Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Importance of Archieve Documents Studying Khorezm History []

This article discusses the role and significance of archives and archival documents in the study of the history of our Khorezm region and humanity in general. The history of the formation and development of the archiving in the country is also analyzed.


ABSTRACT Corporate governance refers to the systems by which companies are directed and controlled (Cadbury 1992). It is considered as a significant prerequisite for the growth of an economy. A good corporate governance practice helps to reduce risk for the benefit of investors, attracts capital for investment and improves the performance of firms. The purpose of this research isis to comparatively analyse the effect of banks’ comparatively analyse the ownership structures onon their their performances in Ghana and Sierra Leone Three categories of ownership structures were used, namely board, foreign, and Government. The performances of the banks are measured using various profitability ratios such as Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Net Interest Margin (NIM). Secondary data areare collected from published financial statements of commercial banks in Ghana and Sierra Leone. Data areare collected on eighteen banks in Ghana and seven in Sierra Leone. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that there is a significant relationship between banks ownership structures and its performance.


The study aimed at examining management information systems (MIS) in health care administration at the Sunyani West District. The main health facilities studied were Nsuatre Health Center, Chiraa Health Center and the Kwatire Polyclinic. A mixed method research design was used for this study. Participants from the chosen health facilities were selected using the stratified sampling technique for staff and purposive sampling for the management. The main instruments for data collection included in-depth interviews for management and questionnaire for staff. Data collected were analyzed with the use of correlation analysis, descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The study established a strong positive correlation between factors influencing the adoption of MIS which are leadership, usability, organisational structural change, training and technical support and technology. It was also established that health facilities in the Sunyani district used the MIS applications for internal communications, sending and receiving email messages for official work, monitoring computers and tracking devices for staff registration, and for maintenance of staff attendance. The study also exposed some challenges such as persistent power outages, network problems and limited computer skills by the users. Remedial measures adopted include back-up power system or standby generators and system upgrade. The study recommends that management puts in place incident reporting and response mechanisms, to ensure continuous monitoring and evaluation of the system in order to ensure all users adhere to set standards.


Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) is an emerging concept for providing financial protection against the cost of illness and improving access to quality health services for low-income rural households who are excluded from formal insurance. Community based health insurance is important in supporting families to access affordable health services in most of government hospitals as well as some private ones. This study was aimed to assess the perceptions and satisfaction towards CBHI among patients seeking care in Kigeme Hospital. It was a cross- sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Questionnaire and interview guide were for data collection for quantitative and for qualitative approach respectively. The target population was the in-patients and out-patients using CBHI in Kigeme hospital. The sample size of this study was 274 clients for quantitative approach and two (2) Focus Group Discussion each with eight (8) participants in Kigeme hospital with CBHI from different services of the hospital. For quantitative approach, data collected was recorded and then analyzed using SPSS version 21, descriptive analysis with frequency and percentage. Pearson’s Chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to find the association between independent variables and the dependent variable. A P-value<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant and data was presented using tables and graphs. Qualitative data from FGDs was transcribed from audio recorder, grouped into themes and analysed. The results from this study showed that 79.6% of 274 respondents had positive perceptions towards CBHI, categorized as moderate and 92.3% of respondents had high satisfaction level with CBHI. Multivariate analysis showed that perceptions towards CBHI were positively associated with male respondents [AOR=3.72; 95% CI= 1.71-8.12; P-V= 0.001], respondents with large family (Parents + 3 or more children) [AOR=3.39; 95% CI= 1.66-6.92; P-V= 0.001] and respondents with medium income (68,224rwf/Term,EICV3: income) [AOR=0.28; 95% CI= 0.14-0.55; P-V<0.001]. The researcher concluded that respondents had positive perceptions towards CBHI and the satisfaction level with healthcare services that they receive under CBHI was high. She revealed that perceptions towards CBHI were influenced by socio-demographic factors which were sex of respondents, family size and level of income and found also that satisfaction level with CBHI was influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marital status, level of income, behavior change and adequate knowledge on CBHI. Recommendations were based on extending the coverage to other diseases and to add other drugs that were not enclosed in what CBHI can cover. Further recommendations were developing and installing a new procedure to minimize waiting time at the consultation services and laboratory plus improving the quality of services.


