Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Developing a Sustainable Sport-tourism Event Planning A Case Study in Pulse Production and Trading Company Limited, Vietnam []

With the tremendous explosion of the event industry in recent years, it is drawing attention as a robust economic force in global development. Yet, not only do the organizers not place social and environmental responsibility as the anchor of organizing events currently but they also have a shortage of academic literature that provides guidance to event organizers as to how to develop a plan for sustainable events. This research attempts to investigate the current situation of the event industry and assess the awareness and understanding of the sustainable event amid the event organizers in Ho Chi Minh city. A structured qualitative interview was used to collect data in five event agencies in Ho Chi Minh City by interviewing the event planners who directly build event planning. The finding revealed that most of the respondents had the right awareness of the concept of the sustainable event. Although event planners have tried to implement sustainable measures into their events, they have only ceased at the reduction of single-use products or the application of environmentally friendly gifts. The information can help event agencies and planners to gain more insight into the opportunities and challenges of sustainable events in order to provide suitable policies and long-term plans for holding them in Ho Chi Minh City in particular as well as Vietnam and global in general. Keywords: event planning, sustainable event management, sustainable initiatives, sport-tourism event

Geographical Information System adoption by the Sports Authorities in Sri Lanka as an Administrative Tool; An exploratory study to develop a service model []

Abstract The construction of sports information is a unity of individual behaviour and collective behaviour aims to fully respect the right authority of different sports organizations, which is to take measures to implement the market mechanism and to mobilize the initiative of different sports enterprises conducting the construction of sports information. Geo-Information System (GIS) has been used as an administrative tool or platform to access potential stakeholders in Sports. The purpose of this paper was to determine the factors influencing sports authorities’ decision to adopt GIS as an administrative platform in Sri Lanka. The technological, organizational and environmental (TOE) framework was used as the conceptual parameter which is a widely-accepted model for studying IT adoption in organisations. The data collected, through an online questionnaire-based survey that was completed by 32 respondents. Exploratory statistical tests were used to analyse the data and the proposed hypotheses. The results showed that the environmental context had a significant impact on the adoption of GIS. Organization and Environment contexts had moderate positive relationships with GIS adoption. The organizational context had a significant moderate relationship with the GIS adoption but it didn’t have any significant impact on the adoption of GIS. Superiors support, employees’ innovativeness, and IT experience did not impact on the adoption of GIS. This would imply that any support and guideline from superiors of the organizations for employees would be very crucial for an adoption decision. Furthermore, an in-depth interview would be recommended to provide further insight as for qualitative or mixed-method studies. Keywords: GIS (Geo-Information System), Technology, Organization, Environment, Technology Adoption, TOE and Sports Authorities

Prise en charge des brûlures électriques grave :Expérience du centre régional de brûlologie, chirurgie plastique et esthétiques Oran []

Les accidents électriques par haute tension(AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long de saxes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d’entrée et de sortie, qui sont lesiège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d’AEHT admis au Centre régional de brûlologie, chirurgie plastique et esthétique Oran ALGERIE à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéris-tiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l’âge moyen était d e 31ans. Dans70% des cas ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d’électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%.Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT,en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale.

Profitability Analysis of Non-life Insurance Sector in Bangladesh. (A comparative study of Public and Private Firms) []

Abstract This article will present the profitability analysis of non-life insurance sector of public and private firms in Bangladesh. Non-life insurance sector is straightforwardly connected to the economy. As per IDRA, its contribution in whole insurance sector is Tk. 2983.15crores in 2016. Maximum private nonlife insurance firms have started their transaction from the year 2000 and data was available from 2003. So, the analysis is based on the 12Year’s (2003-2014) statistical information relating to claim ratio (CR), expenses ratio (ER), underwriting result ratio (UR), investment income ratio (IR), net retention ration (NR) and return on equity ratio (ROE) etc. Data has collected from the annual reports of selected nonlife insurance firms and mean, standard deviation, correlation, regression and Mann-Whitney test tools has been used. The comparative profitability analysis of the public and private sector shows that, the public sector has exhibited higher claim ratio but a well investment income and low management expenses have indemnified their higher claim losses which resulted in to their slightly higher profitability than the private sector non-life insurance firms. The private sector has indicated higher management expense ratio but low claim ratio and higher investment income ratio have indemnified their higher management expenses ratio which resulted in to their profitability near to public sector. Public sector should increase their investment and reduce claim expenses. On the other hand, private sector should reduce their management expenses for higher profitability. Key wards: Non-life Insurance, Profitability, Claim ratio, Expenses ratio, Investment Income ratio, ROE (Return on Equity).


The relationship between language and context is reflected, through the phenomenon called deixis, in the structures of the languages themselves. This study examines the deictic expressions in the speech given to Ghanaians on March 27, 2020 by President Akufo-Addo in the context of the Corona Virus pandemic. Guided by Levinson (1983) and Yule (1996), categories of deictic expressions were delineated to specific functions they all convey. The research method applied in the research is qualitative research. The findings revealed that out of the total number of deictic expressions used by the president, the majority of them was person deixis. In addition, in terms of frequency, spatial deixis was more than temporal and social deixis while discourse deixis was the least in the speech. Moreover, the dominant personal deictic expressions which were used in the speech point to the power the president has in the country and also indicates his authority as the leader of the country. Finally, the study concludes that Akufo Addo’s use of deixis in the speech was to influence his audience and to persuade them to support his attitudes about given issues.


