phosphate (ALP) and Aspartame Transferase (AST) were also studied to evaluate the effect of Abrus precatorius fractions on liver functions. The study revealed that there were no elevated liver enzymes and this invariably means that the chromatographic fractions of A. precatorius leaf did not cause any damage/defect to liver cells.