In the world, 780 million people are suffering due to lack of safe drinking water. Sixth goal of the sustainable development goal is declared on safe drinking water for all. Community based water projects are initiating in the world to provide water for people in rural are-as. This particular step is the point of empowering people for their development. Community empowerment as a long lasting process will be achieved through community participation leading them for community development. Empowering leads them for critical thinking, capacity building and power finally leading them for a policy dialogues to achieve their development by themselves

Assessing Banks Internal and Macroeconomic Factors as Determinants of NonPerforming Loans: Evidence from Nepalese Commercial Banks []

This study has attempted to ascertain the factors affecting to non-performing loans in Nepalese commercial banks using a sample of seven commercial banks for the period of 2006-2018 with 89 observations, a balanced set of panel data. The descriptive and causal comparative research designs have been adopted for the study. The dependent variable was non-performing loans, while independent variables included both bank specific factors; Credit to total deposit, return on assets, weighted interest spread rate, and macro-economic factors; real gross domestic product growth rate, inflation and money supply. The existence of high levels of NPLs would hinder the benefits to the county through inefficient financial intermediation. Hence, there is a national level responsibility towards banks, to manage the NPL ratio at an acceptable level. Consequently, it is important to identify “what causes NPLs and significance of these factors on NPLs”. Therefore, this study would help to get an insight on the bank specific and macro-economic factors, which affect NPLs in commercial banks and in which magnitude bank specific or macroeconomic factors contribute to NPLs. The estimated ordinary least square (OLS) regression model reveals that the bank specific: return on asset, weighted interest spread rate and credit to total deposit have significant impact on nonperforming loan in Nepalese commercial banks.


Many towns in Uganda are growing at an unprecedented rate. By 2030 more than 50% of Ugandans will be living in urban centers. This rapid growth of urban centers in Uganda provides for economic opportunities for many urban residents. It also poses various challenges such as urban sprawl, emergence of informal settlements as well as urban poverty. Over 60% of the urban residents in Uganda live in the informal settlements with no basic services and infrastructure such as piped water, decent housing, good roads, sewerage systems as well as schools and health centers. This paper aims to examine and understand the constraints to urban planning and management of secondary towns in Uganda. This paper reflects the development and changes taken place in Uganda. Uganda is still in the category of low developed countries, with most of the social and economic indicators still lagging behind many countries and thus all the SDGs are in line with Uganda’s current and future development needs and aspirations in pursuit of a middle income status by 2020.


Abstract This review paper took a cursory look at the important role and benefits of artificial intelligence in agriculture. The paper identified and enumerated the two major components of AI as: (1) Growth is driven by cognitive intelligence and (2) Image-based insights generation. In the use of cognitive intelligence AI makes use of proximity sensing and remote sensing while in image-based insights generation. AI uses in depth field analysis and scanning of fields using Cognitive Vision Technologies (CVT). Other areas that AI can benefit agriculture were highlighted such as crop disease detection, Crop readiness identification, weather prediction, use of drones in aerial operations and precision farming. Some challenges in the use of AI in agriculture were identified. The paper recommended that these cognitive technology solutions be made available and affordable to reach every farmer in the world.

The Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance: The case of Ethiopian Railways Corporation []

The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of leadership styles on employee performance with respect to the Ethiopian Railways Corporation. Two study objectives such as identification of practiced leadership styles and its effect on employee performance of in the Ethiopian Railways Corporation were identified. Mixed study approach used for to investigate the designed objectives. The researcher has taken 400 employee for survey questionnaire and only 298 participants returned the questionnaire and used for the study. A cross section descriptive survey research strategy was adopted in which 298 usable structured questionnaires were collected from 364 questionnaires distributed. The sample size was determined by Taro Yamane method which was formulated in 1967 to determine the sample size from a given population. In addition to that seven key informants from middle and top management were selected for semi-structured interview questions through purposive sampling techniques. The survey questionnaire was distributed randomly in different offices and departments of Ethiopian Railways Corporation to employee experienced between 1 and 10 years. Focus group discussion was also held with members of labor union of the corporation. The collected data were analyzed to be meaningful. The findings of the study proved that, (128) 43 percent of the employee reported that in the corporation autocratic leadership style practiced predominantly by the leader having absolute power over his staffs and affected employee performance negatively.