This Study investigated the effects of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) Ash and microsilica on the compressive and flexural strength of medium strength concrete. Samples of four water-cement ratios (0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.5) were prepared to achieve concrete grades of 40, 35, 30 and 25 respectively using the particle packing method of mix design. The supplementary cementitious materials (MSWI ash and microsilica) were implemented as partial substitutes for cement in percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Compressive strength and flexural strength tests were implemented on all prepared hardened concrete samples after 7 days, 14 days, 28 days curing and 28 days curing respectively. Also, the workability of the concrete was determined through slump test implemented on freshly prepared concrete samples. The workability test results were consistent with the requirements of BS 1881 Part 102: 1990. The compressive strength results showed that for all grades of concrete samples tested, the replacement of cement with a combination of MSWI ash and microsilica resulted in reduction of compressive strength at various replacement levels compared to the reference samples. However, strength increments were observed at 10% replacement levels, compared to the reference samples for all concrete grades. Similar trend was observed for flexural strength development. However, the flexural strength increment was observed for 15% cement replacement for grade 35 concrete samples. Therefore, optimum content of MSWI ash and microsilica as partial replacements for cement was obtained at 10% replacement levels as obtained from the compressive and flexural strengths tests carried out in the study.

Do Gambian Banks Source Financing for Investments in Line with the Predictions of the Pecking Order Theory? []

The pecking order theory contends that firms would rather source financing first through retained earnings, followed by debt and finally equity in that order. This implies shareholders are reluctant to dilute equity holdings, but would rather borrow for investments than risks impairment of the proportion of company holdings. This paper is an empirical study on sources of finance for investment in an environment without a capital market. It seeks answers to the research question on the determinants of investment, such as internally generated revenue, debt and equity and its link to the predictions of the pecking order theory. The study reviews secondary data from the audited financial statements of the twelve commercial banks in the country, covering the period 2005 – 2018 and using among others, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in an unbalanced panel data, through the statistical software Eviews. Findings are that the determinants of investment include firm-specific variables, such as equity, profitability, firm size, leverage, non-performing loans and liquidity. There is no evidence of observance of the pecking order theory in the sourcing of external financing by banks in The Gambia. The study enriches the literature on the determinants of investments and its link with the pecking order theory in an environment without a capital market.


The Universe consists of infinitely infinite darkness, galaxies , stars ,planets ,satellites and meteors etc . The fishes and other aquatic animals reside in the water of the ocean, so they create ,live and destroy in that water of the ocean .Similarly the celestial bodies reside in the infinite darkness of the Universe , so they create ,live and destroy in that infinite darkness of the Universe . All the celestial bodies move in the infinite darkness like the fishes and other aquatic animals move in the ocean. The infinite darkness moves faster than the light in the universe accompanying the celestial bodies . A big magnet attracts the small magnet towards it but the converse does not happen .If a stone is thrown into the sky then the stone is pulled back to the Earth. So the gravitational force acts always from the heavier body towards the lighter body .Similarly every heavier celestial body attracts every other lighter celestial body with the gravitational force in the Universe. When the gravitational field of a lighter celestial body comes in contact with the gravitational field of a heavier celestial body then the heavier celestial body pulls the lighter celestial body by a gravitational force. The lighter celestial body moves by the gravitational force of the heavier celestial body, where the lighter celestial body has no role to play in this respect .The force of motion of the lighter celestial body is equal to the gravitational force of the heavier celestial body . Rotation is motion and vice versa. If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward. So every point of the wheel moves vertically in a cycloid path by the centripetal force to cover horizontally on a straight line path by the centrifugal force . The following four laws are derived from the motion of a wheel on the road LAW OF MOTION -------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law ( a ) INERTIA OF REST - A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . ( b ) INERTIA OF MOTION - A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law “THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION” ------------------- Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that “14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION “ The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law Force = (11/14) mass * acceleration ------------------ Nrusingh’s 3rd law where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 3rd law Energy = (11/14) mass (velocity of light)² -------------- Nrusingh’s 4rth law Gravity is a force of attraction that exists between any two bodies or any two particles. Like charges repel in electromagnetism but in case of gravitation like charges attract one another . The above facts state that , “ THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE OF THE HEAVIER CELESTIAL BODY IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRODUCT OF THE MASS AND ACCELERATION OF THE LIGHTER CELESTIAL BODY “ Hence Gravitational Force = (11/14) mass * acceleration where (11/14) is the constant of gravitational proportionality


Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is created the main influence on physical activity behaviors globally. To protect from virus administrators are recommended to stay home and isolated. Health professionals are advised to involve physical activities to maintain physical and psychological well-being while the pandemic. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore Sri Lankans' home-based physical activities during COVID 19 pandemic. Design: A qualitative, interview-based investigation. Settings: Purposive sampling was adopted with one hundred and two (47 Female, 55 Male) adult participants are interviewed, aged between 19 to 59 years. Methods: Structured with open-ended interviews were conducted o. All the interviews are recorded. The Thematic analysis method was used to analyze the collected data. Results: All of the participants are involve with new physical activity and gain several physiological and psychological benefits than being sedentary. Interestingly a considerable portion of participants is taking place in the home garden during COVID 19 pandemic, moreover, do the exercises using YouTube and play with family members. Sri Lankans have engaged with the home garden during the pandemic than earlier. Conclusion: Doing any physical activity is better than doing none.