The role of behavioral and livelihood factors of Quality of life among People Living with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy in Public Hospitals of South West Ethiopia: 2018 []

Abstract Despite the use of HAART, People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have continued to suffer due to the adverse health consequences of behavioral and livelihoods factors of quality of life. Hence, this study was aimed to assess behavioral and livelihoods factors of quality of life among PLWHIV on HAART in Jimma zone public hospitals, south west Ethiopia 2018. A qualitative study using in-depth interview with 22 ART users and 9 health professionals were carried out at the public hospitals of Jimma zone, Southern Ethiopia that serve a many of the HIV positive individuals. Accurate transcribing of audio taped interviews was done and digital audio recordings were transcribed carefully in English by the PI. The main responses were reported in direct quotation and analyzed manually. We conducted the study from March 10-April 30- 2018. The commonest factors include substance use, economic constraints fear of stigma and discrimination, religion, On the other hand, the study identified that about 65% of respondents were economically insecure , females highest burden; more than half of PLWHIV on HAART experienced reducing the quantity or number of meals eaten, along with about 35% of respondents in-able to buy treatments. Therefore, those were among the major contributor to poor quality of life. The study identified a range of barriers to QOL: substance use, economic constraints, poor perception, lack of disclosure, fear of stigma and discrimination, religion, lack of social support, drug side effects and long waiting time. On the other hand, the livelihoods of respondents on economic insecurity, food and nutrition insecurity along with lack of access to health care services were among major challenges that patients faced. Therefore, the study would like to inform the development of effective interventions that address the barriers of QoL and livelihoods. It should give priority given to improving QoL by alleviating livelihoods, economic constraints, stigma and discrimination, education and counseling to manage religious obstacles. Key words: QOL, PLWHIV, Qualitative study, HAART

Comparative Analysis of the Educational Systems of Greece and Cyprus and Evaluation of Teachers and their Work in Secondary Education []

This study aims to compare the educational systems of Cyprus and Greece, in terms of both structure, organization and administration and of evaluating educators and their work. A historical review of the educational systems of the two countries is carried out, followed by an exhaustive presentation of their overall organizational structure. Then, the study concentrated on secondary education in both countries. Based on the principles of comparative education, this study identifies the similarities and differences between the two educational systems in terms of organizational and administrative structure, but also of the existing educational evaluation systems and their effectiveness. The two educational systems present many similarities both in their hierarchical structure and the distinct roles of central authority, school management and teachers, as well as in the organization of education at each individual level. Likewise, they apply common methods of evaluating teachers and their work, focusing on quantifiable traits and being based on the institution of the inspector. Additionally, an empirical quantitative study was conducted, via a questionnaire distributed to a sample of 500 teachers out of the total 5,463 secondary education teachers in Cyprus, to document their views on the evaluation of educators and their work. The respondents recognized the value and contribution of evaluating educators and their work to the improvement of provided education and quality of their work, although they were hesitant in assessing the existing evaluation system, perhaps due to the lack of official information regarding general issues of evaluation in education as well as their own assessment. They were also rather uncertain about the role of the State and Academics in evaluating their work.

Critical Examination of the Effectiveness of the African Anti-Human Trafficking Initiatives []

Trafficking in person is an ancient phenomenon that persisted until today with its influence on every country either as a source, transit, destination or a combination of two or all the three. Its impact is worse in African continent due to a multiplicity of push factors such as poverty, persistent unemployment, corruption and armed conflict. Africa has tried to counter-act the problem by adopting different international, regional and sub-regional legislative and policy initiatives. This study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of African anti-human trafficking initiatives and thereby to suggest possible measures that should be taken to maximize their success. The writer have used a doctrinal legal research methodology that involve a systematic analysis of statutory provisions, cases, legal principles, official reports, State documents and Records, Official Statistics as a primary sources and books, journal articles etc..as secondary sources. The assessment has revealed that there are some positive measures taken by a limited number of African states, whereas many of the African states seem to be pretending rather than showing a genuine commitment to combat trafficking in person. Thus, initiatives at the international and continental level were not evenly cascaded to many states via ratification. Moreover, there is high enforcement deficit in those countries that have domesticated the legal and policy frameworks. Finally, the writer recommends for an internal political will to effectively combat the problem that can be expressed by way of criminalising the conduct and assigning a commensurate punishment; establishing an independent agency with qualified staffs to coordinate; supervise the implementation of anti-human trafficking initiatives of the country and minimising the pull factors in the country of origin. Key Words: Trafficking in Person, push-factors, Pull-factors, Anti-human Trafficking Initiatives, Africa

Marketing Management in Healthcare []

: Marketing Management in Health care comprises of 4 P’s which forms the backbone of Healthcare Management

Evaluation on the Implementation of Environmental Education Activities among Public Secondary Schools in South Central Mindanao Ben T. Bello, Ph.D.Ed. Ad. []

In view of the pressing global concerns and issues on the environment degradation, government urges all public and private schools to lead the role on environmental awareness by enhancing environmental education and by pursuing effective school-based activities that seek to preserve and protect the environment. People became more futuristic and are always attributed by upgrading and updating technology for more satisfactory living inputs without considering the consequences of these actions in natural resources. These developments push human to exhaust the environment with a little sense of being a steward (Sund, 2016). As a third world country, Philippines are surely in a great challenge not only in revitalizing its title as “The Tiger Economy of Asia” but also in installing a cohesive society with balance formation on industrialization and environmental preservation. There are few government sectors for environment agriculture, health, and education working together to attain the goals of sustainable development in the country. But on the other hand Filipinos are more focused on how to live on and improve their economic status. These common walks in life lie in the idea of practicality not idealism. It is perhaps the weakest point of sustainability. People are more likely to do things for a personal material prize. This habit was brought by improper training, orientation, and education. It is indeed a challenge to educate young minds to change the perception for the next generations (Legarda, 2015). In Mindanao, it is mandated and a must to comply with the provisions of the Philippine Constitution, Presidential Decree and several Memorandums from Department of Education such as Presidential Decree 1152, DepEd Order No. 52, s. 2011, DepEd Order No. 72, s. 2003 and DepEd Memorandum No. 133, s. 2014 regarding promotion of environmental awareness. It is a challenge faced by educators as well to the school administrators to ensure environmental education awareness be instilled to the students in order to attain and sustain the benefits of engaging to sustainable development (DepEd, 2015). In relation to compliance to these provisions, there are many challenges the schools experiences that are hampering the attainment of the objectives of this mandate to develop environment care literacy to the people. Furthermore, looking around at our surrounding we can still find many people including the students who do not value environmental care that can help sustain good environmental condition. Thus, the researcher is motivated to conduct this study to determine of the schools are implementing environmental education strategies hand its contribution in the attainment of its objectives. KEYWORDS: Environmental Education, Public Secondary School, Environment Degradation, South Central Mindanao


The purpose of this study was to investigate the electronic information seeking behavior of Academic staff of maichew polytechnic College. To do so, mixed method of research were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data using survey questionnaires and semi-structured interview. A total of 65 academic staff participated in the study. The data generated via open ended questions and semi-structured interview were presented with narrative description. The data generated through survey questionnaire were analyzed using frequency, percentages and Mean. Results showed that respondents more frequently used electronic information for purpose of research, communication, general awareness and teaching purpose. The result of the interview revealed majority of them used the internet on a daily basis. Nevertheless, academic staffs were least frequently used electronic information for entertainment. Majority of the respondents 36(55.38%) were dissatisfied by information literacy training. Moreover the findings suggested that Google search engine is the most consulted electronic channel for academic purposes; however websites and social media were also frequently used electronic channels. The result indicated that most of the respondents 43(66.2%) used electronic information for general awareness. Access restriction and time taken to obtain the right information of online resources were minor problem for academic staff. The result also revealed that respondents were dissatisfied with slow internet connection, The following were recommended in line with the findings of the study: The college should plan to upgrade the speed of internet connection as it was one of the main challenges for the academic staff. Furthermore, college library should subscribe relevant scholarly journals and databases in order to create more access to the academic community. Equally, bandwidth optimization strategies as well as relevant usage policy must be put in place to alleviate the tardiness of the available internet connection.