A variety of concepts have been used to denote the interrelated notions of global awareness, sensitivity to and appreciation of cultural difference, and particular competencies necessary to interact cross-culturally. Notions such as intercultural competence, world mindedness, global-mindedness, and global citizenship have been developed to describe the concept of global awareness for the development of students. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the concept of global awareness and its need for Indian education system. The dimensions are meaning, definition and components of global awareness, its need in Indian education system and relation between global awareness and teacher effectiveness. The investigator has proposed to use qualitative method for the present study.


Risk analysis of a Modular Petroleum Refining Plant in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to illustrate the various risk factors common to a typical modular refinery with potential to cause disruption of the refining process when released. The analysis is predicated on the fact that a number of modular refineries are being conceived / constructed in the Niger Delta region and there is inadequate risk assessment to identify, assess, prioritize, evaluate and control risks relating to petroleum refining operations before investment decisions are made and also during refinery operations. The analysis was carried out using a questionnaire to elicit relevant information from industry professionals of considerable years of experience. Data analysis was carried using weigh-scaling method. This assesses and prioritizes the risks associated with the processing units of modular refining configuration. Specifically, the practitioner weighed and assessed the identified potential risks in terms of risk level, relative consequences if it is released, and the most affected objectives. The results obtained show that among other risk elements, technical risk (88%), operational (87%) and organizational risks (78%), with respective consequence levels of 73%, 72% and 68% are high risk elements with higher potential for release. The research outcome can be used by risk management practitioners and investors as a basis for decision making prior to investment.

Creative Accounting and Corporate Failure in Nigeria []

This paper examines creative accounting and corporate failure in Nigeria of which there are scanty literatures.Creative accounting is an element of playing with financial figures by inflating operating costs to reduce exposures to taxes, making financial report looks favourable to attract investors and enhance share prices. Quantitative descriptive survey method was used,45 questionnaire collected from respondents and data collected analysed using descriptive analysis and Pearson coefficient of correlation at 5% significant level.The results revealed that creative accounting caused corporate failure if abusively used (fraudulently). However, investors suffered as a result of doctored financial statements of corporations as the investors are attracted relying on the financial information provided by the management due to asymmetric information. There should be coordination and uniformity among the financial standards and laws relating to accounting reports and permissible flexibility in the standards and laws which should be disclosed in the financial reports and defaulters should be penalized by the government,as shareholders depend wholly on financial statements for accuracy, reliability and correctness for their financial decisions making.


The purpose of this study was to to establish the effect of marginalization on women participation in political leadership in Kakamega County, Kenya. The study adopted correlation design with target population of 48 women who contested for positions in the 2017 general election in Kakamega County. Questionnaires were used for collecting data from the participants. Data analysis was through descriptive and inferential techniques. The findings revealed that political barriers had a positive linearly significant influence on participation of women in political leadership. The implication is that political barriers are one of the significant impediments suppressing the ability of women to participate in politics in Kakamega County. The study concluded that political barriers were the most important factor in diminishing participation of women in political leadership. This implies that lack of political support leads to non-molding and socialization of women candidates in political scenarios thus diminishing the level of competition. The study recommendation is that there is necessity for change in attitudinal and behavioral changes within the society that may culminate in arousing the participation of women in politics.

Encéphalopathie de Gayet-Wernicke compliquant des vomissements post opératoire après chirurgie colique []

L'encéphalopathie de Gayet-Wernicke est une complication neuropsychiatrique aiguë secondaire à une carence en thiamine. Les vomissements incoercibles compliquant une obstruction intestinale chronique en sont une cause rare. Nous rapportons un cas d'encéphalopathie de Gayet- Wernicke compliquant des vomissements incoercibles sur terrain de néoplasie colique, chez un patient de 65 ans.


The sustenance of energy is life. Hence, the search for harnessing energy by researchers will be a continuous process in as much as the world exist. In view to this research presentation of harnessing energy from Oscillating Water Column (OWC) by numerical approach be-comes imperative. The process is carried out with some governing equations using mathematical analysis and presented are summary of some vital results. It is being established that the diameter of the opening vent of the OWC determines the effectiveness and efficiency of energy generation by the system. Thus, as vent diameter is preset to increase from 0.2m to 1.0m, corresponding increase is noticed in the efficiency and wave power with values that ranges from (2.8 – 42.7)% and (98553.76 – 2341874)W respectively. Others are wave velocity with maximum value of 18ms-1, 163.944m3/s flow coefficient and rise in turbine efficiency from 43.85% to 45.57%. These results attest that harnessing energy from OWC technology will greatly enhance the energy sector of a nation.