Detecting and predicting land use and land cover changes in eastern Nile-delta of Egypt using CA-Markov []

Information about changes in land use/land cover (LULC) is very useful for local governments and urban planners in setting future plans for the sustainable development. The main objectives of this work were to study changes in LULC in two governorates located at the eastern region of Nile-delta in Egypt and to expecting their future changes using CA-Markov model. Accordingly, Landsat images were images collected at three time periods (1999, 2009 and 2019). These images were manipulated and analyzed for LULC and their changes in studied area. CA-Markov integrated approach was used to predict future changes in LULC within this area. In this context, Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing methodology provide essential tools which can be applied in the analysis of land use change detection. Keywords: LULC, ERDAS, GIS, IDRISI, CA-Markov, Remote Sensing, Egypt.

Using Unstructured Interviews in Educational and Social Science Research: The Process, Opportunity and Difficulty []

One of the methods deployed by constructivist paradigm is unstructured interviews method which allow for detailed professional conversation between a researcher and participant(s). This paper presents literature survey data on interview process, opportunity and difficulty of using the method in professional collection of information from human subjects. In this paper, the methodological opportunity is an inclusive connotation for strengths and advantages of using unstructured interviews which can benefit researchers using the method, and difficulty is a connotation for weaknesses and disadvantages of using the method, posing limitations researchers have to address. There are numerous strengths and advantages of using unstructured interviews method as the weaknesses and disadvantages posing challenges to researchers are. However, the methodological opportunity of using unstructured interviews method outweighs its difficulty


Globally, countries had to put greater efforts on WASH at schools, due to the overcrowded of pupils in primary schools for good health and socio-economic development of the wellbeing of pupils. The study aims to describe the practices of pupils regarding the use of sanitation and hygiene facilities in primary schools, and to identify the strategies school administrators employed to improve WASH facilities in school pupils in Kigamboni municipality. The study employed descriptive quantitative, the targeted population was 400, the sample size of 222 was selected, and cluster and purposively sampling was used. Questionnaire, and documents reviewed were used as the research instruments. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis (mean and standard deviation), and bivariate correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r). The study findings concluded that, the creation of enabling environment by the schools will help to motivate the proper practices regarding WASH so as to promote the health outcome. The researcher recommended that the government and Non Government Organizations to participate and sponsor the implementation of WASH project activities in schools so as to improve the health outcomes of students, teachers and other staffs.

Exploring the Principles of 1997 United Nations Watercourses Convention and the Role of Multilateral Agreements between Nile Basin States on Fair Use of Nile River []

Since the establishment of the Helsinki Rules in 1966, legal ideas had been evolved substantially to reach into an agreement on international watercourses, but all-embracing agreement became difficult. However, the 1997 Convention on the law of the Non-navigational uses of International Watercourses is the first and the only worldwide instrument, enacted under the auspice of the United Nations to govern the non-navigational uses of international watercourses. This convention has the advantage of being broad in its concept and encompassing all aspects associated with water use. At the same time, it has its own weaknesses that limit its efficacy as a working document, as it permits the riparian states to engage in disputes and endless discussion over all the factors which might be considered. Although the Convention has entered into force in 2014, after 17 years long and complex journey of its adoption, none of the Nile Basin states are currently parties to the Convention. This is because of the divergent views of the riparian states towards the provisions of the Convention coupled with the existing tension and lack of genuine trust among downstream vis-à-vis upstream blocks. Thus, this article is aimed to explore the principles of the 1997 UN Convention and the roles of multilateral agreements among riparian states on the use of Nile River. Owing to the confusing nature of the principles in the Convention, the Nile basin states are better to create a cooperative and mutual beneficial agreement on the use of Nile River than ratifying the Convention. Therefore, the writer of this article argues that to Ethiopia it is rationale and better to expect the application of the customary international water law regime, if there is any or Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) or Cooperation’s to fairly utilize the Nile River. Key words: Cooperation, Equitable and Reasonable Use, Nile Basin Initiatives, Nile River, No significant harm rule, Ratification, Riparian States, Watercourses, Ethiopia